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Diagnostic histopathology

Andrej Spec, Carlos Mejia-Chew, William G Powderly, Oliver A Cornely
Cryptococcocis is an opportunistic fungal infection with high morbidity and mortality. Guidelines to aid clinicians regarding diagnosis, management, and treatment can be extensive and challenging to comply with. There is no tool to measure guideline adherence. To create such a tool, we reviewed current guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the World Health Organization, the American Society of Transplantation, and recent significant publications to select the strongest recommendations as vital components of our scoring tool...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Seán Fitzgerald, Oana M Mereuta, Karen M Doyle, Daying Dai, Ramanathan Kadirvel, David F Kallmes, Waleed Brinjikji
Mechanical thrombectomy has become the stand of care for patients with large vessel occlusions, yet major improvements in thrombectomy speed, efficacy, and completeness can still be achieved. High rates of clot fragmentation and failure to remove the clot resulting in poor neurological outcomes suggest that in order to further advance the field of stroke intervention; we must turn our attention towards understanding the science of clot. Accurately identifying the composition of the occlusive clot prior to intervention could significantly influence the success of the revascularization strategy used to treat them...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Zhen Kang, Xiangde Min, Jeffrey Weinreb, Qiubai Li, Zhaoyan Feng, Liang Wang
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of abbreviated biparametric MRI (bpMRI) versus standard multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) for prostate cancer (PCa) using guided biopsy or prostatectomy histopathology results as the reference standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases was performed by two researchers independently and the relevant references were assessed...
December 4, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
C Longo, R Pampena, C Bombonato, S Gardini, S Piana, M Mirra, M Raucci, A Kyrgidis, G Pellacani, M Ragazzi
BACKGROUND: Frozen histological sections are currently used for intra-operative margin assessment during Mohs surgery. Fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) is a new tool, which offers a promising and faster alternative to frozen histology. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to prospectively evaluate in a clinical setting, the accuracy of FCM as compared to frozen sections in BCC's margin assessment. METHODS: Patients with BCC, scheduled for Mohs surgery were prospectively enrolled...
December 4, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Yousef Alshamali, Ahmad Al Taleb, Talal Al-Taweel
Benign lymphoid polyps are uncommon lesions of the small bowel and the colon to a lesser degree that are mostly found in children. There are only few reported cases in adults in which the lesions were predominantly polypoid and described as lymphonodular hyperplasia. We present a case of a large benign lymphoid polyp in the transverse colon of a 64-year-old lady who was referred to our care for a history of alteration in her bowel habit and anemia. Colonoscopy showed a 3 cm (Paris 1p) friable polyp which was excised and retrieved...
2018: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
Congcong Yu, Xiaotian Xia, Chunxia Qin, Xun Sun, Yongxue Zhang, Xiaoli Lan
Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) from 18 F-FDG PET/CT images in enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes of unknown etiology. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of patients with enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes on 18 F-FDG PET/CT scans. SUVmax and the short axis and long axis of lymph nodes were recorded. These parameters were compared among the five commonest causes of mediastinal lymphadenopathy: lymphoma, metastatic disease, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, and lymphadenitis...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Maciej Pronicki, Dorota Piekutowska-Abramczuk, Dariusz Rokicki, Katarzyna Iwanicka-Pronicka, Wiesława Grajkowska
Mitochondrial DNA depletion consisting of the systemic reduction of mtDNA copy number in cells may have a heterogenous genetic basis, resulting from a pathogenic change in the nuclear genes involved in mtDNA synthesis. The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive. Severe hepatocerebral disease represents one of many different clinical forms of so-called mitochondrial depletion syndrome (MDS). We present the liver histopathology of 13 children who eventually died in the course of hepatocerebral MDS confirmed molecularly, harbouring mutations of <i>DGUOK</i>, <i>MPV17</i>, and <i>POLG </i>genes...
