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Latest medical technology

Patricia A Carney, George C Mejicano, Tracy Bumsted, Mark Quirk
BACKGROUND: Medical education is a dynamic process that will continuously evolve to respond to changes in the foundations of medicine, the clinical practice of medicine and in health systems science. PURPOSE: In this paper, we review how assessing learning in such a dynamic environment requires comprehensive flexible and adaptable methodological approaches designed to assess knowledge attainment and transfer, clinical skills/competency development, and ethical/professional behavior...
August 14, 2018: Medical Teacher
Peter Savadjiev, Jaron Chong, Anthony Dohan, Maria Vakalopoulou, Caroline Reinhold, Nikos Paragios, Benoit Gallix
The recent explosion of 'big data' has ushered in a new era of artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms in every sphere of technological activity, including medicine, and in particular radiology. However, the recent success of AI in certain flagship applications has, to some extent, masked decades-long advances in computational technology development for medical image analysis. In this article, we provide an overview of the history of AI methods for radiological image analysis in order to provide a context for the latest developments...
August 13, 2018: European Radiology
Zeena Al Dujaili, Cheryl Karcher, Michelle Henry, Neil Sadick
The advances in understanding the pathophysiology and anatomy of adipose tissue together with the emergence of technological innovations in procedures and devices for fat reduction have led to a dramatic rise in patient demand for this procedure. The objective of this continuing medical education series, which is intended for the novice or experienced dermatologist, is to provide an update of the pathophysiology and anatomic considerations of adipose tissue, and detail the liposuction procedure, from patient selection/management to the latest developments in liposuction devices...
August 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Angela Builes-Aguilar, Jose L Diaz-Gomez, Federico Bilotta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We summarize the latest evidence in neuroanesthesia and neurocritical care (NCC) training. In addition, we describe the newer advancements that clinical educators face in these subspecialties. Lastly, we highlight educational approaches that may lead to an enhanced learning experience and development of necessary skills for neurosciences trainees. RECENT FINDINGS: Current neuroanesthesia and NCC training requires acquisition of specific skills for increasing complex surgical cases, specialized neurosurgical practice and new perioperative technologies...
July 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Kamarul A Abdullah, Warren Reed
Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has demonstrated a huge potential for the future of medicine. Since its introduction, it has been used in various areas, for example building anatomical models, personalising medical devices and implants, aiding in precision medical interventions and the latest development, 3D bioprinting. This commentary is provided to outline the current use of 3D printing in medical imaging and its future directions for advancing the healthcare services.
July 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Min Wu, Jian Shu
Molecular imaging has emerged at the end of the last century as an interdisciplinary method involving in vivo imaging and molecular biology aiming at identifying living biological processes at a cellular and molecular level in a noninvasive manner. It has a profound role in determining disease changes and facilitating drug research and development, thus creating new medical modalities to monitor human health. At present, a variety of different molecular imaging techniques have their advantages, disadvantages, and limitations...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Janice Gabriel
Subcutaneous administration of medications is a well-recognised route for delivering prescribed therapies, in particular analgesia for patients requiring palliative care. Technological advancements in infusion devices and dressings can result in well-tolerated and effective methods for continuous infusions for this group of individuals. This article discusses how technological developments are resulting in subcutaneous access devices that are easy to insert and can meet the needs of a growing patient population, as well as complying with the latest guidelines on sharps safety...
June 2, 2018: International Journal of Palliative Nursing
Anubhav Bussooa, Steven Neale, John R Mercer
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in Western society. Recent technological advances have opened the opportunity of developing new and innovative smart stent devices that have advanced electrical properties that can improve diagnosis and even treatment of previously intractable conditions, such as central line access failure, atherosclerosis and reporting on vascular grafts for renal dialysis. Here we review the latest advances in the field of cardiovascular medical implants, providing a broad overview of the application of their use in the context of cardiovascular disease rather than an in-depth analysis of the current state of the art...
June 22, 2018: Sensors
Enrico M Marone, Ferdinando Auricchio, Stefania Marconi, Michele Conti, Luigi F Rinaldi, Andrea Pietrabissa, Angelo Argenteri
BACKGROUND: The treatment of complex aortic diseases has known in the last years an extraordinary improvement, thanks to the development of new devices and techniques, especially concerning endovascular surgery. In this field, technological evolution has enabled vascular surgeons to overcome anatomical concerns and impairments that in the past made endovascular treatment unfeasible in many cases. However, the full exploitation of the devices offered by medical industry requires more and more powerful and accurate tools for case-by-case analysis and pre- operative planning...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Jermana L Moraes, Matheus X Rocha, Glauber G Vasconcelos, José E Vasconcelos Filho, Victor Hugo C de Albuquerque, Auzuir R Alexandria
Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is an important tool for the analysis of a patient’s physiological conditions, as well a method aiding the diagnosis of cardiopathies. Photoplethysmography (PPG) is an optical technique applied in the monitoring of the HRV and its adoption has been growing significantly, compared to the most commonly used method in medicine, Electrocardiography (ECG). In this survey, definitions of these technique are presented, the different types of sensors used are explained, and the methods for the study and analysis of the PPG signal (linear and nonlinear methods) are described...
