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Animal breeding and genetics,

Beshir M Ali, John W M Bastiaansen, Yann de Mey, Alfons G J M Oude Lansink
Genetic improvement of animals plays an important role in improving the economic and environmental sustainability of livestock production systems. This paper proposes a method to incorporate mitigation of environmental impacts and risk preferences of producers into a breeding objective via economic values (EVs). The paper assesses the effects of using these alternative EVs of breeding goal traits on discounted economic response to selection and on environmental impacts at commercial farm level. The application focuses on a Brazilian pig production system...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Raed M Al-Atiyat, Riyadh S Aljumaah, Mohammad A Alshaikh, Alaeldein M Abudabos
The genetic diversity of the sheep breeds in the Arab countries might be considered to be a mirror of the ecology of the region. In this study, the genetic structure and diversity of sheep breeds from Saudi Arabia (Harri, Najdi, Naemi, Arb, and Rufidi) and Awassi sheep from Jordan as an out-group were investigated using 19 microsatellites. All the breeds had high intra-population genetic diversity expressed as allelic number (7.33) and richness (2.9) and, expected heterozygosity (0.77). Structure analysis revealed three main gene pools underlying the ancestral genetic diversity of the study populations...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Moe Lwin, Su Lai Y Mon, Hayate Yamanaka, Yukio Nagano, Hideyuki Mannen, Mohammad O Faruque, Kotaro Kawabe, Shin Okamoto, Takeshi Shimogiri
Local cattle breeds are popular in Myanmar because they make excellent draught animals, so it is of fundamental importance that their genetic diversities and population structures are elucidated for breeding and conservation purposes. In this study, we characterized the genetic diversities and population structures of four popular Myanmar local cattle breeds and five native cattle populations from neighboring countries (Bangladesh, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam) using the GGP Bovine 50K array. The mean observed and expected heterozygosity estimates using pruned datasets ranged from 0...
October 14, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Donagh P Berry, Bernard Eivers, Grainne Dunne, Sinéad McParland
Little is known of the genetic variability in semen quality traits in cattle and their inter-relationships. The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for a range of semen quality measures. The data consisted of 35,573 ejaculates from 787 artificial insemination bulls of 16 breeds. Genetic parameters were estimated using a repeatability animal linear mixed model. Large breed differences were detected with Belgian Blue bulls, on average, producing lesser semen volume than all other breeds while the Charolais bulls, on average, produced semen with fewer live sperm and reduced motility...
October 5, 2018: Theriogenology
Ugonna J Ekegbu, Lucy Burrows, Hamed Amirpour-Najafabadi, Huitong Zhou, Jon G H Hickford
The PROP paired-like homeobox 1 (PROP1) gene encodes a protein that regulates growth and development in mammals. Possessing DNA-binding and transcriptional activation abilities, PROP1 is able to control the expression of crucial anterior pituitary hormones including growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and prolactin. The objective of this study was to identify genetic variation in ovine PROP1 in 670 New Zealand Romney sheep. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected, two of which located in intron 1 were novel (c...
October 11, 2018: Gene
Saranya G Narayana, Filippo Miglior, S Ali Naqvi, Francesca Malchiodi, Pauline Martin, Herman W Barkema
Subclinical mastitis (SCM) causes economic losses for dairy producers by reducing milk production and leading to higher incidence of clinical mastitis and premature culling. The prevalence of SCM in first-lactation heifers is highest during early lactation. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for SCM in early lactation in first-parity Holsteins. Somatic cell count test-day records were collected monthly in 91 Canadian herds participating in the National Cohort of Dairy Farms of the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Tatsuhiko Goto, Akira Ishikawa, Masahide Nishibori, Masaoki Tsudzuki
Since the growth traits of chickens are largely related to the production of meat and eggs, it is definitely important to understand genetic basis of growth traits. Although many quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that affect growth traits have recently been reported in chickens, little is known about genetic architecture of growth traits across all growth stages. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal QTL study of growth traits measured from 0 to 64 weeks of age using 134 microsatellite DNA markers on 26 autosomes from 406 F2 females, which resulted from an intercross of Oh-Shamo and White Leghorn chicken breeds...
