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plant lateral root

Jiri Dolezal, Miroslav Dvorsky, Martin Kopecky, Jan Altman, Ondrej Mudrak, Katerina Capkova, Klara Rehakova, Martin Macek, Pierre Liancourt
Background and Aims: Alpine cushion plants can initially facilitate other species during ecological succession, but later on can be negatively affected by their development, especially when beneficiaries possess traits allowing them to overrun their host. This can be reinforced by accelerated warming favouring competitively strong species over cold-adapted cushion specialists. However, little empirical research has addressed the trait-based mechanisms of these interactions. The ecological strategies of plants colonizing the cushion plant Thylacospermum caespitosum (Caryophyllaceae), a dominant pioneer of subnival zones, were studied in the Western Himalayas...
December 12, 2018: Annals of Botany
Madhumita Dash, Yordan S Yordanov, Tatyana Georgieva, Hairong Wei, Victor Busov
Using time-series transcriptomic data from poplar roots undergoing polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced drought stress, we built a genetic network model of the involved putative molecular responses. We found that the network resembled a hierarchical structure. The highest hierarchical level in this structure is occupied by 9 genes, which we called superhubs because they were primarily connected to 18 hub genes, which are then connected to 2,934 terminal genes. We were only able to regenerate transgenic plants overexpressing two of the superhubs, suggesting that the majority of the superhubs might interfere with the regeneration process and did not allow recovery of transgenic plants...
2018: PloS One
Kapudeep Karmakar, Utpal Nath, Karaba N Nataraja, Dipshikha Chakravortty
BACKGROUND: Pre-harvest contamination of fruits and vegetables by Salmonella in fields is one of the causes of food-borne outbreaks. Natural openings like stomata, hydathodes and fruit cracks are known to serve as entry points. While there are reports indicating that Salmonella colonize and enter root through lateral root emerging area, further investigations regarding how the accessibility of Salmonella to lateral root is different from phyto-pathogenic bacteria, the efficacy of lateral root to facilitate entry have remained unexplored...
December 11, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Rui-Fen Zhang, Li-Jie Zhou, Yuan-Yuan Li, Chun-Xiang You, Guang-Li Sha, Yu-Jin Hao
In plants, SIZ1 regulates abiotic and biotic stress responses by promoting the SUMOylation of proteins. The apple MdSIZ1 protein has conserved domains similar to those of Arabidopsis AtSIZ1. Real-time fluorescent quantitative analysis showed that MdSIZ1 gene expression was induced by phosphate-deficient conditions. In addition, the level of SUMOylation was also significantly increased under these conditions. The MYB transcription factor MdPHR1 might be a target for the SUMO protein, which is a phosphorus starvation-dependent protein...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Mengmeng Sang, Hexin Shi, Kun Wei, Meixia Ye, Libo Jiang, Lidan Sun, Rongling Wu
Many quantitative traits are composites of other traits that contribute differentially to genetic variation. QTL mapping of these composite traits can benefit by incorporating the mechanistic process of how their formation is mediated by the underlying components. We propose a dissection model by which to map these interconnected components traits under a joint likelihood setting. The model can test how a composite trait is determined by pleiotropic QTLs for its component traits or jointly by different sets of QTLs each responsible for a different component...
December 11, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Chooi-Hua Goh, Adrienne B Nicotra, Ulrike Mathesius
We investigated the role of three autoregulation of nodulation (AON) genes in regulating of root and shoot phenotypes when responding to changing nitrogen availability in the model legume, Medicago truncatula. These genes, RDN1-1 (ROOT DETERMINED NODULATION1-1), SUNN (SUPER NUMERIC NODULES) and LSS (LIKE SUNN SUPERNODULAOR), act in a systemic signaling pathway that limits nodule numbers. This pathway is also influenced by nitrogen availability, but it is not well known if AON genes control root and shoot phenotypes other than nodule numbers in response to nitrogen...
December 4, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Mohamed Hazman, Kathleen M Brown
BACKGROUND: Root architectural and anatomical phenotypes are important for adaptation to drought. Many rice-growing regions face increasing water scarcity. This study describes drought responses of 11 Egyptian rice cultivars with emphasis on plastic root responses that may enhance drought adaptation. RESULTS: Eleven Egyptian rice cultivars were phenotyped for root architectural and anatomical traits after 6 weeks growth in soil mesocosms under well-watered conditions...
