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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784384/nuclear-proliferomics-a-new-field-of-study-to-identify-signatures-of-nuclear-materials-as-demonstrated-on-alpha-uo-3
#1
Ian J Schwerdt, Alexandria Brenkmann, Sean Martinson, Brent D Albrecht, Sean Heffernan, Michael R Klosterman, Trenton Kirkham, Tolga Tasdizen, Luther W McDonald Iv
The use of a limited set of signatures in nuclear forensics and nuclear safeguards may reduce the discriminating power for identifying unknown nuclear materials, or for verifying processing at existing facilities. Nuclear proliferomics is a proposed new field of study that advocates for the acquisition of large databases of nuclear material properties from a variety of analytical techniques. As demonstrated on a common uranium trioxide polymorph, α-UO3 , in this paper, nuclear proliferomics increases the ability to improve confidence in identifying the processing history of nuclear materials...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780936/clinical-and-pathological-correlation-of-cotton-wool-spots-in-secondary-angle-closure-glaucoma
#2
Anand Bhatt, Christine Nguyen, Sameh Mosaed, Don Minckler
Purpose: Cotton Wool Spots (CWS) are a commonly described retinal finding in the posterior segment associated with an extensive number of systemic diseases. The appearance of a CWS in the setting of glaucoma has rarely been reported and has not been correlated with pathology to localized loss of the nerve fiber layer previously. In this case report, we augment a previous report of an 18 year old female with a diagnosis of low grade ciliary body melanoma. This patient experienced eventual mechanical angle closure with a CWS appearing in the posterior pole in the setting of acute elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP)...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778072/nmr-at-pressures-up-to-90-gpa
#3
Thomas Meier, Saiana Khandarkhaeva, Sylvain Petitgirard, Thomas Körber, Alexander Lauerer, Ernst Rössler, Leonid Dubrovinsky
The past 15 years have seen an astonishing increase in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) sensitivity and accessible pressure range in high-pressure NMR experiments, owing to a series of new developments of NMR spectroscopy applied to the diamond anvil cell (DAC). Recently, with the application of electro-magnetic lenses, so-called Lenz lenses, in toroidal diamond indenter cells, pressures of up to 72 GPa with NMR spin sensitivities of about 1012  spin/Hz1/2 has been achieved. Here, we describe the implementation of a refined NMR resonator structure using a pair of double stage Lenz lenses driven by a Helmholtz coil within a standard DAC, allowing to measure sample volumes as small as 100 pl prior to compression...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777127/paradoxical-cardiotoxicity-of-intraperitoneally-injected-epigallocatechin-gallate-preparation-in-diabetic-mice
#4
Nora O Abdel Rasheed, Lamiaa A Ahmed, Dalaal M Abdallah, Bahia M El-Sayeh
Numerous clinical and bioavailability studies addressed epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) beneficial effects; however, our previous work revealed EGCG-induced nephrotoxicity in the presence of diabetes. In this study, the potential myocardial toxicity of EGCG preparation (100 mg/kg/day, IP; 4 days) in diabetic mice injected with streptozotocin (STZ; 150 mg/kg, IP) was investigated. Diabetic mice receiving EGCG preparation showed electrocardiographic changes in addition to elevation of both serum creatine kinase-MB and troponin-I levels accompanied by microscopic myocardial damage...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775646/the-rna-binding-protein-ars2-supports-hematopoiesis-at-multiple-levels
#5
Seerat Elahi, Shawn M Egan, G Aaron Holling, Rachel L Kandefer, Michael J Nemeth, Scott H Olejniczak
Recent biochemical characterization of Arsenic resistance protein 2 (Ars2) has established it as central to determining the fate of nascent RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcripts. Through interactions with the nuclear 5'-7-methylguanosine (7mG) cap binding complex (CBC), Ars2 promotes co-transcriptional processing coupled with nuclear export or degradation of several classes of RNAPII transcripts, allowing for gene expression programs that facilitate rapid and sustained proliferation of immortalized cells in culture...