2018: Polish Journal of Pathology: Official Journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
Sarah Ahmed Mohamed Mahmoud, Hatem Wael Amer, Sally Ibrahim Mohamed
Ameloblastic carcinoma (AC) is an extremely rare malignant odontogenic tumour arising from odontogenic epithelium. It was classified into primary type and secondary type. A previous study revealed that primary ameloblastic carcinoma cases were associated with more favourable prognosis than secondary cases. The aim of the present work was: to report the clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and ploidy status, and therapeutic details of four cases of primary AC, and to review the literature with regard to clinical, follow-up, prognosis, histopathological, and immunohistochemical information of primary AC...
2018: Polish Journal of Pathology: Official Journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
Ming-Dan Deng, Jun-Yang Han, Ke Lin, Hong Tang
RATIONALE: Cardiac inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare primary cardiac tumor which is currently considered as a low-grade neoplasm. The tumor has a predilection in infants and adolescents and primarily occurs as an endocardial-based cavitary mass. However, cardiac IMT that only involves the interventricular septum in middle-aged adults is extremely rarely reported. Considering its infrequency, we report a rare clinical case, with the aim of sharing our experience during the diagnostic procedures...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Pavel I Krzhivitskii, Sergey N Novikov, Sergey V Kanaev, Petr V Krivorotko, Nadegda S Popova, Antonina V Chernaya, Olga A Klitcenko
AIM: The aim of the present study was to determine the accuracy of single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) with technetium-99m-sestamibi (Tc-MIBI) for detecting multiple (>2 nodes) axillary lymph node involvement in patients with breast cancer (BC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 184 women with BC were examined. Clinically, axillary lymph nodes were classified as N0 in all cases. Patients underwent SPECT-CT breast and axillary region imaging 10-15 min after a 740 mBq intravenous injection of Tc-MIBI...
November 29, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Adriana N López-Ramírez, Lidia F Villegas-González, Mónica L Serrano-Arévalo, Lorena Flores-Hernández, Leonardo S Lino-Silva, Ludwig E González-Mena
Background: Our aim was to evaluate the application of the classification of the Papanicolaou Cytopathology Society for the report of biopsies by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of pancreas and bile duct. Methods: The FNAs obtained consecutively during 1 year were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were performed and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and cytohistological correlation were determined. The reference standard test was the histopathological study...
October 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Manoj Gupta, Partha Sarathi Choudhury, Sudhir Rawal, Harish Chandra Goel, Vineet Talwar, Amitabh Singh, Saroj Kumar Sahoo
Current imaging for prostate cancer (PCa) had limitations for risk stratification and staging. Magnetic resonance imaging frequently underestimated lymph node metastasis while bone scintigraphy often had diagnostic dilemmas. Prostatic-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) has been remarkable in PCa recurrence. Ninety-seven PSMA PET-CT scans were reanalyzed for tumor node metastases staging and risk stratification of lymph node and distant metastasis proportion...
October 2018: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Maftuhim Addenan, Choo May May, Teoh Kean Hooi, Fazliana Ismail, Tengku Ain Kamalden
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is rarely encountered in ophthalmology practice. It is a spectrum of disorder characterized by accumulation of histiocytes in various tissues. Diagnosis is challenging as it may simulate periorbital hematoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and neuroblastoma. We report a case of unifocal LCH with orbital extension. Diagnosis was obtained from incisional biopsy, and histopathological examination showed numerous histiocytes with eosinophilic infiltrations. The presence of Langerhans cells was confirmed by the presence of protein S-100, CD1a, and/or Langerin (CD207)...
September 2018: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
Paolo Orsaria, Agostino Chiaravalloti, Emanuele Caredda, Paola Valeria Marchese, Brisida Titka, Lucia Anemona, Ilaria Portarena, Orazio Schillaci, Giuseppe Petrella, Leonardo Palombi, Oreste Claudio Buonomo
BACKGROUND/AIM: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) has recently been used to investigate lymph node (LN) metastases and several predictive features in patients with breast cancer (BC). The aim of this study was to assess the value of this non-invasive imaging procedure for axillary staging. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty patients with early primary unilateral, locally advanced, or recurrent invasive operable BC were enrolled...