June 9, 2018: Sensors
W Thomlinson, H Elleaume, L Porra, P Suortti
High contrast in X-ray medical imaging, while maintaining acceptable radiation dose levels to the patient, has long been a goal. One of the most promising methods is that of K-edge subtraction imaging. This technique, first advanced as long ago as 1953 by B. Jacobson, uses the large difference in the absorption coefficient of elements at energies above and below the K-edge. Two images, one taken above the edge and one below the edge, are subtracted leaving, ideally, only the image of the distribution of the target element...
May 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Ivan Contreras, Josep Vehi
BACKGROUND: Artificial intelligence methods in combination with the latest technologies, including medical devices, mobile computing, and sensor technologies, have the potential to enable the creation and delivery of better management services to deal with chronic diseases. One of the most lethal and prevalent chronic diseases is diabetes mellitus, which is characterized by dysfunction of glucose homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to review recent efforts to use artificial intelligence techniques to assist in the management of diabetes, along with the associated challenges...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
S Bockel, A Vallard, A Lévy, S François, M Bourdis, C Le Gallic, D Riccobono, P Annede, M Drouet, Y Tao, P Blanchard, É Deutsch, N Magné, C Chargari
Radiation-induced mucositis is a common toxicity, especially in patients with head and neck cancers. Despite recent technological advances in radiation therapy, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy, radiation-induced mucositis is still causing treatment disruptions, negatively affecting patients' long and short term quality of life, and impacting medical resources use with economic consequences. The objective of this article was to review the latest updates in the management of radiation-induced mucositis, with a focus on pharmaceutical strategies for the prevention or treatment of mucositis...
May 25, 2018: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Yi-Bin Zhang, Yan-Peng Wang, Jing Liu
Aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA which are isolated from synthesized random oligonucleotide library in vitro via systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) and can bind to metal ions, small molecules, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and others targets with high affinity and specificity. Aptamers have the advantages of simple preparation, good thermal stability, and low immunogenicity and have great potential in the medical fields such as molecular imaging, biosensing, early diagnosis of diseases, and targeted therapy...
May 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Paula R Pullen, William S Seffens, Walter R Thompson
Background: Complementary and alternative medicine is a rapidly growing area of biomedical inquiry. Yoga has emerged in the forefront of holistic medical care due to its long history of linking physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. Research in yoga therapy (YT) has associated improved cardiovascular and quality of life (QoL) outcomes for the special needs of heart failure (HF) patients. Aim: The aim of this study is to review yoga intervention studies on HF patients, discuss proposed mechanisms, and examine yoga's effect on physiological systems that have potential benefits for HF patients...
May 2018: International Journal of Yoga
Sumit Punj, Yassmine Akkari, Jennifer Huang, Fei Yang, Allison Creason, Christine Pak, Amiee Potter, Michael O Dorschner, Deborah A Nickerson, Peggy D Robertson, Gail P Jarvik, Laura M Amendola, Jennifer Schleit, Dana Kostiner Simpson, Alan F Rope, Jacob Reiss, Tia Kauffman, Marian J Gilmore, Patricia Himes, Benjamin Wilfond, Katrina A B Goddard, C Sue Richards
Advances in sequencing technologies permit the analysis of a larger selection of genes for preconception carrier screening. The study was designed as a sequential carrier screen using genome sequencing to analyze 728 gene-disorder pairs for carrier and medically actionable conditions in 131 women and their partners (n = 71) who were planning a pregnancy. We report here on the clinical laboratory results from this expanded carrier screening program. Variants were filtered and classified using the latest American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guideline; only pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants were confirmed by orthologous methods before being reported...
June 7, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Ming Huang, Omar ElTayeby, Maryam Zolnoori, Lixia Yao
BACKGROUND: Society always has limited resources to expend on health care, or anything else. What are the unmet medical needs? How do we allocate limited resources to maximize the health and welfare of the people? These challenging questions might be re-examined systematically within an infodemiological frame on a much larger scale, leveraging the latest advancement in information technology and data science. OBJECTIVE: We expanded our previous work by investigating news media data to reveal the coverage of different diseases and medical conditions, together with their sentiments and topics in news articles over three decades...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Muhammad Rizwan Yaseen, Qamar Ali, Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan
The road traffic accidents were responsible for material and human loss which was equal to 2.8 to 5% of gross national product (GNP). However, literature does not explore the elasticity coefficients and nexus of road traffic fatalities with foreign direct investment, health expenditures, trade openness, mobile subscriptions, the number of researchers in R&D department, and environmental particulate matter. This study filled this research gap by exploring the nexus between road traffic fatalities, foreign direct investment, health expenditures, trade openness, mobile subscriptions, the number of researchers, and environmental particulate matter in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries by using panel data from 1995 to 2015...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sukhbir Singh, Carolyn Best, Sheila Dunn, Nicholas Leyland, Wendy Lynn Wolfman
BACKGROUND: Abnormal uterine bleeding is the direct cause of a significant health care burden for women, their families, and society as a whole. Up to 30% of women will seek medical assistance for this problem during their reproductive years. This guideline replaces previous clinical guidelines on the topic and is aimed to enable health care providers with the tools to provide the latest evidence-based care in the diagnosis and the medical and surgical management of this common problem...
May 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Swati Rao, Belinda Jim
Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (Pr-AKI) remains a large public health problem, with decreasing incidences in developing countries but seemingly increasing incidences in the United States and Canada. These epidemiologic changes are reflective of the advances in medical and obstetric care, as well as changes in underlying maternal risk factors. The risk factors associated with advanced maternal age, such as hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and those associated with reproductive technologies such as multiple gestations, are increasing...
March 2018: KI Reports
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