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plant lateral root

Marie Simonin, Benjamin P Colman, Weiyi Tang, Jonathan D Judy, Steven M Anderson, Christina M Bergemann, Jennifer D Rocca, Jason M Unrine, Nicolas Cassar, Emily S Bernhardt
The environmental fate and potential impacts of nanopesticides on agroecosystems under realistic agricultural conditions are poorly understood. As a result, the benefits and risks of these novel formulations compared to the conventional products are currently unclear. Here, we examined the effects of repeated realistic exposures of the Cu(OH)2 nanopesticide, Kocide 3000, on simulated agricultural pastureland in an outdoor mesocosm experiment over 1 year. The Kocide applications were performed alongside three different mineral fertilization levels (Ambient, Low, and High) to assess the environmental impacts of this nanopesticide under low-input or conventional farming scenarios...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Qianqian Zhang, Ringo van Wijk, Xavier Zarza, Muhammad Shahbaz, Max van Hooren, Aisha Guardia, Denise Scuffi, Carlos García-Mata, Wim Van den Ende, Susanne Hoffmann-Benning, Michel A Haring, Ana M Laxalt, Teun Munnik
Phospholipase C (PLC) is a well-known signaling enzyme in metazoans that hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to produce inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol as second messengers involved in mutiple processes. Plants contain PLC too, but relatively little is known about its function there. The model system Arabidopsis thaliana contains nine PLC genes. Reversed genetics have implicated several roles for PLCs in plant development and stress signaling. Here, PLC5 is functionally addressed...
August 9, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Xingxing Li, Rongrong Chen, Yanli Chu, Junyang Huang, Liang Jin, Guixue Wang, Junli Huang
Root system architecture represents an underexplored target for improving global crop yields. In this study, we investigated the biological role of the rice root-specific gene RCc3 in improving root growth and responses to abiotic stress by overexpressing RCc3 in rice plants. RCc3 was induced by osmotic and heat stress. RCc3 overexpression produced pleiotropic phenotypes of improved root system architecture, including increased growth of primary root, adventitious roots and lateral roots at the seedling stage...
August 8, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Marlies Huysmans, Rafael Andrade Buono, Noemi Skorzinski, Marta Cubria Radio, Freya De Winter, Boris Parizot, Jan Mertens, Mansour Karimi, Matyas Fendrych, Moritz K Nowack
Programmed cell death in plants occurs both during stress responses and as an integral part of regular plant development. Despite the undisputed importance of developmentally controlled cell death processes for plant growth and reproduction, we are only beginning to understand the underlying molecular genetic regulation. Exploiting the Arabidopsis root cap as a cell death model system, we identified two NAC transcription factors, the yet uncharacterized ANAC087 and the leaf-senescence regulator ANAC046, as being sufficient to activate the expression of cell death-associated genes and to induce ectopic programmed cell death...
August 10, 2018: Plant Cell
Atreyee Kundu, Subharthi Das, Sourav Basu, Yasufumi Kobayashi, Yuriko Kobayashi, Koyama Hiroyuki, Markkandan Ganesan
The Aluminum (Al) and proton (H+ ) ions are major acid soil stress factors deleteriously affecting plant root growth and crop yield. In our preliminary studies, cotton seedlings (Gossypium hirsutum L.) displayed very sensitive phenotypes to Al and H+ rhizotoxicities. Based on previous Arabidopsis results, we aimed to characterize the Al stress responsive Sensitive to Proton rhizotoxicity 1 (GhSTOP1) transcription system in cotton by RNAi mediated down-regulation. With the help of seed embryo apex explants, we developed transgenic cotton plants overexpressing a GhSTOP1-RNAi cassette with NPTII selection...
August 10, 2018: Plant Biology
Manoj-Kumar Arthikala, Carmen Quinto
Respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs) constitute a multigene family in plants. These reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating enzymes participate in diverse biological processes. We previously demonstrated that PvRbohB plays an important role in lateral root (LR) development in Phaseolus vulgaris . However, little is known about the roles of other Rboh members in root development. Here, we report that PvRbohA is involved in LR emergence in P. vulgaris . PvRbohA was expressed in wild-type P. vulgaris root tissues, e...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Li Rong Sun, Yi Bin Wang, Shi Bin He, Fu Shun Hao
Abscisic acid (ABA) plays pivotal roles in plant growth and development and in responses to diverse stresses. It also modulates the growth of primary and lateral roots. Much evidence indicated that key cellular components auxin, ethylene, PLETHs, reactive oxygen species and Ca2+ are involved in the regulation of ABA suppression of root elongation. In this review, we summary the molecular mechanism for ABA inhibiting primary root growth, focusing on the roles of these components in Arabidopsis.