December 2018: Anticancer Research
David C Fajgenbaum
Castleman disease (CD) describes a heterogeneous group of hematologic disorders that share characteristic lymph node histopathology. Patients of all ages present with either a solitary enlarged lymph node (unicentric CD) or multicentric lymphadenopathy (MCD) with systemic inflammation, cytopenias, and life-threatening multiple organ dysfunction resulting from a cytokine storm often driven by interleukin 6 (IL-6). Uncontrolled human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection causes approximately 50% of MCD cases, whereas the etiology is unknown in the remaining HHV-8-negative/idiopathic MCD cases (iMCD)...
November 30, 2018: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
Hamzah Yasin, Hans-Joachim Hoff, Ingmar Blümcke, Matthias Simon
OBJECTIVE: Stereotactic biopsy is a standard procedure in neurosurgery. In addition to or even replacing frame-based stereotaxy some centers also utilize frameless imaging-based techniques and more recently robotic systems. Here we report a retrospective analysis of our experience with 102 consecutive biopsies performed in our institution using the neuromate® robotic device. METHODS: Between March 2013 and April 2018, 102 robot-assisted frameless biopsies were performed in 100 consecutive patients (median age/ range: 66/ 7-86 yrs...
November 27, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Jai Jai Shiva Shankar, Luke Hodgson, Namita Sinha
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hemangiopericytoma and meningioma appear similar on routine diagnostic imaging and hence are difficult to distinguish. The purpose of our study was to examine the diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) characteristics of these two types of tumours. METHODS: In a retrospective study, each patient with hemangiopericytoma was matched with two meningioma patients based on tumour location and size. Minimum and mean apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) were measured in the tumour and the contralateral normal-appearing white matter (NAWM)...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Carol R Reinero, L Ari Jutkowitz, Nathan Nelson, Isabelle Masseau, Samuel Jennings, Kurt Williams
BACKGROUND: Histologic features of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH) have been described in dogs but without a thorough clinical description. OBJECTIVES: To report the clinical features, diagnostics, treatment, and outcome of dogs with histologic evidence of PVOD and PCH. ANIMALS: Fifteen pet dogs meeting histopathologic criteria of PVOD (occlusive remodeling of small-sized to medium-sized pulmonary veins) or PCH (alveolar capillary proliferation and congestion), or both...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Morteza Esmaeili, Nassim Tayari, Tom Scheenen, Mattijs Elschot, Elise Sandsmark, Helena Bertilsson, Arend Heerschap, Kirsten M Selnæs, Tone F Bathen
Purpose: To investigate the associations of metabolite levels derived from magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and 18 F-fluciclovine positron emission tomography (PET) with prostate tissue characteristics. Methods: In a cohort of 19 high-risk prostate cancer patients that underwent simultaneous PET/MRI, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of MRSI and PET for discrimination of aggressive cancer lesions from healthy tissue and benign lesions. Data analysis comprised calculations of correlations of mean standardized uptake values (SUVmean ), maximum SUV (SUVmax ), and the MRSI-derived ratio of (total choline + spermine + creatine) to citrate (CSC/C)...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Faisal Inayat, Waqas Ullah, Hanan T Lodhi, Zarak H Khan, Ghulam Ilyas, Nouman Safdar Ali, Hafez Mohammad A Abdullah
Lafora disease is fatal intractable progressive myoclonic epilepsy. It is frequently characterized by epileptic seizures, difficulty walking, muscle spasms, and dementia in late childhood or adolescence. We chronicle here an unusual case of an asymptomatic young male soccer player who presented with elevated liver enzymes. Neurological examination was unremarkable. The diagnostic workup for hepatitis, infectious etiologies, autoimmune disorders, hemochromatosis, Wilson's disease, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, and other related diseases was inconclusive...
August 24, 2018: Curēus
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