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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086800/relevance-of-fxr-p62-sqstm1-pathway-for-survival-and-protection-of-mouse-hepatocytes-and-liver-especially-with-steatosis
#1
Sanae Haga, Yimin, Michitaka Ozaki
BACKGROUND: Liver injury and regeneration involve complicated processes and are affected by various physio-pathological conditions. Surgically, severe liver injury after surgical resection often leads to fatal liver failure, especially with some underlying pathological conditions such as steatosis. Therefore, protection from the injury of hepatocytes and liver is a serious concern in various clinical settings. METHODS: We studied the effects of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) on cell survival and steatosis in mouse hepatocytes (AML12 mouse liver cells) and investigated their molecular mechanisms...
January 13, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079264/electromagnetic-computation-and-modeling-in-mri
#2
REVIEW
Xin Chen, Michael Steckner
Electromagnetic (EM) computational modeling is used extensively during the development of a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner, its installation, and use. MRI, which relies on interactions between nuclear magnetic moments and the applied magnetic fields, uses a range of EM tools to optimize all of the magnetic fields required to produce the image. The main field magnet is designed to exacting specifications but challenges in manufacturing, installation, and use require additional tools to maintain target operational performance...
January 12, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079002/neurotoxicity-associated-with-platinum-based-anti-cancer-agents-what-are-the-implications-of-copper-transporters
#3
Vanesa Stojanovska, Rachel McQuade, Emma Rybalka, Kulmira Nurgali
Platinum-based anti-cancer agents, which include cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin, are an important class of drugs used in clinical setting to treat a variety of cancers. The cytotoxic efficacy of these drugs is mediated by the formation of interstrand and intrastrand crosslinks, or platinum adducts on nuclear DNA. There is also evidence demonstrating that mitochondrial DNA is susceptible to platinum-adduct damage in dorsal root ganglia neurons. Although all platinum-based agents form similar DNA adducts, they are quite different in terms of activation, systemic toxicity and tolerance...
January 11, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078845/effect-of-low-energy-light-irradiation-by-light-emitting-diode-on-u937-cells
#4
G Spoto, V De Iuliis, M Petrini, V Flati, J Di Gregorio, D Vitale, M Caruso, V Dadorante, M Ciarmoli, I Robuffo, S Martinotti, E Toniato
Photobiomodulation (PBM) can induce a set of different biological modulators either in vitro or in vivo. Experimental evidence has highlighted the role of light effects on the mechanisms related to inflammation, apoptosis and autophagy. The goal of this project was the evaluation of PBM on U937, an established cell line of histiocytic lymphoma origin. Several aspects of modulation of proinflammatory pathways were analyzed and autophagic and proapoptotic mechanisms related to low laser light exposure of cells were studied...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078711/systematics-of-cladophora-spp-chlorophyta-from-north-carolina-usa-based-upon-morphology-and-dna-sequence-data-with-a-description-of-cladophora-subtilissima-sp-nov
#5
Robin L Taylor, Craig J Bailey, D Wilson Freshwater
Identification of Cladophora species is challenging due to conservation of gross morphology, few discrete autapomorphies, and environmental influences on morphology. Twelve species of marine Cladophora were reported from North Carolina waters. Cladophora specimens were collected from inshore and offshore marine waters for DNA sequence and morphological analyses. The nuclear-encoded rRNA internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) were sequenced for 105 specimens and used in Molecular Assisted Identification (MAI)...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077904/regadenoson-in-myocardial-perfusion-study-first-institutional-experiences-in-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#6
Nermina Beslic, Renata Milardovic, Amera Sadija, Sejla Ceric, Zeljka Raic
INTRODUCTION: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is widely used in the evaluation of known and suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Imaging of heart in stress and rest enables the comparison of myocardial uptake of radiotracer in proportion to the needs and coronary flow, which is used for detection of perfusion defects. Exercise stress and pharmacologic agents are used for the stressing purpose. Novel pharmacologic stressor regadenoson is A2A selective adenosine agonist, which selectively binds to the adenosine receptors in coronary arteries causing coronary dilatation...
