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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335783/combining-multi-omics-information-to-identify-key-regulator-genes-for-pleiotropic-effect-on-fertility-and-production-traits-in-beef-cattle
#1
Pablo Augusto de Souza Fonseca, Samir Id-Lahoucine, Antonio Reverter, Juan F Medrano, Marina S Fortes, Joaquim Casellas, Filippo Miglior, Luiz Brito, Maria Raquel S Carvalho, Flávio S Schenkel, Loan T Nguyen, Laercio R Porto-Neto, Milton G Thomas, Angela Cánovas
The identification of biological processes related to the regulation of complex traits is a difficult task. Commonly, complex traits are regulated through a multitude of genes contributing each to a small part of the total genetic variance. Additionally, some loci can simultaneously regulate several complex traits, a phenomenon defined as pleiotropy. The lack of understanding on the biological processes responsible for the regulation of these traits results in the decrease of selection efficiency and the selection of undesirable hitchhiking effects...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333069/a-parsimonious-software-sensor-for-estimating-the-individual-dynamic-pattern-of-methane-emissions-from-cattle
#2
R Muñoz-Tamayo, J F Ramírez Agudelo, R J Dewhurst, G Miller, T Vernon, H Kettle
Large efforts have been deployed in developing methods to estimate methane emissions from cattle. For large scale applications, accurate and inexpensive methane predictors are required. Within a livestock precision farming context, the objective of this work was to integrate real-time data on animal feeding behaviour with an in silico model for predicting the individual dynamic pattern of methane emission in cattle. The integration of real-time data with a mathematical model to predict variables that are not directly measured constitutes a software sensor...
October 18, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329014/landscape-of-multi-tissue-global-gene-expression-reveals-the-regulatory-signatures-of-feed-efficiency-in-beef-cattle
#3
Hui-Zeng Sun, Ke Zhao, Mi Zhou, Yanhong Chen, Le Luo Guan
Motivation: Feed efficiency is an important trait for sustainable beef production that is regulated by the complex biological process, but the mode of action behinds it has not been clearly defined. Here, we aimed to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of this trait through studying the landscape of the genome-wide gene expression of rumen, liver, muscle, and backfat tissues, the key ones involved in the energy metabolism. Results: The transcriptome of 189 samples across four tissues from 48 beef steers with varied feed efficiency were generated using Illumina HiSeq4000...
October 17, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318031/generation-and-distribution-of-productivity-gains-in-beef-cattle-farming-who-are-the-winners-and-losers-between-1980-and-2015
#4
P Veysset, M Lherm, J P Boussemart, P Natier
Surplus accounting is a method for evaluating trends in how a firm's productivity factors (intermediate inputs, capital, land, labour) are performing and how the productivity gains are redistributed between agents in the economy. Here the surplus accounting method was applied on a database of 164 Charolais-area suckler cattle farms running from 1980 to 2015. Over this 36-year period - with differences per sub-period - the cumulative productivity surplus (PS) increased at a low rate of +0.17%/year (i.e. cumulative volume of outputs produced increased slightly more than cumulative volume of inputs used)...
October 15, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317067/post-transfer-outcomes-in-cultured-bovine-embryos-supplemented-with-epidermal-growth-factor-fibroblast-growth-factor-2-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-1
#5
McCauley T Vailes, Sarah R McCoski, Lydia K Wooldridge, Sydney T Reese, Ky G Pohler, David A Roper, Vitor R Mercadante, Alan D Ealy
This work examined the downstream fetal and placental outcomes of introducing a cocktail of uterine-derived growth factors during bovine embryo culture. Abattoir-derived bovine oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro. On day 4 post-fertilization, ≥ 8-cell embryos were harvested, pooled and exposed to an embryokine mix, termed EFI, which contained recombinant human epidermal growth factor (10 ng/ml), bovine fibroblast growth factor-2 (10 ng/ml) and human insulin-like growth factor 1 (50 ng/ml) or to a carrier-only control treatment (CON)...