May 15, 2018: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775393/proactive-strategy-for-long-term-biological-research-aimed-at-low-dose-radiation-risk-in-korea
#6
Ki Moon Seong, TaeWoo Kwon, Jina Park, BuHyun Youn, Hyuck-Jin Cha, Yonghwan Kim, Changjong Moon, Seung-Sook Lee, Young Woo Jin
PURPOSE: Since the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, Korean radiation experts have agreed that reliable data on health risks of low-dose radiation (LDR) are needed to ease the anxiety of lay people. The intent of this study was to devise a sustainable biological program suited for the research environment in Korea and aimed at the health effects of radiation exposures <100 millisieverts (mSv). To address pressing public concerns over LDR risk, we investigated the current understanding of LDR effects by analyzing the previous reports of international authorities for radiation protection and research publications that appeared after the Chernobyl accident...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772064/impact-of-inter-patient-variability-on-organ-dose-estimates-according-to-mird-schema-uncertainty-and-variance-based-sensitivity-analysis
#7
Alexandra Zvereva, Florian Kamp, Helmut Schlattl, Maria Zankl, Katia Parodi
PURPOSE: Variance-based sensitivity analysis (SA) is described and applied to the radiation dosimetry model proposed by the Committee on Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) for the organ-level absorbed dose calculations in nuclear medicine. The uncertainties in the dose coefficients thus calculated are also evaluated. METHODS: A Monte Carlo approach was used to compute first-order and total-effect SA indices, which rank the input factors according to their influence on the uncertainty in the output organ doses...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765588/dna-barcoding-a-taxonomically-complex-hemiparasitic-genus-reveals-deep-divergence-between-ploidy-levels-but-lack-of-species-level-resolution
#8
Xumei Wang, Galina Gussarova, Markus Ruhsam, Natasha de Vere, Chris Metherell, Peter M Hollingsworth, Alex D Twyford
DNA barcoding is emerging as a useful tool not only for species identification but also for studying evolutionary and ecological processes. Although plant DNA barcodes do not always provide species-level resolution, the generation of large DNA barcode data sets can provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the generation of species diversity. Here, we study evolutionary processes in taxonomically complex British Euphrasia (Orobanchaceae), a group with multiple ploidy levels, frequent self-fertilization, young species divergence and widespread hybridization...
June 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761207/omics-based-responses-induced-by-bosentan-in-human-hepatoma-heparg-cell-cultures
#9
Robim M Rodrigues, Laxmikanth Kollipara, Umesh Chaudhari, Agapios Sachinidis, René P Zahedi, Albert Sickmann, Annette Kopp-Schneider, Xiaoqi Jiang, Hector Keun, Jan Hengstler, Marlies Oorts, Pieter Annaert, Eef Hoeben, Eva Gijbels, Joery De Kock, Tamara Vanhaecke, Vera Rogiers, Mathieu Vinken
Bosentan is well known to induce cholestatic liver toxicity in humans. The present study was set up to characterize the hepatotoxic effects of this drug at the transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic levels. For this purpose, human hepatoma-derived HepaRG cells were exposed to a number of concentrations of bosentan during different periods of time. Bosentan was found to functionally and transcriptionally suppress the bile salt export pump as well as to alter bile acid levels. Pathway analysis of both transcriptomics and proteomics data identified cholestasis as a major toxicological event...