December 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077618/mechanism-of-nuclear-movements-in-a-multinucleated-cell
#7
Romain Gibeaux, Antonio Z Politi, Peter Philippsen, François Nédélec
Multinucleated cells are important in many organisms but the mechanisms governing the movements of nuclei sharing a common cytoplasm are not understood. In the hyphae of the plant pathogenic fungus Ashbya gossypii, nuclei move back and forth, occasionally bypassing each other, and, preventing the formation of nuclear clusters, this is essential for genetic stability. These movements depend on cytoplasmic microtubules emanating from the nuclei, that are pulled by dynein motors anchored at the cortex. Using 3D stochastic simulations with parameters constrained by the literature, we predict the cortical anchors density from the characteristics of nuclear movements...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074868/nucleoplasmin-like-domain-of-fkbp39-from-drosophila-melanogaster-forms-a-tetramer-with-partly-disordered-tentacle-like-c-terminal-segments
#8
Małgorzata Kozłowska, Aneta Tarczewska, Michał Jakób, Dominika Bystranowska, Michał Taube, Maciej Kozak, Mariusz Czarnocki-Cieciura, Andrzej Dziembowski, Marek Orłowski, Katarzyna Tkocz, Andrzej Ożyhar
Nucleoplasmins are a nuclear chaperone family defined by the presence of a highly conserved N-terminal core domain. X-ray crystallographic studies of isolated nucleoplasmin core domains revealed a β-propeller structure consisting of a set of five monomers that together form a stable pentamer. Recent studies on isolated N-terminal domains from Drosophila 39-kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP39) and from other chromatin-associated proteins showed analogous, nucleoplasmin-like (NPL) pentameric structures. Here, we report that the NPL domain of the full-length FKBP39 does not form pentameric complexes...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074207/plutonium-segregation-in-glassy-aerodynamic-fallout-from-a-nuclear-weapon-test
#9
K S Holliday, J M Dierken, M L Monroe, M A Fitzgerald, N E Marks, R C Gostic, K B Knight, K R Czerwinski, I D Hutcheon, J W McClory
This study combines electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy to probe major element composition and autoradiography to map plutonium in order to examine the spatial relationships between plutonium and fallout composition in aerodynamic glassy fallout from a nuclear weapon test. A sample set of 48 individual fallout specimens were interrogated to reveal that the significant chemical heterogeneity of this sample set could be described compositionally with a relatively small number of compositional endmembers...
January 11, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072865/reading-the-evolution-of-compartmentalization-in-the-ribosome-assembly-toolbox-the-yrg-protein-family
#10
Pablo Mier, Antonio J Pérez-Pulido, Emmanuel G Reynaud, Miguel A Andrade-Navarro
Reconstructing the transition from a single compartment bacterium to a highly compartmentalized eukaryotic cell is one of the most studied problems of evolutionary cell biology. However, timing and details of the establishment of compartmentalization are unclear and difficult to assess. Here, we propose the use of molecular markers specific to cellular compartments to set up a framework to advance the understanding of this complex intracellular process. Specifically, we use a protein family related to ribosome biogenesis, YRG (YlqF related GTPases), whose evolution is linked to the establishment of cellular compartments, leveraging the current genomic data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071986/evaluation-of-a-two-year-routine-application-of-molecular-testing-of-thyroid-fine-needle-aspirations-fna-using-a-7-gene-panel-in-a-primary-referral-setting-in-germany
#11
Markus Eszlinger, Katharina Böhme, Maha Ullmann, Fabian Görke, Udo Siebolts, Anna Neumann, Christiane Franzius, Sabine Adam, Thomas Molwitz, Christian Landvogt, Bassam Amro, Anja Hach, Berit Feldmann, Dieter Graf, Antje Wefer, Rainer Niemann, Catharina Bullmann, Günther Klaushenke, Reinhard Santen, Gregor Tönshoff, Velimir Ivancevic, Andreas Kögler, Eberhard Bell, Bernd Lorenz, Gerald Kluge, Christoph Hartenstein, Ilka Ruschenburg, Ralf Paschke
BACKGROUND: Major differences with respect to the diagnostic performance of a "ruling in" approach in the pre-surgical diagnosis of indeterminate thyroid fine needle aspirations (FNAs) have been reported. Therefore, the aim of this prospective multicenter study was to investigate the specific diagnostic impact of mutation testing using a 7-gene-panel in a routine primary referral setting analyzing FNAs from endocrinology and nuclear medicine practices in Germany. METHODS: RNA and DNA was extracted from 564 routine air-dried FNA smears obtained from 64 physicians and cytologically graded by one experienced cytopathologist...