December 4, 2018: Rice
Christin Naumann, Jens Müller, Siriwat Sakhonwasee, Annika Wieghaus, Gerd Hause, Marcus Heisters, Katharina Bürstenbinder, Steffen Abel
Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is often a limiting plant nutrient. In members of the Brassicaceae family, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Pi deprivation reshapes root system architecture to favor topsoil foraging by inhibiting primary root extension and stimulating lateral root formation. Root growth inhibition upon Pi deficiency is triggered by Fe-stimulated, apoplastic ROS generation and cell wall modifications, which impair cell-to-cell communication and meristem maintenance. These processes require LPR1 (LOW PHOSPHATE RESPONSE1), a cell wall-targeted ferroxidase, and PDR2 (PHOSPHATE DEFICIENCY RESPONSE2), the single ER (endoplasmic reticulum)-resident P5-type ATPase, AtP5A, which is thought to control LPR1 secretion or activity...
December 3, 2018: Plant Physiology
Xiang Lu, Shao-Fang Liu, Liang Yue, Xia Zhao, Yu-Bao Zhang, Zhong-Kui Xie, Ruo-Yu Wang
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that stimulates plant growth, and enhances resistance to pathogens and tolerance of salt stress. Instead, the mechanistic basis of drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana induced by FZB42 remains unexplored. Here, we constructed an exopolysaccharide-deficient mutant epsC and determined the role of epsC in FZB42-induced drought tolerance in A. thaliana . Results showed that FZB42 significantly enhanced growth and drought tolerance of Arabidopsis by increasing the survival rate, fresh and dry shoot weights, primary root length, root dry weight, lateral root number, and total lateral root length...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yan-Nong Cui, Xiao-Ting Li, Jian-Zhen Yuan, Fang-Zhen Wang, Suo-Min Wang, Qing Ma
AtNPF7.3/AtNRT1.5, which is a nitrate transporter that drives root-to-shoot transport of NO3 - , is also involved in modulating the response to K+ deprivation in Arabidopsis by affecting root development and K+ transport. However, whether NPF7.3/NRT1.5 functions in regulating plant responses to deficiencies of other nutrients remains unknown. In this study, we found that the expression of AtNPF7.3/AtNRT1.5 was predominant in the roots and was substantially induced by phosphate (Pi) starvation. The atnrt1.5 mutants displayed conspicuously longer primary roots along with a significantly reduced lateral root density under Pi-deficient conditions than did the wild-type plants, and these morphological differences in the roots were eliminated to a certain extent by the ethylene synthesis antagonist Co2+ ...
November 26, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hans Motte, Tom Beeckman
Plant roots and root systems are indispensable for water and nutrient foraging and as such a major evolutionary achievement for plants to cope with dry land conditions. The ability of roots to branch contributes substantially to their capacity to explore the soil for water and nutrients, and led about 400 Mya to the successful colonization of land by plants, eventually even in arid regions. During this colonization, different forms of root branching evolved, reinforcing step by step the phenotypic plasticity of the root system...
November 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Laddawan Saelim, Nobuhiro Akiyoshi, Tian Tian Tan, Ayumi Ihara, Masatoshi Yamaguchi, Ko Hirano, Makoto Matsuoka, Taku Demura, Misato Ohtani
The cell wall determines morphology and the environmental responses of plant cells. The primary cell wall (PCW) is produced during cell division and expansion, determining the cell shape and volume. After cell expansion, specific types of plant cells produce a lignified wall, known as a secondary cell wall (SCW). We functionally analyzed Group IIId Arabidopsis AP2/EREBP genes, namely ERF34, ERF35, ERF38, and ERF39, which are homologs of a rice ERF gene previously proposed to be related to SCW biosynthesis. Expression analysis revealed that these four genes are expressed in regions related to cell division and/or cell differentiation in seedlings (i...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
An-Pei Zhou, Dan Zong, Pei-Hua Gan, Xin-Lian Zou, Xuan Fei, Yuan-Yuan Zhong, Cheng-Zhong He
Inverted cuttings of Populus yunnanensis remain alive by rooting from the original morphological apex and sprouting from the base, but the lateral branches exhibit less vigorous growth than those of the upright plant. In this study, we examined the changes in hormone contents, oxidase activities, and transcriptome profiles between upright and inverted cuttings of P. yunnanensis . The results showed that the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellic acid (GA₃) contents were significantly lower in inverted cuttings than in upright cuttings only in the late growth period (September and October), while the abscisic acid (ABA) level was always similar between the two direction types...