May 14, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760065/temperature-regulates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dynamics-and-function-through-timing-of-a20-transcription
#10
C V Harper, D J Woodcock, C Lam, M Garcia-Albornoz, A Adamson, L Ashall, W Rowe, P Downton, L Schmidt, S West, D G Spiller, D A Rand, M R H White
NF-κB signaling plays a pivotal role in control of the inflammatory response. We investigated how the dynamics and function of NF-κB were affected by temperature within the mammalian physiological range (34 °C to 40 °C). An increase in temperature led to an increase in NF-κB nuclear/cytoplasmic oscillation frequency following Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFα) stimulation. Mathematical modeling suggested that this temperature sensitivity might be due to an A20-dependent mechanism, and A20 silencing removed the sensitivity to increased temperature...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756466/simultaneous-in-situ-monitoring-of-trimethoxysilane-hydrolysis-reactions-using-raman-infrared-and-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-nmr-spectroscopy-aided-by-chemometrics-and-ab-initio-calculations
#11
Xiaoyun Chen, Donald Eldred, Jing Liu, Hsu Chiang, Xianghuai Wang, Mark A Rickard, Siyu Tu, Li Cui, Paul LaBeaume, Kwan Skinner
Sol-gels are found in many different scientific fields and have very broad applications. They are often prepared by the hydrolysis and condensation of alkoxysilanes such as trimethoxysilanes, which are commonly used as precursors in the preparation of silsequioxanes via the sol-gel process. The reaction rates of such reactions are influenced by a wide range of experimental factors such as temperature, pH, catalyst, etc. In this study, we combined multiple in situ spectroscopic techniques to monitor the hydrolysis and partial condensation reactions of methyltrimethoxysilane and phenyltrimethoxysilane...
January 1, 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756265/web-based-thyroid-imaging-reporting-and-data-system-malignancy-risk-of-atypia-of-undetermined-significance-or-follicular-lesion-of-undetermined-significance-thyroid-nodules-calculated-by-a-combination-of-ultrasonography-features-and-biopsy-results
#12
Young Jun Choi, Jung Hwan Baek, Jung Hee Shin, Woo Hyun Shim, Seon-Ok Kim, Won-Hong Lee, Dong Eun Song, Tae Yong Kim, Ki-Wook Chung, Jeong Hyun Lee
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to construct a web-based predictive model using ultrasound characteristics and subcategorized biopsy results for thyroid nodules of atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) to stratify the risk of malignancy. METHODS: Data included 672 thyroid nodules from 656 patients from a historical cohort. We analyzed ultrasound images of thyroid nodules and biopsy results according to nuclear atypia and architectural atypia...
May 13, 2018: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755668/mutant-p53-tunes-the-nrf2-dependent-antioxidant-response-to-support-survival-of-cancer-cells
#13
Kamil Lisek, Elena Campaner, Yari Ciani, Dawid Walerych, Giannino Del Sal
NRF2 (NFE2L2) is one of the main regulators of the antioxidant response of the cell. Here we show that in cancer cells NRF2 targets are selectively upregulated or repressed through a mutant p53-dependent mechanism. Mechanistically, mutant p53 interacts with NRF2, increases its nuclear presence and resides with NRF2 on selected ARE containing gene promoters activating the transcription of a specific set of genes while leading to the transcriptional repression of others. We show that thioredoxin ( TXN) is a mutant p53-activated NRF2 target with pro-survival and pro-migratory functions in breast cancer cells under oxidative stress, while heme oxygenase 1 ( HMOX1) is a mutant p53-repressed target displaying opposite effects...
April 17, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755455/rnai-based-identification-of-gene-specific-nuclear-cofactor-networks-regulating-interleukin-1-target-genes
#14
Johanna Meier-Soelch, Liane Jurida, Axel Weber, Doris Newel, Johnny Kim, Thomas Braun, M Lienhard Schmitz, Michael Kracht
The potent proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 triggers gene expression through the NF-κB signaling pathway. Here, we investigated the cofactor requirements of strongly regulated IL-1 target genes whose expression is impaired in p65 NF-κB-deficient murine embryonic fibroblasts. By two independent small-hairpin (sh)RNA screens, we examined 170 genes annotated to encode nuclear cofactors for their role in Cxcl2 mRNA expression and identified 22 factors that modulated basal or IL-1-inducible Cxcl2 levels...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753935/identification-and-characterization-of-4-chloromethamphetamine-4-cma-in-seized-ecstacy-a-risk-to-public-health
#15
Peter Blanckaert, Stijn Vanquekelberghe, Vera Coopman, Martijn D P Risseeuw, Serge Van Calenbergh, Jan Cordonnier
This paper reports the structure elucidation and full characterization of 4-chloromethamphetamine (4-CMA), a compound which was never reported previously outside of laboratory settings in seized drug samples, or samples actively being used at large dance festivals. Identification of 4-CMA was obtained by liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Further structure elucidation was performed by fragment pattern analysis of the trimethylsilyl and trifluoroacetyl derivatives with GC-MS...
