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plant lateral root

Medjedline Hani, Ursula Thieven, M Alejandra Perotti
This study reports for the first time the use of soil micro-invertebrates, mites, as trace evidence to localise buried objects such as money. The case relates to a crime in Germany, where a large sum of banknotes had been hidden in an unknown location, likely abroad. In 2016, part of the money (approx. €500,000 in €500 value notes) was confiscated by the police. After analysis in the forensic lab, it was discovered that the notes were covered with small particles of a sort of debris, later identified as specimens of Rhizoglyphus howensis Manson, a non-European, nor Mediterranean species of root or bulb mites (Acaridae: Rhizoglyphinae)...
October 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Peng Li, Yong Xue, Jialiang Shi, Aihu Pan, Xueming Tang, Feng Ming
BACKGROUND: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops have been cultivated at a large scale over the past several decades, which have raised concern about unintended effects on natural environments. Microbial communities typically contain numerous rare taxa that make up the majority of community populations. However, the response of dominant and rare taxa for fungal diversity to the different root environments of Bt plants remains unclear. RESULTS: We quantified fungal population sizes and community composition via quantitative PCR of ITS genes and 18S rRNA gene sequencing of, respectively, that were associated with Bt and conventional cotton variety rhizosphere soils from different plant growth stages...
October 18, 2018: Microbiome
Yafei Sun, Wenzhen Luo, Ajay Jain, Lu Liu, Hao Ai, Xiuli Liu, Bing Feng, Liang Zhang, Zhantian Zhang, Xu Guohua, Shubin Sun
BACKGROUND: Phosphate (Pi) and Nitrogen (N) are essential macronutrients required for plant growth and development. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), the transcription factor PHR1 acts as a Pi central regulator. PHL1 is a homolog of PHR1 and also plays a role in maintaining Pi homeostasis. In rice (Oryza sativa), OsPHR1-4 are the orthologs of PHR1 and have been implicated in regulating sensing and signaling cascades governing Pi homeostasis. RESULTS: Here the role of OsPHR3 was examined in regulating the homeostasis of N under different Pi regimes...
October 17, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Wenjun Qian, Bin Xiao, Lu Wang, Xinyuan Hao, Chuan Yue, Hongli Cao, Yuchun Wang, Nana Li, Youben Yu, Jianming Zeng, Yajun Yang, Xinchao Wang
BACKGROUND: Vacuolar invertases (VINs) have been reported to regulate plant growth and development and respond to abiotic stresses such as drought and cold. With our best knowledge, the functions of VIN genes little have been reported in tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.). Therefore, it is necessary to develop research in this field. RESULTS: Here, we identified a VIN gene, CsINV5, which was induced by cold acclimation and sugar treatments in the tea plant. Histochemical assays results showed that the 1154 bp 5'-flanking sequence of CsINV5 drove β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene expression in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and siliques of transgenic Arabidopsis during different developmental stages...
October 11, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Ning Xu, Yanli Chu, Hongli Chen, Xingxing Li, Qi Wu, Liang Jin, Guixue Wang, Junli Huang
Plant roots are constantly exposed to a variety of abiotic stresses, and high salinity is one of the major limiting conditions that impose constraints on plant growth. In this study, we describe that OsMADS25 is required for the root growth as well as salinity tolerance, via maintaining ROS homeostasis in rice (Oryza sativa). Overexpression of OsMADS25 remarkably enhanced the primary root (PR) length and lateral root (LR) density, whereas RNAi silence of this gene reduced PR elongation significantly, with altered ROS accumulation in the root tip...
October 10, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Cui-Hui Sun, Jian-Qiang Yu, Xi Duan, Jia-Hui Wang, Quan-Yan Zhang, Kai-Di Gu, Da-Gang Hu, Cheng-Shu Zheng
Plant root systems are essential for many physiological processes, including water and nutrient absorption. MADS-box transcription factor (TF) genes have been characterized as the important regulators of root development in plants; however, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown, including chrysanthemum. Here, it was found that the overexpression of CmANR1 , a chrysanthemum MADS-box TF gene, promoted both adventitious root (AR) and lateral root (LR) development in chrysanthemum. Whole transcriptome sequencing analysis revealed a series of differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) in the roots of CmANR1- transgenic chrysanthemum plants compared to wild-type plants...