January 10, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071183/5-aminosalicylic-acid-inhibits-inflammatory-responses-by-suppressing-jnk-and-p38-activity-in-murine-macrophages
#12
Tingli Qu, Erbing Wang, Baofen Jin, Weiping Li, Ruiling Liu, Zheng-Bao Zhao
CONTEXT: 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), as an anti-inflammatory drug, has been extensively used for the treatment of mild to moderate active ulcerative colitis (UC), but the possible mechanisms of action remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of 5-ASA on the production of inflammatory mediators by murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and determine the underlying pharmacological mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The levels of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by Varioskan Flash and IL-6 Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay sets...
February 2017: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070287/mountains-too-high-and-valleys-too-deep-drive-population-structuring-and-demographics-in-a-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-frog-nanorana-pleskei-dicroglossidae
#13
Weiwei Zhou, Jieqiong Jin, Jun Wu, Hongman Chen, Junxiao Yang, Robert W Murphy, Jing Che
Pleistocene glacial-interglacial climatic oscillations greatly shaped the current genetic structure of many species. However, geographic features may influence the impact of climatic cycling. Distinct geographic and environmental characters between northern and southern parts of the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (EQTP) facilitate explorations into the impacts of geographic features on species. The northern parts of EQTP contain large areas of marsh, and the environment is rather homogeneous. In contrast, the southern EQTP harbors complex alpine valleys and a much more heterogeneous setting...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069533/myrteae-phylogeny-calibration-biogeography-and-diversification-patterns-increased-understanding-in-the-most-species-rich-tribe-of-myrtaceae
#14
Thais N C Vasconcelos, Carol E B Proença, Berhaman Ahmad, Daniel S Aguilar, Reinaldo Aguilar, Bruno S Amorim, Keron Campbell, Itayguara R Costa, Plauto S De-Carvalho, Jair E Q Faria, Augusto Giaretta, Pepijn W Kooij, Duane F Lima, Fiorella F Mazine, Brigido Peguero, Gerhard Prenner, Matheus F Santos, Julia Soewarto, Astrid Wingler, Eve J Lucas
Myrteae (c. 2500 species; 51 genera) is the largest tribe of Myrtaceae and an ecologically important groups of angiosperms in the Neotropics. Systematic relationships in Myrteae are complex, hindering conservation initiatives and jeopardizing evolutionary modelling. A well-supported and robust phylogenetic hypothesis was here targeted towards a comprehensive understanding of the relationships within the tribe. The resultant topology was used as a base for key evolutionary analyses such as age estimation, historical biogeography and diversification rate patterns...
