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beef production

Yue Wang, Xinrong Li, Jinfeng Yang, Zhuang Tian, Qinping Sun, Wentao Xue, Hongmin Dong
Beef cattle production systems are the largest contributors of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH3 ) emissions in the livestock industry. Here, we present the first meta-analysis and integrated assessment of gaseous emissions and mitigation potentials for a typical beef cattle feedlot system, including methane (CH4 ), nitrous oxide (N2 O), and NH3 losses from enteric fermentation and manure management based on data from 104 studies. Fourteen integrated emission factors (EF) and the mitigation efficiencies (ME) of 17 available options were provided...
August 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Mounir Adnane, Kieran G Meade, Cliona O'Farrelly
Cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM), the product of epithelial cells lining the uterus, cervix and vagina, is secreted to facilitate uterine lubrication and microbial clearance. Predominantly composed of water and mucins, CVM also contains high levels of immuno-active proteins such as immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin and lysozyme which protect against infection by blocking adhesion and mediating microbial killing. The repertoire of cytokines, chemokines and antimicrobial peptides is predominantly generated by the secretions of endometrial epithelial cells into the uterine lumen and concentrated in the CVM...
August 16, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Henrique Barbosa Hooper, Cristiane Gonçalves Titto, Angela Maria Gonella-Diaza, Fábio Luís Henrique, Lina Fernanda Pulido-Rodríguez, Ana Luisa Silva Longo, Thays Mayra da Cunha Leme-Dos-Santos, Ana Carina Alves Pereira de Mira Geraldo, Alfredo Manuel Franco Pereira, Mario Binelli, Júlio Cesar de Carvalho Balieiro, Evaldo Antonio Lencioni Titto
Adaptation is a relevant characteristic to be understood in livestock animals in order to maintain and raise productivity. In Brazil, the Nellore beef cattle are widely disseminated and well-adapted breed that present good thermoregulatory characteristics for tropical environment conditions. Conversely, the physiological and cellular mechanisms required for thermoregulation and thermotolerance in this breed are still limited. The aim of this study was to comprehend the heat loss efficiency at the whole animal level and heat shock response at the cellular level of Nellore cows in tropical climate conditions...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
A Lahuerta-Marin, M G Milne, J McNair, R A Skuce, S H McBride, F D Menzies, S J W McDowell, A W Byrne, I G Handel, B M de C Bronsvoort
In the European Union, the recommended ante-mortem diagnostic methods for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) include the single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin (SICCT) test and the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) test as an ancillary test. The SICCT test has a moderate sensitivity (Se) and high specificity (Sp), while the IFN-γ test has good Se, but a lower Sp than the SICCT test. A retrospective Bayesian latent class analysis was conducted on 71,185 cattle from 806 herds chronically infected with bTB distributed across Northern Ireland (NI) to estimate the Se and Sp of the common ante-mortem tests and meat inspection...
August 2018: Veterinary Journal
Yuta Sonoda, Kazato Oishi, Yosuke Chomei, Hiroyuki Hirooka
Animal welfare and environmental impacts have been emphasized in the sustainable production of livestock. Labels are useful tools for clearly providing such attribute information to consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate how human values influence consumer segments for beef with information on animal welfare and environmentally friendly production. Using a choice experiment, we examined whether animal welfare and environmentally friendly labels, country of origin and price impact consumer choice. As results, five heterogeneous consumer classes were identified using a latent class model: label conscious, domestic beef preferring, price conscious, animal welfare preferring and not interested in production method...