November 23, 2018: Genes
Tatsuaki Goh
Lateral roots comprise the majority of the branching root system and are important for acquiring nutrients and water from soil in addition to providing anchorage. Lateral roots develop post-embryonically from existing root parts and originate from a subset of specified pericycle cells (lateral root founder cells) located deep inside roots. Small numbers of these specified pericycle cells undergo several rounds of cell division to create a dome-shaped primordium, which eventually organizes a meristem, an essential region for plant growth with active cell division, and emerges from its parental root as a lateral root...
November 23, 2018: Microscopy
Maryam Nourimand, Christopher D Todd
Allantoin, an important intermediate of ureide metabolism, has been the subject of investigation recently due to its dual function in nitrogen recycling and abiotic stress response in plants. Allantoin appears to be the dominant ureide accumulating in response to different abiotic stresses, and mutants containing elevated allantoin concentrations exhibit a stress-tolerant phenotype due to limited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Here we describe the involvement of allantoin in stress response and attempt to explain the regulatory mechanism(s) underlying allantoin function in plants...
November 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Haneen Abuauf, Imran Haider, Kun-Peng Jia, Abdugaffor Ablazov, Jianing Mi, Ikram Blilou, Salim Al-Babili
Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived plant hormones that influence various aspects of plant growth and development in response to environmental conditions, especially nutrients deficiency. SLs are synthesized via a strict stereo-specific core pathway that leads to the intermediate carlactone, requiring the iron-containing polypeptide DWARF27 (D27) and the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases 7 (CCD7) and 8 (CCD8). It has been shown that the rice OsD27 is a β-carotene isomerase catalyzing the interconversion of all-trans- into 9-cis-β -carotene...
December 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Hongli Chen, Ning Xu, Qi Wu, Bo Yu, Yanli Chu, Xingxing Li, Junli Huang, Liang Jin
OsMADS27 is one of the ANR1-like homologues in rice, whreas its functions in plant growth and development as well as the abiotic stress responses remain unclear. Here we investigated the roles of OsMADS27 in the root development in response to NO3 - availability. Constitutive expression of OsMADS27 significantly inhibited the elongation of primary root (PR), but enhanced lateral root (LR) formation in a NO3 --dependent manner. Furthermore, OsMADS27 overexpression promoted NO3 - accumulation as well as the expression of NO3 - transporter genes...
December 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Hua Qin, Rongfeng Huang
Roots are important plant ground organs, which absorb water and nutrients to control plant growth and development. Phytohormones have been known to play a crucial role in the regulation of root growth, such as auxin and ethylene, which are central regulators of this process. Recent findings have revealed that root development and elongation regulated by ethylene are auxin dependent through alterations of auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the study of auxin and auxin⁻ethylene crosstalk in plant root development, demonstrating that auxin and ethylene act synergistically to control primary root and root hair growth, but function antagonistically in lateral root formation...
November 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Cui Juan Wang, Ying Zi Wang, Zhao Hui Chu, Pei Song Wang, Bing Hui Luan
We isolated the endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens YTB1407 from the root of Panax quinquefolium, which has both biological control and growth promoting effects. To investigate its potential applications, a pot experiment of sweet potato was tested to assess the capacity of endophytic colonization of YTB1407 and the selection of its optimum concentration by investigating the performance of root characteristics on three time points in the whole early growth phase after irrigating with different concentrations of bacterial suspensions with treatment of sterile water as control...
November 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Feng Wang, Mei Jia Wang, Si Hui Su, Ying Yan Wang, Ye Han Su, Guang Xin Meng, Yue Sun, Hua Qi, Ying Jiang
To investigate the effects of straw amendments on the yield and root spatial distribution of maize under water stress, an experiment with rainproof shelter was conducted in the field experimental station of Shenyang Agricultural University in 2016 and 2017. The drip irrigation facilities were used to perform water stress treatments. Straw burying (T1 ) and straw incorporation (T2 ) as two approaches of straw amendments were conducted combined with three depths of 15 cm (D1 ), 30 cm (D2 ), and 45 cm (D3 ) for straw returning, ploughing tillage at above three depths without straw presence as control in this study...
November 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
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