August 6, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Yuqin Chen, Yuanming Xie, Caihong Song, Lulu Zheng, Xiong Rong, Letian Jia, Long Luo, Chi Zhang, Xiaoxiao Qu, Wei Xuan
Lateral root branching along the primary root involves complex gene regulatory networks in model plant Arabidopsis. However, it is largely unclarified whether different plant species share a common mechanism to pattern the lateral root along the primary axis. In this study, we assessed the development pattern of lateral root among several dicot and monocot plants, including Arabidopsis, tomato, Medicago, Nicotiana, rice, and ryegrass by using an agar-gel culture system. Our results reveal a regular-spaced distribution pattern of lateral roots along the primary root axis of both dicot and monocot plants...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Carole Dubreuil, Xu Jin, Andreas Grönlund, Urs Fischer
Organ size homeostasis, compensatory growth to replace lost tissue, requires constant measurement of size and adjustment of growth rates. Morphogen gradients control organ and tissue sizes by regulating stem cell activity, cell differentiation, and removal in animals [1-3]. In plants, control of tissue size is of specific importance in root caps to protect the growing root tip from mechanical damage [4]. New root cap tissue is formed by the columella and lateral root-cap-epidermal stem cells, whose activity is regulated through non-dividing niche-like cells, the quiescent center (QC) [4, 5]...
July 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Eleanor Spielman-Sun, Enzo Lombi, Erica Donner, Astrid Avellan, Barbara Etschmann, Daryl L Howard, Gregory V Lowry
Utilization of nanoparticles (NP) in agriculture as fertilizers or pesticides requires an understanding of the NP properties influencing their interactions with plant roots. To evaluate the influence of the solubility of Cu-based NP on Cu uptake and NP association with plant roots, wheat seedlings were hydroponically exposed to 1 mg/L of Cu NPs with different solubilities (CuO, CuS, and Cu(OH)2 ) for 1 h, then transferred to a Cu free medium for 48 h. Fresh, hydrated roots were analyzed using micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) and imaging fluorescence X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES imaging) to provide laterally resolved distribution and speciation of Cu in roots...
August 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Chen Liu, Chunyu Zhang, Mingxia Fan, Wenjuan Ma, Meiming Chen, Fengchun Cai, Kuichen Liu, Feng Lin
The number of lateral roots (LRs) of a plant determines the efficiency of water and nutrient uptake. Soybean is a typical taproot crop which is deficient in LRs. The number of LRs is therefore an important agronomic trait in soybean breeding. It is reported that the inflorescence deficient in abscission (IDA) protein plays an important role in the emergence of Arabidopsis LRs. Previously, the genes which encode IDA-like (IDL) proteins have been identified in the soybean genome. However, the functions of these genes in LR development are unknown...
August 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Attila Kereszt, Peter Mergaert, Jesús Montiel, Gabriella Endre, Éva Kondorosi
Ribosomally synthesized peptides have wide ranges of functions in plants being, for example, signal molecules, transporters, alkaloids, or antimicrobial agents. Legumes are an unprecedented rich source of peptides, which are used to control the symbiosis of these plants with the nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria. Here, we discuss the function and the evolution of these peptides playing an important role in the formation or functioning of the symbiotic organs, the root nodules. We distinguish peptides that can be either cell-autonomous or secreted short-range or long-range signals, carrying messages in or between plant cells or that can act as effectors interacting with the symbiotic bacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Martine Gonneau, Thierry Desprez, Marjolaine Martin, Verónica G Doblas, Laura Bacete, Fabien Miart, Rodnay Sormani, Kian Hématy, Julien Renou, Benoit Landrein, Evan Murphy, Brigitte Van De Cotte, Samantha Vernhettes, Ive De Smet, Herman Höfte
The growth of plants, like that of other walled organisms, depends on the ability of the cell wall to yield without losing its integrity. In this context, plant cells can sense the perturbation of their walls and trigger adaptive modifications in cell wall polymer interactions. Catharanthus roseus receptor-like kinase 1-like (CrRLK1L) THESEUS1 (THE1) was previously shown in Arabidopsis to trigger growth inhibition and defense responses upon perturbation of the cell wall, but so far, neither the ligand nor the role of the receptor in normal development was known...