July 24, 2018: Meat Science
Tae Sun Kang, Takuji Tanaka
Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a modern technique that has been widely used for the detection of species used in meat products. For obtaining accurate and reliable qPCR results, we assessed two common DNA quantification methods for isolated DNA and five quantification approaches for qPCR products. DNA dilution based on spectrofluorometric results showed better qPCR results than those based on spectrophotometry in terms of linear correlation, amplification efficiency, and linear dynamic range. Binary pork-beef mixtures were used to construct standard curves of SYBR Green-based qPCR products using five quantification approaches, and they were validated and compared using in-house pork models...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
A S Cooke, K A Watt, E R Morgan, J A J Dungait
Antibodies at gastrointestinal mucosal membranes play a vital role in immunological protection against a range of pathogens, including helminths. Gastrointestinal health is central to efficient livestock production, and such infections cause significant losses. Fecal samples were taken from 114 cattle, across three beef farms, with matched blood samples taken from 22 of those animals. To achieve fecal antibody detection, a novel fecal supernatant was extracted. Fecal supernatant and serum samples were then analysed, using adapted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocols, for levels of total immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgG, IgM, and Teladorsagia circumcincta-specific IgA, IgG, IgM and IgE (in the absence of reagents for cattle-specific nematode species)...
August 8, 2018: Parasitology
C A Old, H A Rossow, I J Lean, T R Famula
Models of energy utilization used in livestock production predict input:output relationships well, for all the wrong reasons. Predictive accuracy in such models is not due to fidelity to biochemistry and laws of thermodynamics, but because they were developed to predict accurately, often with little regard to biochemical consistency. Relatively static linear statistical models limit thermodynamically relevant descriptions of energy utilization, especially maintenance, in growing beef cattle and are inadequate research tools, in either ordinary least squares (OLS) or Bayesian frameworks...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
A Espadamala, R Pereira, P Pallarés, A Lago, N Silva-Del-Río
Minimizing the risk of antimicrobial-resistant organisms and antimicrobial residues in dairy and dairy beef products is a topic of nationwide interest. To design an effective outreach program on judicious use of antimicrobials, it is imperative to describe actual practices on dairies. Thus, our objective was to report current practices for metritis treatment in 45 dairies in California. Data were collected using a survey tool that included questions on systemic antimicrobial treatments, intrauterine treatments, supportive treatments, and treatment records...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Takashi Hanagasaki, Naokazu Asato
Background: A mold strain thought to be suitable for dry-aging process was isolated. The information about the scientific aspects of molds related to dry-aging beef is scarce. We, therefore, conducted aging trials to determine the characteristics of the isolated mold strain associated with dry-aging process. Specifically, during the dry-aging of beef with the mold strain, the changes in the free amino acid content, hardness, productive loss, drip and cooking loss were analyzed. These characteristics were compared with those obtained while dry-aging in the absence of a mold...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
L N F Aslinah, M Mat Yusoff, M R Ismail-Fitry
Adzuki bean is high in protein and fiber with a potential to be used as meat extender and fat replacer in the meat product. Replacement of both the corn flour and fat with different percentages of adzuki beans flour (ABF) has successfully produced acceptable reduced fat meatballs. Meatballs with 100% (w/w) ABF replacement exhibited highest cooking yield and higher moisture content compared to meatballs without the flour, which indicates its ability to bind water. Increasing the ABF content also increased the hardness and chewiness of the meatballs, whilst decreasing their lightness and yellowness...
August 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Yizhao Shen, Hongrong Wang, Tao Ran, Ilkyu Yoon, Atef Mohamed Saleem, Wenzhu Yang
The study objective was to investigate the effects of site of delivering Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) on ruminal pH and fermentation characteristics, and the site and extent of feed digestion in the digestive tract of beef heifers fed high-grain diets. Examining the ruminal and postruminal effects of SCFP is important for understanding the potential use of SCFP as an alternative for current industry-standard antibiotics used in beef cattle rations. Five beef heifers (initial BW = 561 ± 11...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
P F Arthur, T Bird-Gardiner, I M Barchia, K A Donoghue, R M Herd
Angus cattle from two beef cattle projects on which carbon dioxide production rate (CPR) was measured were used in this study to examine the relationships among BW, DMI and carbon dioxide traits of beef cattle fed ad libitum on a roughage diet or a grain-based feedlot diet, and to evaluate potential proxies for DMI and feed efficiency. In both projects the GreenFeed Emission Monitoring (GEM) system, which provides multiple short-term breath measures of carbon dioxide production, was used as a tool to measure CPR...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Anna Haug, Stine Gregersen Vhile, Jan Berg, Knut Hove, Bjørg Egelandsdal
Supplementation of feed for bulls with selenium (+50%), vitamin D3 (+300%), vitamin E (+825%), vitamin K3 (+325%) and omega-3 fatty acids (+120%) affected beef nutrient composition. Twelve bulls (½ year old) were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments; control (Con) or supplemented (Sup), and fed 170 days pre-slaughter at an amount of 1% of body weight. Daily gain and feed efficiency were equal in the two groups. Homogenate meat from left forequarter in the Sup group contained more selenium (+26%), vitamin MK4 (+123%), D (+197%), E (+318%), and had lower omega-6/omega-3 ratio (-24%) compared to Con meat...
