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beef production

O Chokoshvili, N Vepkhvadze, T Davitaia, L Tevzadze, T Tsertsvadze
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes illness ranging from mild diarrhea to bloody diarrhea, to the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which manifests with a triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure. Surveillance of HUS and bloody diarrhea is not performed in Georgia. The primary objective of our study was to determine the annual incidence of diarrheal diseases. The secondary objective was to assess epidemiological characteristics, etiology and risk factors of diarrhea and HUS in Georgia among children under 15...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
Zhiyang Li, Chuqing Liu, Victor Sarpong, Zhiyong Gu
Antibiotics such as penicillin and tetracycline drugs are widely used in food animals to treat, control, and prevent diseases, and penicillin is approved for use to improve growth rates in pigs and poultry. However, due to the overuse of antibiotics in food and medical industry, the antimicrobial resistance is starting to show up in some developing countries. The antibiotic abuse may cause allergic reactions, resistance in microorganisms and general lowering of immunity in consumers of meat and dairy products...
October 17, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Kazem Seifi, Mansour Rezaei, Asad Teimouri Yansari, Gholam Hossein Riazi, Mohammad Javad Zamiri, Reza Heidari
Heat stress decreases performance of poultry. The novel strategies to maintain production level, or at least minimizing the decrease in productivity during hot days need to be elucidated. This study was conducted to determine the effect of four fat types on mitochondrial energetics in heat-stressed broilers. In experiment 1, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) content of four supplemental fat sources, including olive oil, soybean oil, coconut oil and beef tallow, all supplemented at 3%, 6%, and 9% in the basal diet, was evaluated...
December 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Maria Oczkowicz, Tomasz Szmatoła, Małgorzata Świątkiewicz, Klaudia Pawlina-Tyszko, Artur Gurgul, Tomasz Ząbek
BACKGROUND: Corn dried distillers grains with solubles (cDDGS) are a byproduct of biofuel and alcohol production. cDDGS have been used in pig feed for many years, because they are readily available and rich in protein, fiber, unsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols. However, feed mixtures too high in cDDGS result in the worsening of backfat quality. We performed RNA-sequencing analysis of backfat from crossbred pigs fed different diets. The diets were isoenergetic but contained different amounts of cDDGS and various sources of fats...
December 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
Jing Wang, Mingyue Li, Jing Wang, Miaomiao Liu, Kun Yang, Jie Zhang, Mingtao Fan, Xinyuan Wei
This study provided phenotypic and molecular analysis of the antibiotic resistance within coagulase-negative staphylococci and lactic acid bacteria isolated from naturally fermented Chinese cured beef. A total of 49 strains were isolated by selective medium and identified at the species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as follows: Staphylococcus carnosus (37), Lactobacillus plantarum (6), Weissella confusa (4), Lactobacillus sakei (1), and Weissella cibaria (1). All strains were typed by random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting, and their antibiotic resistances profiles to 15 antibiotics were determined as the MIC by using the agar dilution method...
December 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Bailey N Engle, Nicholas J Corbet, Jamie M Allen, Alan R Laing, Geoffry Fordyce, Michael R McGowan, Brian M Burns, Russell E Lyons, Ben J Hayes
Heifers that have an earlier age at puberty often have greater lifetime productivity. Age at puberty is moderately heritable so selection should effectively reduce the number of days to puberty, and improve heifer productivity and profitability as a result. However, recording age at puberty is intensive, requiring repeat ovarian scanning to determine age at first corpus luteum (AGECL). Genomic selection has been proposed as a strategy to select for earlier age at puberty, however large reference populations of cows with AGECL records and genotypes would be required to generate accurate genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) for this trait...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Bumjin Park, Hae In Yong, Juhui Choe, Cheorun Jo
The crust that inevitably forms on dry-aged beef is usually trimmed and discarded before sale. The aim of this study was to explore methods for utilizing this crust in processed meat products. Four sirloins were dry-aged for 28 d at 4℃ (75% relative humidity). The crust obtained from the surface of the sirloins after completion of dry aging was lyophilized. Patties were prepared without added crust (control) or with 5% w/w crust, aerobically packaged, and stored at 4℃ for 7 d. Electronic nose analysis indicated that the volatile profile differed significantly between the patties with and without crust...