May 3, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753287/morphotoxicity-and-cytogenotoxicity-of-pendimethalin-in-the-test-plant-allium-cepa-l-a-biomarker-based-study
#16
Sonam Verma, Alka Srivastava
Pesticides have brought tremendous benefits to mankind by increasing food production and controlling various crop diseases. But their prolonged and extensive use has been reported to induce toxicity. Biological markers used for the evaluation of toxic effects of pesticides have increased these days. The aim of this study was to determine the morphotoxic and cytogenotoxic effects of pesticide pendimethalin applied to the soil by using morphological and genotoxic biomarkers in the test plant Allium cepa L. A pot experiment was set up in which pendimethalin was added to soil at the rate of 0, 0...
April 30, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752513/oligorecurrent-prostate-cancer-limited-to-lymph-nodes-getting-our-ducks-in-a-row
#17
Andrei Fodor, Andrea Lancia, Francesco Ceci, Maria Picchio, Morten Hoyer, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Piet Ost, Paolo Castellucci, Elena Incerti, Nadia Di Muzio, Gianluca Ingrosso
PURPOSE: Oligorecurrent prostate cancer with exclusive nodal involvement represents a common state of disease, amenable to local therapy. New radio-labeled tracers have enriched the possibility of cancer detection and treatment. In this review, we aim to illustrate the main nuclear medicine diagnostic options and the role of radiotherapy in this setting of patients. METHODS: We performed a PubMed search referring to the PRISMA guidelines to analyze the performance of PSMA- and choline-PET in detecting oligorecurrence limited to lymph nodes, and to review the main studies supporting either ablative stereotactic body radiotherapy or regional lymph node irradiation in this clinical setting...
May 11, 2018: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748575/controlling-nuclear-rna-levels
#18
REVIEW
Manfred Schmid, Torben Heick Jensen
RNA turnover is an integral part of cellular RNA homeostasis and gene expression regulation. Whereas the cytoplasmic control of protein-coding mRNA is often the focus of study, we discuss here the less appreciated role of nuclear RNA decay systems in controlling RNA polymerase II (RNAPII)-derived transcripts. Historically, nuclear RNA degradation was found to be essential for the functionalization of transcripts through their proper maturation. Later, it was discovered to also be an important caretaker of nuclear hygiene by removing aberrant and unwanted transcripts...
May 10, 2018: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746531/the-1h-nmr-based-metabolite-profile-of-acute-alcohol-consumption-a-metabolomics-intervention-study
#19
Cindy Irwin, Mari van Reenen, Shayne Mason, Lodewyk J Mienie, Ron A Wevers, Johan A Westerhuis, Carolus J Reinecke
Metabolomics studies of disease conditions related to chronic alcohol consumption provide compelling evidence of several perturbed metabolic pathways underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. The objective of the present study was to utilize proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy metabolomics to study the holistic metabolic consequences of acute alcohol consumption in humans. The experimental design was a cross-over intervention study which included a number of substances to be consumed-alcohol, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) supplement, and a benzoic acid-containing flavoured water vehicle...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746503/nuclear-ihc-enumeration-a-digital-phantom-to-evaluate-the-performance-of-automated-algorithms-in-digital-pathology
#20
Muhammad Khalid Khan Niazi, Fazly Salleh Abas, Caglar Senaras, Michael Pennell, Berkman Sahiner, Weijie Chen, John Opfer, Robert Hasserjian, Abner Louissaint, Arwa Shana'ah, Gerard Lozanski, Metin N Gurcan
Automatic and accurate detection of positive and negative nuclei from images of immunostained tissue biopsies is critical to the success of digital pathology. The evaluation of most nuclei detection algorithms relies on manually generated ground truth prepared by pathologists, which is unfortunately time-consuming and suffers from inter-pathologist variability. In this work, we developed a digital immunohistochemistry (IHC) phantom that can be used for evaluating computer algorithms for enumeration of IHC positive cells...
2018: PloS One
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