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Animal breeding and genetics,

Nilesh Nayee, Goutam Sahana, Swapnil Gajjar, Ananthasayanam Sudhakar, Kamlesh Trivedi, Mogens Sandø Lund, Bernt Guldbrandtsen
Bos indicus cattle breeds are genetically distinct from Bos taurus breeds. We examined the performance of three SNP arrays, the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip (777k; Illumina Inc.), the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip (50k) and the GeneSeek 70k Indicus chip (75Ki; GeneSeek) in four B. indicus breeds (Gir, Kankrej, Sahiwal and Red Sindhi) and their B. taurus crosses, along with two B. taurus breeds, Holstein and Jersey. More SNPs on both Illumina SNP chips were monomorphic in B. indicus breeds (average 20.3%-29...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
Henrique Barbosa Hooper, Cristiane Gonçalves Titto, Angela Maria Gonella-Diaza, Fábio Luís Henrique, Lina Fernanda Pulido-Rodríguez, Ana Luisa Silva Longo, Thays Mayra da Cunha Leme-Dos-Santos, Ana Carina Alves Pereira de Mira Geraldo, Alfredo Manuel Franco Pereira, Mario Binelli, Júlio Cesar de Carvalho Balieiro, Evaldo Antonio Lencioni Titto
Adaptation is a relevant characteristic to be understood in livestock animals in order to maintain and raise productivity. In Brazil, the Nellore beef cattle are widely disseminated and well-adapted breed that present good thermoregulatory characteristics for tropical environment conditions. Conversely, the physiological and cellular mechanisms required for thermoregulation and thermotolerance in this breed are still limited. The aim of this study was to comprehend the heat loss efficiency at the whole animal level and heat shock response at the cellular level of Nellore cows in tropical climate conditions...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Luiza Rodrigues Alves Abreu, Virgínia Mara Pereira Ribeiro, Gabriela Canabrava Gouveia, Eduardo Penteado Cardoso, Fabio Luiz Buranelo Toral
The knowledge of genetic trends and trade-offs between growth and reproductive traits might be useful to understand the evolution of these traits in livestock and natural populations of animals. We estimated the genetic trends and trade-offs between pre-weaning growth and calving intervals of Nellore animals from a commercial farm. Two-trait animal models were used to estimate covariance components and breeding values (EBV) for direct and maternal genetic effects of pre-weaning growth and direct genetic effects of calving intervals...
2018: PloS One
Kaarina Matilainen, Ismo Strandén, Gert Pedersen Aamand, Esa A Mäntysaari
Joint Nordic (Denmark, Finland, Sweden) genetic evaluation of female fertility is currently based on the multiple trait multilactation animal model (BLUP). Here, single step genomic model (ssGBLUP) was applied for the Nordic Red dairy cattle fertility evaluation. The 11 traits comprised of nonreturn rate and days from first to last insemination in heifers and first three parities, and days from calving to first insemination in the first three parities. Traits had low heritabilities (0.015-0.04), but moderately high genetic correlations between the parities (0...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
T Amano, A Onogi, F Yamada, M Kawai, K Shirai, J Ueda
Previously, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) related to gait type was identified at position 22 999 655 of chromosome 23 in the coding region of DMRT3 (DMRT3:Ser301Ter) by showing that a cytosine (C) to adenine (A) mutation of this SNP induced pace in the Icelandic horse. We investigated the effect of DMRT3:Ser301Ter on the gait of Hokkaido Native Horses, a Japanese native breed, and examined genetic factors other than DMRT3 by exploring genome-wide SNPs related to gait determination. All animals exhibiting pace were AA for DMRT3:Ser301Ter, confirming the association of DMRT3:Ser301Ter with gait determination; however, 14...
August 14, 2018: Animal Genetics
Álvaro Navarro-Castilla, Isabel Barja, Mario Díaz
In nature, animals are exposed to a broad range of threats imposed by predators, which may strongly influence the ecology of prey species directly or indirectly by affecting their behavior via fear of predation. Here, we studied wood mice Apodemus sylvaticus behavioral and physiological responses to simulated predation risk. Risk avoidance was analyzed by live trapping with control traps and traps treated with feces of common genet Genetta genetta (direct cue of risk) under new moon nights and following by simulated full moon conditions (indirect cue)...