September 24, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312424/genetic-parameters-of-longevity-for-improving-profitability-of-beef-cattle
#6
Michaela Brzáková, Alena Svitáková, Jindrich Cítek, Zdenka Veselá, Lubos Vostrý
The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for longevity and assess the suitability of using these selection criteria to improve the genetic merit of the beef cattle population of the Czech Republic. The performance record database, which contains records of 363,000 beef cattle animals of 19 breeds and their crosses, was used. The populations of Charolais and Aberdeen Angus were large enough that the genetic parameter estimations and all analyses were done for these breeds separately. Two similar approaches of longevity definition based on probabilities were considered as follows: productive longevity (PL), which is the number of calvings at target ages of 78, 90, 150, and 160 mo, and longevity (L), which is based on the probabilities of cow reappearance in the next parity...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30302586/economic-viability-of-anthelmintic-treatment-in-naturally-infected-beef-cattle-under-different-nutritional-strategies-after-weaning
#7
Fernanda Ramos, Camila Balconi Marques, Caroline Zamperete Reginato, Fernando de Souza Rodrigues, Luis Antônio Sangioni, Fernanda Silveira Flôres Vogel, Luciana Pötter
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with different anthelmintic compounds on the productivity of naturally infected calves and the economic viability of these treatments within extensive breeding systems employing different nutritional strategies after weaning. For this purpose, 4 farms with 42-60 calves naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were selected. The calves were distributed into 6 groups (7-10 animals each) per farm and treated with ivermectin 1%, ivermectin 3...
October 9, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300792/effect-of-chitosan-and-bacteriocin-producing-carnobacterium-maltaromaticum-on-survival-of-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-typhimurium-on-beef
#8
Zi Yi Hu, Danielle Balay, Ying Hu, Lynn M McMullen, Michael G Gänzle
The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of chitosan and bacteriocins against Escherichia coli and Salmonella in media and in lean beef. The inhibitory effects of chitosan and bacteriocins against E. coli AW1.7 and S. enterica Typhimurium in media were determined by a critical dilution assay. The efficacy a bacteriocin-producing strain of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum and high molecular weight chitosan (HMWC) in inactivation of E. coli AW1.7 and S. Typhimurium was evaluated on beef. Current interventions applied in the beef industry, steaming coupled with lactic acid, were used as reference...
October 4, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300666/virulence-genes-and-genetic-diversity-assessment-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o91-strains-from-cattle-and-beef-and-poultry-products
#9
Luciana Belén Hernandez, Jimena Soledad Cadona, Martín Christensen, Daniel Fernández, Nora Lía Padola, Ana Victoria Bustamante, Andrea Mariel Sanso
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O91 has ranked in the top five of the non-O157 serogroups most frequently associated with human cases. In order to gain insight into the genetic diversity of O91 Latin American STEC strains, we analyzed their virulence properties and carried out a subtyping assay. A panel of 21 virulence genetic markers associated with human and animal infections was evaluated and the relatedness among strains was determined by an multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) comprising 9 VNTR loci...
October 6, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30282909/-i-feel-sorry-for-them-australian-meat-consumers-perceptions-about-sheep-and-beef-cattle-transportation
#10
Emily A Buddle, Heather J Bray, Rachel A Ankeny
Concern for livestock welfare is significantly increasing in many parts of the world. One area of concern is the transportation of livestock. Using qualitative research methods, this research explores the concerns of Australian meat consumers related to livestock transportation practices, both on land by truck and on sea by ship. Participants were predominantly concerned about animals being "crammed" into trucks and ships, and the long distances over which livestock were transported. Likely contributors to these reactions are the high visibility of truck transport in urban areas, and recent media and political attention to the live-export issue in Australia...