October 2018: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
Amit Vikram, Eric Miller, Terrance M Arthur, Joseph M Bosilevac, Tommy L Wheeler, John W Schmidt
U.S. ground beef with "raised without antibiotics" (RWA) label claims are perceived as harboring fewer bacteria with antimicrobial resistance (AMR) than are found in conventional (CONV) ground beef with no such label claim. A total of 370 ground beef samples from CONV ( n = 191) and RWA ( n = 179) production systems were collected over 13 months from three food service suppliers. The following bacteria were cultured: Escherichia coli, tetracycline-resistant (TETr ) E. coli, third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCr ) E...
December 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Luisa Magrin, Marta Brscic, Leonardo Armato, Barbara Contiero, Giulio Cozzi, Flaviana Gottardo
This cross-sectional study aimed to assess in post-mortem the prevalence of specific claw disorders and their location on the sole in hind feet of finishing beef cattle reared indoors under intensive production systems. Evaluation was made on animals that were introduced in the ordinary slaughterhouse planning, presumably with no signs of impaired locomotion or severe lameness. A total of 4292 hind feet (right and left) belonging to 153 batches were collected (average feet/batch 28.1 ± 5.62 (SD)) in 3 abattoirs in Northern Italy at 3 time points (April-June and September-October 2016; February-March 2017)...
December 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Jun-Hee Han, Joanne Holter, John Moffat, Jenny F Weston, Cord Heuer, M Carolyn Gates
Understanding risk factors for bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) transmission is important for planning national disease control programmes. However, traditional statistical approaches may miss important features of BVD epidemiology due to the highly correlated nature of many farm-level risk factors. In this cross-sectional study, we used data collected from 304 cattle herds in New Zealand during 2015/2016 to compare the results from multivariable logistic regression with Bayesian network (BN) analysis. Blood samples from 15 heifers from each farm were pooled and analysed with an antibody ELISA test to classify BVD virus exposure status...
December 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Leena Seppä-Lassila, Jarkko Oksanen, Tuomas Herva, Elisabeth Dorbek-Kolin, Heli Kosunen, Laura Parviainen, Timo Soveri, Toomas Orro
Efficient dairy-beef production relies on good quality of purchased calves, defined by breed, health, and growth characteristics. Several management factors, such as commingling of calves and large group size, predispose calves to diseases. Acute phase proteins are sensitive detectors of calf diseases. We studied the associations between group size, serum acute phase proteins, immunoglobulin G (IgG), calf morbidity and growth of dairy-beef calves in a random field trial in a calf-rearing unit in Finland. The randomized trial was carried out at a calf rearing unit, where approximately 80 dairy or crossbred calves were allocated either into a single group of 40 calves or into four groups of 10 on arrival at the calf-rearing unit (at age 24...
December 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Roland Weber, Christine Herold, Henner Hollert, Josef Kamphues, Markus Blepp, Karlheinz Ballschmiter
Background: In the past, cases of PCDD/F and PCB contamination exceeding limits in food from animal origin (eggs, meat or milk) were mainly caused by industrially produced feed. But in the last decade, exceedances of EU limit values were discovered more frequently for PCDD/Fs or dioxin-like(dl)-PCBs from free range chicken, sheep, and beef, often in the absence of any known contamination source. Results: The German Environment Agency initiated a project to elucidate the entry of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in food related to environmental contamination...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
Adam F Summers, Shelby L Rosasco, Eric J Scholljegerdes
Profitability of beef cattle producers can be directly tied to the productive lifespan of a cow. Management decisions influencing heifer nutrition and reproduction play a key role in establishing heifer fertility and longevity. Altering feeding strategies to utilize compensatory growth has been reported to have a positive influence on fertility during the first breeding season; however, there are discrepancies in the literature as to the impact this strategy may have on the proportion of heifers attaining puberty prior to entering their first breeding season...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
M McGee, B Earley
Colostrum-derived passive immunity is central to the health, performance and welfare of neonatal beef-suckler calves, and economics of beef-farming enterprises. Compared to dairy calves, mainly Holstein-Friesian, there is much less research carried out on passive immunity and associated factors in beef calves. Thus, this review aimed to summarise and interpret published information and highlight areas requiring further research. The transfer of immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) from blood to mammary secretions is greater for beef × dairy cows compared to most beef breed types...