November 2018: Meat Science
Vignesh Rathinasamy, Chris Hosking, Lily Tran, Jane Kelley, Genevieve Williamson, Jaclyn Swan, Timothy Elliott, Grant Rawlin, Travis Beddoe, Terry W Spithill
Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) infection is an increasing threat to livestock production resulting in serious economic losses to the beef, dairy and sheep industries in Australia and globally. Triclabendazole (TCBZ) is the main drug used to control liver fluke infections in Australia and the widespread emergence of TCBZ resistance in cattle and sheep threatens liver fluke control. Alternative control measures to lower exposure of livestock to fluke infection would be useful to help preserve the usefulness of current chemical flukicides...
August 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Min Yu Piao, Hyun Jung Lee, Hae In Yong, Hyun Jin Kim, Cheorun Jo, Komang Gede Wiryawan, Myunggi Baik
Objective: This study was performed to compare intramuscular fat (IMF) and reducing sugar contents, sensory traits, and fatty acid (FA) and volatile compound profiles in longissimus thoracis (LT) among Korean cattle (KC), Holstein (HO), and Angus (AN) steers. Methods: Twelve LT samples (about 500 g each) of KC with an average age of 31 ± 0.42 months, an average carcass weight of 431 ± 12.5 kg, and a quality grade (QG) of 1+ were obtained from the joint livestock products market...
July 26, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
J Dijkstra, A Bannink, J France, E Kebreab, S van Gastelen
3-Nitrooxypropanol (NOP) is a promising methane (CH4 ) inhibitor. Recent studies have shown major reductions in CH4 emissions from beef and dairy cattle when using NOP but with large variation in response. The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the factors that explain heterogeneity in response to NOP using meta-analytical approaches. Data from 11 experiments and 38 treatment means were used. Factors considered were cattle type (dairy or beef), measurement technique (GreenFeed technique, C-Lock Inc...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
K Gardner, J F Legako
This study aimed to determine how quality grade and degree of doneness (DOD) influence the development of volatile compounds among beef whole muscle and ground patties. Volatile compounds were quantified via head space solid phase microextraction from samples tempered in refrigerated temperatures (3-5°C), room temperature (24-26°C), or cooked on an electric clamshell-style grill to an endpoint temperature of 55, 60, 71, or 77°C. Collected samples were subsequently determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
J W Buchanan, M D MacNeil, R C Raymond, A R Nilles, A L Van Eenennaam
The objective of this study was to estimate economic returns and costs associated with four scenarios of genetic evaluation that combine genotypes, phenotypes, and pedigree information from a vertically-integrated purebred (PB) and commercial (CM) beef cattle system. Inference was to a genetic evaluation for a production system producing Charolais terminal sires for 10,000 CM cows. The first genetic evaluation scenario, denoted PB_A, modeled a genetic evaluation in which pedigree information and phenotypes are available for PB seedstock animals...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
S Flowers, H Hamblen, J D Leal-Gutiérrez, M A Elzo, D D Johnson, R G Mateescu
Consumers demand meat that is both healthy and palatable, two attributes of meat that are affected by lipid content. Many cattle in the southern US are Bos indicus influenced, as this improves the ability to survive and thrive in these subtropical regions. However, these animals tend to have leaner carcasses and less marbled meat products. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the effect of percent Brahman genetics on carcass characteristics, palatability, fatty acids profile and minerals content in LM of steers from a multibreed population ranging from 100% Angus to 100% Brahman...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
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