October 3, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30282905/effects-of-short-transport-and-prolonged-fasting-in-beef-calves
#11
Viviana Bravo, Carmen Gallo, Gerardo Acosta-Jamett
Marketing is a stressful process for beef calves, because they are removed from their environment, often weaned just before loading, loaded, transported, and unloaded. It also involves extended periods without food and water and mixing with unfamiliar animals in an unknown environment. Some studies have shown that calves sold through markets are exposed to extended fasting periods even when they undergo only short transportation times. The aim of this controlled study was to determine the consequences for beef calves of a short transportation time followed by a prolonged time without food and water on their tympanic temperature (TT), maximum eye temperature (MET), blood variables related to stress, and live weight...
October 3, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30279395/meat-meat-products-and-seafood-as-sources-of-energy-and-nutrients-in-the-average-polish-diet
#12
Wacław Laskowski, Hanna Górska-Warsewicz, Olena Kulykovets
The aim of this study was to identify the share of meat, meat products and seafood in the contribution of energy and 22 nutrients to the average Polish diet. Data from the nationally representative sample of Polish population (2016 Household Budget Survey) on meat and seafood product consumption from 38,886 households ( n = 99,230) were calculated into one person per month. The analyses were conducted for seven food groups (e.g., red meat, poultry) and 16 products (e.g., beef, chicken). Approximately 18.5% of energy is delivered from the sources such as meat, meat products and seafood, providing a higher percentage of 18 nutrients to the diet (e...
October 2, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30277811/the-antimicrobial-effect-of-a-commercial-mixture-of-natural-antimicrobials-against-escherichia-coli-o157-h7
#13
Alexandros Ch Stratakos, Mark Linton, Patrick Ward, Mairead Campbell, Carmel Kelly, Laurette Pinkerton, Lavinia Stef, Ioan Pet, Ducu Stef, Tiberiu Iancu, Katerina Theodoridou, Ozan Gundogdu, Nicolae Corcionivoschi
Ruminants are important reservoirs of E. coli O157:H7 and are considered as the major source of most foodborne outbreaks (e.g., 2017 outbreak in Germany, 2014 and 2016 outbreaks in United States, all linked to beef products). A promising strategy to reduce E. coli O157 is using antimicrobials to reduce the pathogen levels and/or virulence within the animal gastrointestinal tract and thus foodborne disease. The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of a commercial mixture of natural antimicrobials against E...
October 2, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30275909/complete-genome-sequence-of-kocuria-rhizophila-bt304-isolated-from-the-small-intestine-of-castrated-beef-cattle
#14
Tae Woong Whon, Hyun Sik Kim, Jin-Woo Bae
Background: Members of the species Kocuria rhizophila , belonging to the family Micrococcaceae in the phylum Actinobacteria , have been isolated from a wide variety of natural sources, such as soil, freshwater, fish gut, and clinical specimens. K . rhizophila is important from an industrial viewpoint, because the bacterium grows rapidly with high cell density and exhibits robustness at various growth conditions. However, the bacterium is an opportunistic pathogen involved in human infections...
2018: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30275350/the-consumption-of-beef-burgers-prepared-with-wine-grape-pomace-flour-improves-fasting-glucose-plasma-antioxidant-levels-and-oxidative-damage-markers-in-humans-a-controlled-trial
#15
Inés Urquiaga, Danitza Troncoso, Maria José Mackenna, Catalina Urzúa, Druso Pérez, Sara Dicenta, Paula María de la Cerda, Ludwig Amigo, Juan Carlos Carreño, Guadalupe Echeverría, Attilio Rigotti
Wine grape pomace flour (WGPF) is a fruit byproduct that is high in fiber and antioxidants. We tested whether WGPF consumption could affect blood biochemical parameters, including oxidative stress biomarkers. In a three-month intervention study, 27 male volunteers, each with some components of metabolic syndrome, consumed a beef burger supplemented with 7% WGPF containing 3.5% of fiber and 1.2 mg gallic equivalents (GE)/g of polyphenols (WGPF-burger), daily, during the first month. The volunteers consumed no burgers in the second month, and one control-burger daily in the third month...
