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Diagnostic histopathology

Soon Leong Yong, Safilah Dahian, Aznim Hani Ramlan, Marcus Kang
Normal-sized ovarian carcinoma syndrome (NOCS) is a rare condition characterised by malignancy identified in ovaries of normal size with abdominal metastasis. We report two cases of advanced ovarian carcinoma with ovaries of normal size. The first case was a 13-year-old adolescent with malignant ascites and bilateral normal sized multicystic ovaries detected on ultrasound. Serum cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) and lactate dehydrogenase were markedly raised. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed the presence of thick omental cake but no ovarian tumour...
August 11, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Markus Ruhnke, Gerhard Behre, Dieter Buchheidt, Maximilian Christopeit, Axel Hamprecht, Werner Heinz, Claus-Peter Heussel, Marius Horger, Oliver Kurzai, Meinolf Karthaus, Jürgen Löffler, Georg Maschmeyer, Olaf Penack, Christina Rieger, Volker Rickerts, Jörg Ritter, Martin Schmidt-Hieber, Nikolai Schuelper, Stefan Schwartz, Andrew Ullmann, Jörg-Janne Vehreschild, Marie von Lilienfeld-Toal, Thomas Weber, Hans-H Wolf
Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) are a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with haematological malignancies. These infections are mostly life-threatening and an early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy are essential for the clinical outcome. Most commonly, Aspergillus and Candida species are involved. However, other Non-Aspergillus moulds are increasingly identified in case of documented IFD. For definite diagnosis of IFD, a combination of diagnostic tools have to be applied, including conventional mycological culture and non-conventional microbiological tests such as antibody / antigen and molecular tests, as well as histopathology and radiology...
August 11, 2018: Mycoses
Karen Tran-Harding, Rashmi T Nair, Adrian Dawkins, Andres Ayoob, Joseph Owen, Sarah Deraney, James T Lee, Scott Stevens, Halemane Ganesh
The manifestations of endometriosis commonly present a diagnostic challenge to the gynecologist and radiologist. Familiarity with its varied presentations may allow for a more accurate diagnosis. The goal of this review is to the present the imaging spectrum of endometriosis, less common sites of involvement as well as the potential rare complications. Relevant surgical and histopathological correlation is also provided. In addition to clinical evaluation and sonography, MRI is a highly accurate imaging modality in the diagnosis of endometriosis...
July 31, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Berrend G Muller, Rob A A van Kollenburg, Abel Swaan, Evita C H Zwartkruis, Martin J Brandt, Leah S Wilk, Mitra Almasian, A Wim Schreurs, Dirk J Faber, L Rence Rozendaal, Andre N Vis, Jakko A Nieuwenhuijzen, Jeroen R J A van Moorselaar, Jean J M C H de la Rosette, Daniel Martijn de Bruin, Ton G van Leeuwen
Diagnostic accuracy of needle-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) for prostate cancer detection by visual and quantitative analysis is defined. 106 three-dimensional (3-D)-OCT data sets were acquired in 20 prostates after radical prostatectomy and precisely matched with pathology. OCT images were grouped per histological category. Two reviewers performed blind assessments of the OCT images. Sensitivity and specificity for malignancy detection were calculated. Quantitative analyses by automated optical attenuation coefficient calculation were performed...
August 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Shigehiro Kojima, Tsuguo Sakamoto, Yuko Nagai, Masayuki Honda, Fumihiro Ogawa
BACKGROUND: Colorectal metastases from primary colorectal cancers are very rare, and little is known about their epidemiological aspects or the best diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Herein, we report a case of a 65-year-old woman with suspected metachronous metastasis to the rectum from primary transverse colon cancer. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient underwent a laparoscopic extended right hemicolectomy for primary transverse colon cancer. Histopathological examination showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, and the tumor was diagnosed as stage IIA (T3, N0, M0)...