October 12, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Michaela Brzáková, Alena Svitáková, Jindrich Cítek, Zdenka Veselá, Lubos Vostrý
The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for longevity and assess the suitability of using these selection criteria to improve the genetic merit of the beef cattle population of the Czech Republic. The performance record database, which contains records of 363,000 beef cattle animals of 19 breeds and their crosses, was used. The populations of Charolais and Aberdeen Angus were large enough that the genetic parameter estimations and all analyses were done for these breeds separately. Two similar approaches of longevity definition based on probabilities were considered as follows: productive longevity (PL), which is the number of calvings at target ages of 78, 90, 150, and 160 mo, and longevity (L), which is based on the probabilities of cow reappearance in the next parity...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Gizella Aboagye, Stefania Dall'Olio, Francesco Tassone, Martina Zappaterra, Salvatore Carpino, Leonardo Nanni Costa
Despite the increasing interest in the welfare of animals during transport, very little is known on the response of local pig breeds to the transport procedures. This study aims to compare the effect of short journey on behaviour, blood parameters, and meat quality traits in 51 Apulo-Calabrese and 52 crossbreed [Duroc × (Landrace × Large White)] pigs. All the animals were blood sampled five days before delivery (basal condition) and at exsanguination for the analysis of creatine kinase, cortisol, glucose, lactate, albumin, albumin/globulin, total protein, urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphate, sodium, and potassium...
October 10, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Iman Zarei, Emily Luna, Jan E Leach, Anna McClung, Samuel Vilchez, Ousmane Koita, Elizabeth P Ryan
Rice ( Oryza sativa L.) processing yields ~60 million metric tons of bran annually. Rice genes producing bran metabolites of nutritional and human health importance were assessed across 17 diverse cultivars from seven countries using non-targeted metabolomics, and resulted in 378⁻430 metabolites. Gambiaka cultivar had the highest number and Njavara had the lowest number of metabolites. The 71 rice bran compounds of significant variation by cultivar included 21 amino acids, seven carbohydrates, two metabolites from cofactors and vitamins, 33 lipids, six nucleotides, and two secondary metabolites...
October 9, 2018: Metabolites
James E Jim Womack
I abandoned my original career choice of high school teaching to pursue dentistry and soon abandoned that path for genetics. The latter decision was due to a challenge by a professor that led to me reading Nobel speeches by pioneer geneticists before I had formal exposure to the subject. Even then, I was 15 years into my career before my interest in rodent genomes gave way to mapping cattle genes. Events behind these twists and turns in my career path comprise the first part of this review. The remainder is a review of the development of the field of bovine genomics from my personal perspective...
October 8, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
L Zetouni, G F Difford, J Lassen, M V Byskov, E Norberg, P Løvendahl
As long as large-scale recording of expensive-to-measure and labor-consuming traits, such as dry matter intake (DMI) and CH4 production (CH4 P), continues to be challenging in practical conditions, alternative traits that are already routinely recorded in dairy herds should be investigated. An ideal indicator trait must, in addition to expressing genetic variation, have a strong correlation with the trait of interest. Our aim was to estimate individual level and phenotypic correlations between rumination time (RT), CH4 P, and DMI to determine if RT could be used as an indicator trait for CH4 P and DMI...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Everestus C Akanno, Liuhong Chen, Mohammed K Abo-Ismail, John J Crowley, Zhiquan Wang, Changxi Li, John A Basarab, Michael D MacNeil, Graham S Plastow
BACKGROUND: Heterosis has been suggested to be caused by dominance effects. We performed a joint genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) using data from multi-breed and crossbred beef cattle to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with significant dominance effects associated with variation in growth and carcass traits and to understand the mode of action of these associations. METHODS: Illumina BovineSNP50 genotypes and phenotypes for 11 growth and carcass traits were available for 6796 multi-breed and crossbred beef cattle...
October 5, 2018: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Joshua A Stern, Yu Ueda
Comparative and translation medicine is of particular value within the field of inherited cardiomyopathies. Despite massive advances in understanding the functional role of mutations in human cardiomyopathies, these advances have frequently failed to translate into medical discoveries that alter patient care. One potential explanation for this failure lies in the lack of suitable translational models that adequately recapitulate human cardiovascular physiology and disease expression. The vast genetic heterogeneity that complicates human cardiomyopathy research is potentially alleviated through the study of naturally occurring large animal models of disease, where incredibly homogenous populations, like those seen in a single breed of dog or cat, may exist (Kol et al...