January 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068401/advantages-of-synthetic-noise-and-machine-learning-for-analyzing-radioecological-data-sets
#15
Igor Shuryak
The ecological effects of accidental or malicious radioactive contamination are insufficiently understood because of the hazards and difficulties associated with conducting studies in radioactively-polluted areas. Data sets from severely contaminated locations can therefore be small. Moreover, many potentially important factors, such as soil concentrations of toxic chemicals, pH, and temperature, can be correlated with radiation levels and with each other. In such situations, commonly-used statistical techniques like generalized linear models (GLMs) may not be able to provide useful information about how radiation and/or these other variables affect the outcome (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064071/enhanced-efficiency-of-solid-state-nmr-investigations-of-energy-materials-using-an-external-automatic-tuning-matching-eatm-robot
#16
Oliver Pecher, David M Halat, Jeongjae Lee, Zigeng Liu, Kent J Griffith, Marco Braun, Clare P Grey
We have developed and explored an external automatic tuning/matching (eATM) robot that can be attached to commercial and/or home-built magic angle spinning (MAS) or static nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probeheads. Complete synchronization and automation with Bruker and Tecmag spectrometers is ensured via transistor-transistor-logic (TTL) signals. The eATM robot enables an automated "on-the-fly" re-calibration of the radio frequency (rf) carrier frequency, which is beneficial whenever tuning/matching of the resonance circuit is required, e...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063447/accelerating-two-dimensional-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-correlation-spectroscopy-via-selective-coherence-transfer
#17
Qimiao Ye, Lin Chen, Wenqi Qiu, Liangjie Lin, Huijun Sun, Shuhui Cai, Zhiliang Wei, Zhong Chen
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy serves as an important tool for both qualitative and quantitative analyses of various systems in chemistry, biology, and medicine. However, applications of one-dimensional (1)H NMR are often restrained by the presence of severe overlap among different resonances. The advent of two-dimensional (2D) (1)H NMR constitutes a promising alternative by extending the crowded resonances into a plane and thereby alleviating the spectral congestions. However, the enhanced ability in discriminating resonances is achieved at the cost of extended experimental duration due to necessity of various scans with progressive delays to construct the indirect dimension...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063266/antibiotics-may-trigger-mitochondrial-dysfunction-inducing-psychiatric-disorders
#18
George B Stefano, Joshua Samuel, Richard M Kream
Clinical usage of several classes of antibiotics is associated with moderate to severe side effects due to the promotion of mitochondrial dysfunction. We contend that this may be due to perturbation of unique evolutionary relationships that link selective biochemical and molecular aspects of mitochondrial biology to conserved enzymatic processes derived from bacterial progenitors. Operationally, stereo-selective conformational matching between mitochondrial respiratory complexes, cytosolic and nuclear signaling complexes appears to support the conservation of a critically important set of chemical messengers required for existential regulation of homeostatic cellular processes...
January 7, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063063/identifying-candidate-reprogramming-genes-in-mouse-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#19
Fang Gao, Jingyu Li, Heng Zhang, Xu Yang, Tiezhu An
Factor-based induced reprogramming approaches have tremendous potential for human regenerative medicine, but the efficiencies of these approaches are still low. In this study, we analyzed the global transcriptional profiles of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs) and mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) from seven different labs and present here the first successful clustering according to cell type, not by lab of origin. We identified 2131 different expression genes (DEs) as candidate pluripotency-associated genes by comparing mESCs/miPSCs with somatic cells and 720 DEs between miPSCs and mESCs...
January 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061785/short-term-early-exposure-to-lapatinib-confers-lifelong-protection-from-mammary-tumor-development-in-mmtv-erbb-2-transgenic-mice
#20
Zhikun Ma, Amanda B Parris, Zhengzheng Xiao, Erin W Howard, Stanley D Kosanke, Xiaoshan Feng, Xiaohe Yang
BACKGROUND: Although chemopreventative agents targeting the estrogen/estrogen receptor (ER) pathway have been effective for ER(+) breast cancers, prevention of hormone receptor-negative breast cancers, such as Her2/erbB-2(+) breast cancers, remains a significant issue. Previous studies have demonstrated that administration of EGFR/erbB-2-targeting lapatinib to MMTV-erbB-2 transgenic mice inhibited mammary tumor development. The prevention, however, was achieved by prolonged high dose exposure...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
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