August 2018: Current Zoology
J T Howard, T A Rathje, C E Bruns, D F Wilson-Wells, S D Kachman, M L Spangler
Across the majority livestock species, routinely collected genomic and pedigree information has been incorporated into evaluations using single-step methods. As a result, strategies that reduce genotyping costs without reducing the response to selection are important as they could have substantial economic impacts on breeding programs. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of selectively genotyping selection candidates on the selection response using simulation. Populations were simulated to mimic the genome and population structure of a swine and cattle population undergoing selection on an index comprised of the estimated breeding values (EBV) for two genetically correlated quantitative traits...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Jia-Wei Xu, Li Zheng, Li-Juan Li, Yu-Fei Yao, He Hua, Shi-Zhen Yang, Yi-Fan Wen, Cheng-Chuang Song, Xiu-Kai Cao, Kun-Peng Liu, Gui-Min Zhang, Jia-Meng Yang, Dan Hao, Rui-Hua Dang, Xian-Yong Lan, Chu-Zhao Lei, Xing-Lei Qi, Hong Chen, Yong-Zhen Huang
Copy number variation (CNV) related to complex traits, such as disease and quantitative phenotype, is considered an important and wealthy source of genetic and phenotypic diversity. It suggests that the copy number variation of function gene maybe leads to the phenotypic changes. Kupple like factor 3 (KLF3) gene is a vital transcription factor associated with the growth and development of muscle and adipose tissue. It has been mapped in a CNV region by animal genome re-sequencing. In this study, we detected the distribution diversity of KLF3 gene copy numbers in six Chinese cattle breeds (QC, NY, XN, PN, QDM and JX) and associated the phenotypic traits with it...
August 9, 2018: Gene
G E Pollott
In animals, new autosomal recessive genetic diseases (ARGD) arise all the time due to the regular, random mutations that occur during meiosis. In order to reduce the effect of any damaging new variant, it is necessary to find its cause. To evaluate the best way of doing this, 34 papers which found the exact location of a new genetic disease in livestock were reviewed and found to require at least two stages. In the initial stage the commonly used χ 2 method, applied in a case-control association analysis with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-chip data, was found to have limitations and was almost always used in conjunction with a second method to locate the target region on the genome containing the variant...
August 10, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Yu-Huei Cheng, Jiun-Jian Liaw, Che-Nan Kuo
BACKGROUND: Restriction enzymes are used frequently in biotechnology. However, manual mining of restriction enzymes is challenging. Furthermore, integrating available restriction enzymes into different bioinformatics systems is necessary for many biotechnological applications, such as polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Thus, in the present study, we developed the package REHUNT (Restriction Enzymes HUNTing), which mines restriction enzymes from the public database REBASE using a series of search operations...
August 10, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Jayson L Lusk
Improvements in genetics, feed, and housing have dramatically reduced the time required for broilers to reach market weight. However, some advocacy organizations have argued that the improvements in productivity have been accompanied by reductions in animal welfare and meat quality, prompting retailers to consider policies that either set a minimum number of days of production or require slower-growing heritage breeds. The overriding purpose of this project is to determine the market potential and consumer willingness-to-pay for chicken breast with different labels, with primary focus on slow growth labels...
August 1, 2018: Poultry Science
F H Rodríguez, G Cáceres, J P Lhorente, S Newman, R Bangera, T Tadich, R Neira, J M Yáñez
From a physiological-behavioral perspective, it has been shown that fish with a higher density of black eumelanin spots are more dominant, less sensitive to stress, have higher feed intake, better feed efficiency and therefore are larger in size. Thus, we hypothesized that genetic (co)variation between skin pigmentation patterns and growth exists and it is advantageous in rainbow trout. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relationships between skin pigmentation patterns and BW in a breeding population of rainbow trout...
August 7, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Stefano Comazzi, Stefano Marelli, Marzia Cozzi, Rita Rizzi, Riccardo Finotello, Joaquim Henriques, Josep Pastor, Frederique Ponce, Carla Rohrer-Bley, Barbara C Rütgen, Erik Teske
BACKGROUND: Canine breeds may be considered good animal models for the study of genetic predisposition to cancer, as they represent genetic clusters. From epidemiologic and case collection studies it emerges that some breeds are more likely to develop lymphoma or specific subtypes of lymphoma but available data are variable and geographically inconsistent. This study was born in the context of the European Canine Lymphoma Network with the aim of investigating the breed prevalence of canine lymphoma in different European countries and of investigating possible breed risk of lymphoma overall and/or different lymphoma subtypes...