August 9, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
Ana M Montalvo, Jorge Fraga, Orestes Blanco, Daniel González, Lianet Monzote, Lynn Soong, Virginia Capó
Background: Leishmaniasis is a neglected parasitic disease caused by Leishmania spp., which is not endemic in Cuba. However, several factors (such as human activities, climate changes, and tourism) have led to an increase in the number of leishmaniasis cases in all regions, raising diagnosis and surveillance issues. We aim to present the retrospective analysis of 16 human cases suspicious of leishmaniasis, which were received during 2006-2016 for diagnosis at the Department of Parasitology from the Institute of Tropical Medicine Pedro Kourí, Cuba...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Somali Pattanayak, Samar Chatterjee, R Ravikumar, V S Nijhawan, Vivek Sharma, Jyotindu Debnath
Background: The differentiation between the causes of cervical lymphadenopathy is of paramount importance as these have different modalities of treatment with varying prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of B Mode and colour Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) to differentiate between benign and metastatic lymph nodes. Methods: 100 patients of clinically palpable lymph nodes were evaluated with B Mode and CDUS. B Mode assessment included short-long (S:L) axis ratio, hilum, nodal border, echogenicity, intranodal necrosis and ancillary features...
July 2018: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Ana Hrkac Pustahija, Gordana Ivanac, Boris Brkljacic
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess diagnostic accuracies of ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in lesions that manifest as mammographic BI-RADS 4 and 5 microcalcifications, in the setting of conjoined use of mammography, US, and MRI. METHODS: Patients with mammographic BI-RADS 4 or 5 microcalcifications, without additional findings, were included in this prospective study. All patients subsequently underwent breast US and MRI. Histopathologic diagnosis, obtained by US-guided core-needle biopsy or surgical excision, served as a reference standard...
July 2018: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
Kumari A Lata, Vaishali Upadhyay, Shashi S Pawar
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the central nervous system is a rare entity of unknown etiology and a diagnostic dilemma for radiologists. We report a case of meningeal IMT occurring in a 15-year-old boy. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large homogeneously enhancing extra-axial mass in left parietal region. Mass was resected en bloc and histopathological examination revealed the lesion to be composed of plasma cells, lymphocytes admixed with histiocytes, and spindle cells without any atypical cells, characteristic of IMT...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Seow-Neng Chan, Eden Ngah Den Low, Raja Affendi Raja Ali, Norfilza Mohd Mokhtar
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which comprises of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is an idiopathic relapsing and remitting disease in which the interplay of different environment, microbial, immunological and genetic factors that attribute to the progression of the disease. Numerous studies have been conducted in multiple aspects including clinical, endoscopy and histopathology for the diagnostics and treatment of IBD. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the aetiology and pathogenesis of IBD is still poorly understood...
July 2018: Intestinal Research
Meherbano M Kamal, Hemant R Kulkarni, Manjiri M Makde, Radha Munje
Objective: To assess the performance of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of tuberculosis mastitis. Materials and Methods: Diagnostic test performance evaluation using two methods-as compared to an alloyed gold standard as well as in the absence of a gold standard. Alloyed gold standard combined the results of acid fast bacilli in cytology smears, histopathological confirmation, and response to treatment. Bayesian estimation of test parameters was done in the absence of the gold standard...
July 2018: Journal of Cytology
Ashish Gupta, Amit Gupta, Sweety Gupta, Udit Chauhan, Lokavarapu Manoj Joshua
Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a rare gastrointestinal tumour. It occurs in women with pre-existing cholelithiasis. These tumours pose therapeutic as well as diagnostic challenges to treating clinicians. Early suspicion and optimal surgery for suspected GBC results in the best outcome. We describe two cases of metastatic GBC initially treated by simple cholecystectomy for gallstone despite disease pointers towards a malignant pathology. Subsequent presentation was with histopathologically proven metastatic GBC...
August 8, 2018: Tropical Doctor
Raj P Kapur, Miguel Reyes-Mugica
CONTEXT: - Intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B (IND B) is a controversial histopathologic phenotype that has been associated with intestinal dysmotility, either as an isolated condition or in conjunction with established pathologic disorders (eg, Hirschsprung disease). Many factors contribute to the debate over the existence and/or clinical significance of IND B, including a large body of published data based on inconsistent diagnostic criteria and methods, which have fostered many unwarranted conclusions that lack sufficient scientific basis...