2018: Horticulture Research
Wei Chen, Jinbo Yao, Yan Li, Lanjie Zhao, Jie Liu, Yan Guo, Junyi Wang, Li Yuan, Ziyang Liu, Youjun Lu, Yongshan Zhang
Nulliplex-branch (nb) mutants in cotton display a specific architecture. The gene responsible for the nb phenotype was identified, and its modulation mode was further studied. Plant architecture is an important agronomic factor influencing various traits such as yield and variety adaptability in crop plants. Cotton (Gossypium) simultaneously displays monopodial and sympodial growth. Nulliplex-branch (nb) mutants showing determinate sympodial shoots have been reported in both G. hirsutum (Ghnb) and G. barbadense (Gbnb)...
October 4, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Adrien Blum, Mélanie Bressan, Abderrakib Zahid, Isabelle Trinsoutrot-Gattin, Azeddine Driouich, Karine Laval
Fiber flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), an important crop in Normandy (France), is increasingly affected by Verticillium wilt caused by the soilborne fungus Verticillium dahliae. This disease leads to nonnegligible yield losses and depreciated fibers that are consequently difficult to upgrade. Verticillium wilt is a major threat to a broad range of agriculture. In this study, susceptible fiber flax cultivar Adélie was infected by VdLu01 (isolated from fiber flax, this study) or green fluorescent protein-tagged VdLs17 (transformed and provided by the department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis)...
October 3, 2018: Plant Disease
Yaoxia Chen, Xinjing Li, Jing Bai, Fang Shi, Tengyan Xu, Qingqiu Gong, Zhimou Yang
Short peptide-based hydrogels have attracted extensive research interests in drug delivery because of their responsive properties. So far, most drug molecules have been conjugated with short peptides via an amide bond, restricting the release of the native drug molecules. In this study, we demonstrated the effectiveness of an auxin-based hydrogelator linked by a hydrolysable ester bond. Hydrogel I, formed by the gelator (NAA-G'FFY) linked with an ester bond, was able to release 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), whereas hydrogel II, formed by the gelator without an ester bond (NAA-GFFY), was not...
October 16, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Zeeshan Ahmad, Faisal Nadeem, Ruifeng Wang, Xianmin Diao, Yuanhuai Han, Xingchun Wang, Xuexian Li
Foxtail millet [ Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.], a widely cultivated food and fodder crop, develops a smaller root system while enlarges the root diameter facilitating nutrient transport under nitrogen limitation. How foxtail millet responds to phosphate limitation (LP) remains unaddressed. LP seedlings of the sequenced variety Yugu1 had significantly lower P concentrations in both shoots and roots and displayed higher levels of anthocyanin accumulation in leaves, indicating that the seedlings suffered from P limitation under hydroponic culture...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lauren A E Erland, Adam Yasunaga, Isaac T S Li, Susan J Murch, Praveen K Saxena
Melatonin and serotonin are important phytochemicals enabling plants to redirect growth in response to environmental stresses. Despite much research on their biosynthetic routes, localization of their biosynthetic enzymes and recent identification of a phytomelatonin receptor, localization of the molecules themselves has to date not been possible. Elucidation of their locations in living tissues can provide an effective tool to facilitate indoleamine research across systems including both plants and animals...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Peitong Wang, Xuan Xu, Zhong Tang, Wenwen Zhang, Xin-Yuan Huang, Fang-Jie Zhao
WRKYs are transcriptional factors involved in stress tolerance and development of plants. In the present study, we characterized OsWRKY28 , a group IIa WRKY gene, in rice, because its expression was found to be upregulated by arsenate exposure in previous transcriptomic studies. Subcellular localization using YFP-OsWRKY28 fusion protein showed that the protein was localized in the nuclei. Transgenic rice plants expressing pOsWRKY28 ::GUS suggested that the gene was expressed in various tissues in the whole plant, with a strong expression in the root tips, lateral roots and reproductive organs...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zhikun Wang, Qiang Yang, Yupeng Shao, Binbin Zhang, Aiyun Feng, Fanli Meng, Wenbin Li
Late embryonic proteins (LEA) gene family was abundant mainly in higher plant embryos, which could protect the embryos from the damage caused by abiotic stress, especially drought and salt stresses. In the present study, GmLEA2-1 was cloned from soybean leaf tissue treated by 10% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000). The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed a variety of expression patterns of GmLEA2-1 in various tissues of soybean (root, stem, leaf, flower, pod, early embryo and late embryo)...