August 6, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Zhaorong Hu, Rui Wang, Mei Zheng, Xingbei Liu, Fei Meng, Hualing Wu, Yingyin Yao, Mingming Xin, Huiru Peng, Zhongfu Ni, Qixin Sun
Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important crop for staple food resources worldwide. Lateral root (LR) as the major component of root architecture affects water and nutrient uptake in wheat. The phytohormone ethylene is known to affect LR formation; however, the factor(s) modulating ethylene during this process have not yet been elucidated in wheat. Here, we identified a wheat TaWRKY51 as a key factor that functions in LR formation by modulating ethylene biosynthesis. Wheat TaWRKY51-RNAi lines and both homozygous mutants tawrky51-2a and tawrky51-2b produced less LR number compared with wild type and negative transgenic plants, whereas the TaWRKY51 overexpression (TaWRKY51-OE) lines had the opposite phenotype...
July 25, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Zhengyu Wen, Brent N Kaiser
The nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter (NPF) family represents a growing list of putative nitrate permeable transport proteins expressed within multiple cell types and tissues across a diverse range of plant species. Their designation as nitrate permeable and/or selective transporters is slowly being defined as more genes are characterized and their functional activities tested both in planta and in vitro . The most notable of the NPF family has been the Arabidopsis thaliana homolog, AtNPF6.3 , previously known as AtNRT1...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lili Niu, Biying Dong, Zhihua Song, Dong Meng, Yujie Fu
In the CIPK family, the CBL-interacting protein kinases have shown crucial roles in hormone signaling transduction, and response to abiotic stress in plant developmental processes. The CIPK family is characterized by conserved NAF/FISL (Asn-Ala-Phe) and PPI (protein-phosphatase interaction) domains in the C-terminus. However, little data has been reported about the CIPK family in apple. A total of 34 MdCIPK genes were identified from the apple genome in this study and were later divided into two groups according to the CIPK domains, characterized by gene structure and chromosomal distribution, and then mapped onto 17 chromosomes...
July 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sanat S Kanekar, Jonathan A Cale, Nadir Erbilgin
Plants interact simultaneously with multiple organisms, including ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal symbionts which benefit plants by facilitating resource acquisition. Yet, their role in induced plant defenses that rely on the allocation of plant resources has received little attention. We investigated whether EM fungi can affect the induction of defense-related monoterpenes in greenhouse-grown lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) seedlings, and whether such effects differed between EM fungal species occurring alone or in combination...
July 21, 2018: Oecologia
Hongbin Wang, Tao Wei, Xia Wang, Lipeng Zhang, Meiling Yang, Li Chen, Wenqin Song, Chunguo Wang, Chengbin Chen
Salvia miltiorrhiza ( S. miltiorrhiza ) is an important Chinese herb that is derived from the perennial plant of Lamiaceae, which has been used to treat neurasthenic insomnia and cardiovascular disease. We produced a mutant S. miltiorrhiza (MT), from breeding experiments, that possessed a large taproot, reduced lateral roots, and defective flowering. We performed transcriptome profiling of wild type (WT) and MT S. miltiorrhiza using second-generation Illumina sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that could account for these phenotypical differences...
July 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ondřej Borovec, Martin Vohník
Terrestrial plants typically take up nutrients through roots or mycorrhizae while freshwater plants additionally utilize leaves. Their nutrient uptake may be enhanced by root hairs whose occurrence is often negatively correlated with mycorrhizal colonization. Seagrasses utilize both leaves and roots and often form root hairs, but seem to be devoid of mycorrhizae. The Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica is an exception: its adults commonly lack root hairs and regularly form a specific association with a single pleosporalean fungus...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Doron Shkolnik, Roye Nuriel, Maria Cristina Bonza, Alex Costa, Hillel Fromm
Ever since Darwin postulated that the tip of the root is sensitive to moisture differences and that it "transmits an influence to the upper adjoining part, which bends towards the source of moisture" [Darwin C, Darwin F (1880) The Power of Movement in Plants , pp 572-574], the signal underlying this tropic response has remained elusive. Using the FRET-based Cameleon Ca2+ sensor in planta , we show that a water potential gradient applied across the root tip generates a slow, long-distance asymmetric cytosolic Ca2+ signal in the phloem, which peaks at the elongation zone, where it is dispersed laterally and asymmetrically to peripheral cells, where cell elongation occurs...
July 31, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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