August 6, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
P K Rout, O Matika, R Kaushik, M S Dige, G Dass, M K Singh, S Bhusan
Goats are adaptable to varied farming environments and contribute significantly towards sustainable livestock production and food security. Selective breeding of goats for improved performance is an important component of sustainable production. The objectives of the present study were to determine the most appropriate models of analysis for growth traits, to estimate genetic parameters, survival potential of kids from birth to 12 months of age and to estimate genetic trends for growth traits of Jamunapari kids at different ages...
August 2018: Small Ruminant Research: the Journal of the International Goat Association
A Saborío-Montero, B Vargas-Leitón, J J Romero-Zúñiga, J Camacho-Sandoval
The aim of this study was to estimate additive genetic and heterosis effects for milk fever (MF) in Costa Rican dairy cattle. A farm-based management information software was used to collect 223,783 parity records between years 1989 and 2016, from 64,008 cows, 2 breeds (Jersey, Holstein × Jersey crosses, and Holstein), and 134 herds. The pedigree file comprised 73,653 animals distributed across 10 generations. A total of 4,355 (1.95%) clinical cases of MF were reported within this population, affecting 3,469 (5...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Min Zhang, Wei-Feng Peng, Xiao-Ju Hu, Yong-Xin Zhao, Feng-Hua Lv, Ji Yang
Domestic animals play a key role in human survival and the development of civilization. However, the genetic resources of domestic animals are facing an alarming rate of erosion due to socioeconomic changes, economic globalization and financial constraints. In this study, through genome-wide SNP analysis, we estimated the heterozygosity, inbreeding coefficient, effective population size, and runs of homozygosity to identify the breeds facing the risk of extinction for sheep and cattle across the world. In particular, we quantified the contribution of 97 sheep breeds and 53 cattle breeds to genomic diversity (within-breed, between-breed and total) and prioritized the breeds for conservation...
August 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Karin Meyer, Bruce Tier, Andrew Swan
BACKGROUND: A common measure employed to evaluate the efficacy of livestock improvement schemes is the genetic trend, which is calculated as the means of predicted breeding values for animals born in successive time periods. This implies that different cohorts refer to the same base population. For genetic evaluation schemes integrating genomic information with records for all animals, genotyped or not, this is often not the case: expected means for pedigree founders are zero whereas values for genotyped animals are expected to sum to zero at the (mean) time corresponding to the frequencies that are used to center marker allele counts when calculating genomic relationships...
August 3, 2018: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Xiaohu Su, Shenyuan Wang, Guanghua Su, Zhong Zheng, Jiaqi Zhang, Yunlong Ma, Zongzheng Liu, Huanmin Zhou, Yanru Zhang, Li Zhang
Gene editing tools (Zinc-Finger Nucleases, ZFN; Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases, TALEN; and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas)9, CRISPR-Cas9) provide us with a powerful means of performing genetic engineering procedures. A combinational approach that utilizes both somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and somatic cell gene editing facilitates the generation of genetically engineered animals. However, the associated research has utilized markers and/or selected genes, which constitute a potential threat to biosafety...
July 20, 2018: Theriogenology
Malte Andersson, Matti Åhlund, Peter Waldeck
Conspecific brood parasitism (CBP) is a reproductive tactic in which parasitic females lay eggs in nests of other females of the same species that then raise the joint brood. Parasites benefit by increased reproduction, without costs of parental care for the parasitic eggs. CBP occurs in many egg-laying animals, among birds most often in species with large clutches and self-feeding young: two major factors facilitating successful parasitism. CBP is particularly common in waterfowl (Anatidae), a group with female-biased natal philopatry and locally related females...
August 2, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Bryan Irvine M Lopez, Choulwon Song, Kangseok Seo
Genetic parameters and trends in the average daily gain (ADG), backfat thickness (BF), loin muscle area (LMA), lean percentage (LP), and age at 90 kg (D90) were estimated for populations of Landrace and Yorkshire pigs. Additionally, the correlations between these production traits and litter traits were estimated. Litter traits included total born (TB) and number born alive (NBA). The data used for this study were obtained from eight farms during 1999 to 2016. Analyses were carried out with a multivariate animal model to estimate genetic parameters for production traits while bivariate analyses were performed to estimate the correlations between production and litter traits...
August 2, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
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