October 3, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Krishnanand P Kulkarni, Rupesh Tayade, Sovetgul Asekova, Jong Tae Song, J Grover Shannon, Jeong-Dong Lee
Substantial improvements in access to food and increased purchasing power are driving many people toward consuming nutrition-rich foods causing an unprecedented demand for protein food worldwide, which is expected to rise further. Forage legumes form an important source of feed for livestock and have potential to provide a sustainable solution for food and protein security. Currently, alfalfa is a commercially grown source of forage and feed in many countries. However, soybean and cowpea also have the potential to provide quality forage and fodder for animal use...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Arthur Porto, Juan M Peralta, Nicholas B Blackburn, John Blangero
Genome-wide association studies have helped us identify a wealth of genetic variants associated with complex human phenotypes. Because most variants explain a small portion of the total phenotypic variation, however, marker-based studies remain limited in their ability to predict such phenotypes. Here, we show how modern statistical genetic techniques borrowed from animal breeding can be employed to increase the accuracy of genomic prediction of complex phenotypes and the power of genetic mapping studies. Specifically, using the triglyceride data of the GAW20 data set, we apply genomic-best linear unbiased prediction (G-BLUP) methods to obtain empirical genetic values (EGVs) for each triglyceride phenotype and each individual...
2018: BMC Proceedings
Dirsko J F von Pfeil, Eric Zellner, Michele C Fritz, Ingeborg Langohr, Caroline Griffitts, Bryden J Stanley
OBJECTIVE To characterize congenital laryngeal paralysis (CLP) in Alaskan Huskies. DESIGN Prospective case series. ANIMALS 25 Alaskan Huskies with CLP. PROCEDURES Data were collected for each dog regarding signalment; history; results of physical, orthopedic, neurologic, and laryngeal examinations; esophagraphic findings; treatments; histologic findings; and outcomes. RESULTS Severely affected dogs were profoundly dyspneic at birth or collapsed after brief exercise; less affected dogs reportedly tired easily or overheated with minimal exercise...
October 15, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Mohammad S A Bhuiyan, Yeong Kuk Kim, Hyun Joo Kim, Doo Ho Lee, Soo Hyun Lee, Ho Baek Yoon, Seung Hwan Lee
Genomic selection using high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers is used in dairy and beef cattle breeds to accurately estimate genomic breeding values and accelerate genetic improvement by enabling selection of animals with high genetic merit. This genome-wide association study (GWAS) aimed to identify genetic variants associated with beef fatty-acid composition (FAC) traits and to evaluate the accuracy of genomic predictions (GPs) for those traits using genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), pedigree BLUP (PBLUP), and BayesR models...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Stefanie Egerer, Uwe Fiebig, Barbara Kessler, Valeri Zakhartchenko, Mayuko Kurome, Bruno Reichart, Christian Kupatt, Nikolai Klymiuk, Eckhard Wolf, Joachim Denner, Andrea Bähr
For clinical xenotransplantation, transplants must be free of porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV). Piglets become infected primarily in the perinatal period by the mother sow. While individual donor animals can be protected from infection by isolation husbandry, success is not guaranteed and this strategy poses the risk of undetected infections and raises animal welfare questions. Here, we present the establishment of a completely PCMV-negative pig herd for breeding donor animals for xenotransplantation. Eleven pregnant DanAvl Basic hybrid sows were purchased from a designated pathogen-free (DPF), PCMV-positive colony and transferred to a new pig facility at the Centre for Innovative Medical Models (CiMM) 4 weeks prior to farrowing...
July 2018: Xenotransplantation
Uwe Fiebig, Konrad Fischer, Andrea Bähr, Carolin Runge, Angelika Schnieke, Eckhard Wolf, Joachim Denner
BACKGROUND: Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) may pose a risk of xenotransplantation using porcine cells, tissues, or organs. PERVs are integrated in the genome of all pigs, and some can infect certain human cells. The copy number of PERVs in different pig breeds has been determined by using different methods, with varying results. METHODS: To determine the PERV copy number in pig cell lines and in animals, a new method, droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) was used...
July 2018: Xenotransplantation
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