August 8, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Mustafa Onur Oztan, Fatma Demet Arslan, Sule Oztan, Gulden Diniz, Gokhan Koyluoglu
BACKGROUND: Caustic esophageal burn is still an important health problem in pediatric surgery. Although there are a number of experimental and clinical studies to increase the recovery of the esophagus and reduce the stenosis rate, there is no consensus on the treatment protocol. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous blood product, which has positive effects on wound healing, reepithelization and scar prevention. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of PRP on stricture formation and oxidative status after caustic esophageal injury in rats...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Lorna M Gibson, Francesca M Chappell, David Summers, Donald A Collie, Robin Sellar, Jonathan Best, Richard Knight, James W Ironside, Joanna M Wardlaw
The relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical variables in patients suspected to have Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) is uncertain. We aimed to determine which MRI features of CJD (positive or negative), previously described in vivo, accurately identify CJD, are most reliably detected, vary with disease duration, and whether combined clinical and imaging features increase diagnostic accuracy for CJD. Prospective patients suspected of having CJD were referred to the National CJD Research and Surveillance Unit between 1994-2004; post-mortem, brains were sent for MRI and histopathology...
2018: PloS One
Elif Peker, Ayşe Erden, İlhan Erden, Nurşen Düzgün
OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to discern imaging findings that distinguish Behçet disease from small-bowel Crohn disease, to find initial performance estimates for these findings, and to evaluate the diagnostic value of MR enterography (MRE) for detecting intestinal Behçet disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MRE examinations of 30 consecutively registered patients with established intestinal Behçet disease were reviewed by two blinded readers. The frequencies of MRE findings were compared with those obtained for 30 control subjects with small-bowel Crohn disease who were matched for sex and age...
August 7, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Ana Marcella Rivas, Aziza Nassar, Jun Zhang, John D Casler, Ana Maria Chindris, Robert Smallridge, Victor Bernet
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 15 to 30% of thyroid nodules have indeterminate cytology. Many of these nodules are treated surgically, but only 5 to 30% are malignant. Molecular testing can further narrow the risk of malignancy of these nodules. Our objective was to assess the cost effectiveness of ThyroSeq® V2.0 compared to diagnostic thyroidectomy for the evaluation of indeterminate nodules. METHODS: Cytology and histopathology slides of Bethesda category III and IV (suspicious for follicular neoplasia [SFN]) nodules obtained between January 1, 2014 and November 30, 2016 were re-reviewed by 2 endocrine cytopathologists...
August 7, 2018: Endocrine Practice
Einat Slonimsky, Osnat Konen, Elio Di Segni, Eliyahu Konen, Orly Goitein
BACKGROUND: Correct diagnosis of cardiac masses is a challenge in clinical practice. Accurate identification and differentiation between cardiac thrombi and tumors is crucial because prognosis and appropriate clinical management vary substantially. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic performances of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in differentiating between cardiac thrombi and tumors. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all CMR scans was performed to distinguish between cardiac thrombi and tumors during a 10 year period in a single academic referral center (2004-2013)...
August 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Corrado Angelini, Laura Giaretta, Roberta Marozzo
Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophies (LGMD) encompasses a clinically heterogeneous group of rare, genetic progressive muscle disorders presenting with weakness and atrophy of predominant pelvic and shoulder muscles. The spectrum of disease severity ranges from severe childhood-onset muscular dystrophy to adult-onset dystrophy. Areas covered: The review presents an update of the clinical phenotypes and diagnostic options for LGMD including both dominant and recessive LGMD and consider their differential clinical and histopathological features...
August 7, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Liang-Chye Goh, Ming-Hui Wan, Gopalan Shashi, Shashi Elangkumaran
Introduction: This study aims to report a rare case of a respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma (REAH) of the lateral nasal wall that had initially presented as a fungating mass, similar to that of a sinonasal malignancy, and its complete removal from the lateral nasal wall. Case Report: We report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented to us with a chief complaint of recurrent right-sided epistaxis and nasal blockage for the past 4 months, which was progressively worsening...
July 2018: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
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