November 21, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
H C Dougherty, J W Oltjen, F M Mitloehner, E J DePeters, L A Pettey, D Macon, J Finzel, K Rodrigues, E Kebreab
While the environmental impacts of livestock production, such as greenhouse gas emissions and water usage, have been studied for a variety of U.S. livestock production systems, the environmental impact of U.S. sheep production is still unknown. A cradle-to-farm gate life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted according to international standards (ISO 14040/44), analyzing the impacts of case studies representing five different meat sheep production systems in California, and focusing on carbon footprint (carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2e) and irrigated water usage (MT)...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
S Barbut, A Marangoni
The effects of fat/oil type (regular and rendered beef fat, canola, soy and flaxseed oils), form (native or organogel), and heating rate (0.7 and 3.5 °C/min) were investigated in a comminuted meat system. Converting beef fat to organogel resulted in higher hardness values of the cooked meat products, but the opposite was observed with the vegetable oils. Springiness was lower for all organogels compared to the native fat/oil used. Fat globule size was larger in the organogels prepared from vegetable oils compared to the native oils, but that was not the case for beef fat...
November 6, 2018: Meat Science
David E Kerr, George Shen, Andrew H Lienau, Mandeep Kaur, Amy L Immermann, Philip T Feldsine, Lisa John
Background: VIP® Gold for Salmonella is a lateral flow immunodetection device that was validated by AOAC in 1999 as Official Method of Analysis 999.09. It was improved upon in 2009 by introducing gold colloid as the detection method. Objective: A simple next-day enrichment protocol using modified enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli media was developed for the VIP Gold for Salmonella to improve the time-to-results and laboratory work flow. Methods: We tested 128 Salmonella strains, representing all serotypes from A to Z and 51 to 66 as well as 50 non- Salmonella strains for inclusivity/exclusivity...
November 16, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Alessandra Fontana, Carla Zacconi, Lorenzo Morelli
Lactobacillus casei/Lactobacillus paracasei group of species contains strains adapted to a wide range of environments, from dairy products to intestinal tract of animals and fermented vegetables. Understanding the gene acquisitions and losses that induced such different adaptations, implies a comparison between complete genomes, since evolutionary differences spread on the whole sequence. This study compared 12 complete genomes of L. casei/paracasei dairy-niche isolates and 7 genomes of L. casei/paracasei isolated from other habitats (i...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
A Lagesson, M Saaristo, T Brodin, J Fick, J Klaminder, J M Martin, B B M Wong
Hormonal growth promoters (HGPs), widely used in beef cattle production globally, make their way into the environment as agricultural effluent-with potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems. One HPG of particular concern is 17β-trenbolone, which is persistent in freshwater habitats and can affect the development, morphology and reproductive behaviors of aquatic organisms. Despite this, few studies have investigated impacts of 17β-trenbolone on non-reproductive behaviors linked to growth and survival, like boldness and predator avoidance...
November 1, 2018: Environmental Pollution
J Bokma, R Boone, P Deprez, B Pardon
The intensive use of antimicrobials in the veal industry is heavily criticized, but drivers for antimicrobial usage (AMU) are still poorly understood. The industry fears that a drastic reduction in AMU would increase mortality, creating an unacceptable welfare issue. The objectives of the present study were to identify risk factors for AMU and to explore the relationship between AMU and mortality. A retrospective cohort study was performed on the antimicrobial registration data from the largest Belgian veterinary veal practice...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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