October 1, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30267128/application-of-bacteriophages-in-simultaneously-controlling-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli
#16
Hoang Minh Son, Hoang Minh Duc, Yoshimitsu Masuda, Ken-Ichi Honjoh, Takahisa Miyamoto
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli (ESBLEC) are important bacteria of public health concern and frequently isolated from raw beef products. Bacteriophage-based methods have been increasingly exploited to control bacterial contamination in meats. Here, we describe the isolation, characterization, and application of a lytic phage PE37 for the simultaneous bio-control of STEC O157:H7 and ESBLEC. Phage PE37, isolated from the bovine intestine, was morphologically characterized as a member of the Myoviridae family, with a broad host range and great stability under various stress conditions...
September 29, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30265318/genome-wide-association-study-and-prediction-of-genomic-breeding-values-for-fatty-acid-composition-in-korean-hanwoo-cattle-using-a-high-density-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-array
#17
Mohammad S A Bhuiyan, Yeong Kuk Kim, Hyun Joo Kim, Doo Ho Lee, Soo Hyun Lee, Ho Baek Yoon, Seung Hwan Lee
Genomic selection using high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers is used in dairy and beef cattle breeds to accurately estimate genomic breeding values and accelerate genetic improvement by enabling selection of animals with high genetic merit. This genome-wide association study (GWAS) aimed to identify genetic variants associated with beef fatty-acid composition (FAC) traits and to evaluate the accuracy of genomic predictions (GPs) for those traits using genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), pedigree BLUP (PBLUP), and BayesR models...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30263778/production-of-omega-3-6-and-9-fatty-acids-from-hydrolysis-of-vegetable-oils-and-animal-fat-with-colletotrichum-gloeosporioides-lipase
#18
Denise Sande, Gecernir Colen, Gabriel Franco Dos Santos, Vany Perpétua Ferraz, Jacqueline Aparecida Takahashi
Hydrolysis of vegetable oils (Olive, corn, peanut, sesame, flaxseed, soy, canola, garlic, sunflower, almond, castor bean oils) and beef marrow bone oil by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides lipase was studied. The enzyme was capable of generating free fatty acids from all oils tested. The higher hydrolytic activity of the enzyme was towards olive (18.0 IU) and soybean (17.8 IU) oils. The average percentage of essential fatty acids generated from hydrolysis of the oils was 32.92% of omega 9 (as oleic acid C18:1), 26...
April 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30250736/residual-feed-intake-phenotype-and-gender-affect-the-expression-of-key-genes-of-the-lipogenesis-pathway-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-of-beef-cattle
#19
McKenna Clare, Porter Richard, Keogh Kate, Waters Sinead, McGee Mark, Kenny David
Background: Feed accounts for up to 75% of costs in beef production systems, thus any improvement in feed efficiency (FE) will benefit the profitability of this enterprise. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of FE that is independent of level of production. Adipose tissue (AT) is a major endocrine organ and the primary metabolic energy reservoir. It modulates a variety of processes related to FE such as lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis and thus measures of inter-animal variation in adiposity are frequently included in the calculation of the RFI index...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30250203/gwas-and-eqtl-analysis-identifies-a-snp-associated-with-both-residual-feed-intake-and-gfra2-expression-in-beef-cattle
#20
Marc G Higgins, Claire Fitzsimons, Matthew C McClure, Clare McKenna, Stephen Conroy, David A Kenny, Mark McGee, Sinéad M Waters, Derek W Morris
Residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, is an important economic and environmental trait in beef production. Selection of low RFI (feed efficient) cattle could maintain levels of production, while decreasing feed costs and methane emissions. However, RFI is a difficult and expensive trait to measure. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with RFI may enable rapid, cost effective genomic selection of feed efficient cattle. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were conducted in multiple breeds followed by meta-analysis to identify genetic variants associated with RFI and component traits (average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (FI)) in Irish beef cattle (n = 1492)...
September 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
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