September 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Sándor Szabó, Edwin T H M Peeters, Gábor Várbíró, Gábor Borics, Balázs A Lukács
Two closely related alien submerged aquatic plants were introduced in Europe. The new invader (Elodea nuttallii) gradually displaced E. canadensis even at sites where the latter was well-established. The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effects of environmental factors on several phenotypic characteristics of the two Elodea species, and to relate these phenotypic characteristics to the invasion success of E. nuttallii over E. canadensis. In a factorial design, Elodea plants were grown in aquaria containing five different nitrogen concentrations and incubated at five different light intensities...
September 25, 2018: Plant Biology
Mina Arbabi, Hassanali Naghdi Badi, Mohammadreza Labbafi, Ali Mehrafarin, Ebrahim Saboki
In order to determine the morphophysiological and phytochemical properties of various Ducrosia anethifolia Boiss populations, the plant samples were collected from 20 locations in native regions. Current study indicated significant differences in morphophysiological and phytochemical characteristics of D. anethifolia Boiss populations collected from 20 locations in Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran. The highest value of plant height, number of lateral stems, node per plant, umbellate per umbel, seeds per umbellate and roots fresh and dry weight were related to the location with relatively high rainfall (130-161 mm) and low altitude (up to 1165 m) compared with other...
September 21, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Vishal Singh Somvanshi, Olivia Ghosh, Roli Budhwar, Bhoomika Dubay, Rohit Nandan Shukla, Uma Rao
Root-knot nematodes are devastating pathogens of crop plants. The draft genome of southern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was published in 2008 and additional genome and transcriptome data became available later on. However, lack of a publically available annotation for M. incognita genome and transcriptome(s) limits the use of this data for functional and comparative genomics by the interested researchers. Here we present a comprehensive annotation for the M. incognita proteome data available at INRA Meloidogyne Genomic Resources page (https://meloidogyne...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Keni Cota-Ruiz, José A Hernández-Viezcas, Armando Varela-Ramírez, Carolina Valdés, José A Núñez-Gastélum, Alejandro Martínez-Martínez, Marcos Delgado-Rios, Jose R Peralta-Videa, Jorge L Gardea-Torresdey
Bulk Cu compounds such as Cu(OH)2 are extensively used as pesticides in agriculture. Recent investigations suggest that Cu-based nanomaterials can replace bulk materials reducing the environmental impacts of Cu. In this study, stress responses of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedlings to Cu(OH)2 nanoparticle or compounds were evaluated. Seeds were immersed in suspension/solutions of a Cu(OH)2 nanoform, bulk Cu(OH)2 , CuSO4 , and Cu(NO3 )2  at 25 and 75 mg/L. Six days later, the germination, seedling growth, and the physiological and biochemical responses of sprouts were evaluated...
December 2018: Environmental Pollution
Liwei Zheng, Caide Zhao, Jiangping Mao, Chunhui Song, Juanjuan Ma, Dong Zhang, Mingyu Han, Na An
In plants, brassinosteroid biosynthesis and metabolism genes affect endogenous brassinosteroid metabolic processes as well as stem and root growth. However, there is little information available regarding these genes in apple. In this study, 22 brassinosteroid biosynthesis and metabolism genes were identified in apple (Malus domestica). These genes were named according to their chromosomal locations and the Arabidopsis thaliana homologs. Their conserved characteristic domains, evolutionary relationships, syntenic relationships, chemical characteristics, gene/protein structures, interactions among the encoded proteins, promoter sequences, and functions were investigated...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Nilanjana Roy Chowdhury, Reshmi Das, Madhurima Joardar, Soma Ghosh, Subhojit Bhowmick, Tarit Roychowdhury
Geogenic arsenic (As) contamination in Bengal Delta Plain is a growing environmental and research concern. Cultivation of staple crops like paddy on these contaminated fields is one of the major routes for human dietary exposure. The present study investigates changes of arsenic concentrations in paddy plant parts, root soil and surface soil throughout the various phases of pre-monsoon (boro) cultivation. Arsenic uptake property of paddy plants collected from 10 fields was found to be dependent on the variety of paddy plant (like Minikit, Jaya) rather than arsenic levels in groundwater (0...
November 2018: Chemosphere
Ningxiao Li, Seogchan Kang
Volatile compounds (VCs) produced by diverse microbes seem to affect plant growth, development and/or stress tolerance. We investigated how VCs released by soilborne fungi  Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae affect  Arabidopsis thalian a responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Under salt stress, VCs from both fungi helped its growth and increased chlorophyll content. However, in contrast to wild-type A. thaliana (Col-0), V. dahliae VCs failed to increase leaf surface area in auxin signalling mutants aux1-7, tir1-1 and axr1-3 ...
2018: Mycology
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