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Animal breeding and genetics,

Zuzana Świderská, Adéla Šmídová, Lucie Buchtová, Anna Bryjová, Anežka Fabiánová, Pavel Munclinger, Michal Vinkler
Immune genes show remarkable levels of adaptive variation shaped by pathogen-mediated selection. Compared to humans, however, population polymorphism in animals has been understudied. To provide an insight into immunogenetic diversity in birds, we sequenced complete protein-coding regions of all Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes with direct orthology between mammals and birds (TLR3, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR7) in 110 domestic chickens from 25 breeds and compared their variability with a corresponding human dataset. Chicken TLRs (chTLRs) exhibit on average nine-times higher nucleotide diversity than human TLRs (hTLRs)...
December 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniel E Goszczynski, Hao Cheng, Sebastian Demyda-Peyrás, Juan F Medrano, Jun Wu, Pablo J Ross
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from the inner cell mass of preimplantation blastocysts. For decades, attempts to efficiently derive ESCs in animal livestock species have been unsuccessful, but this goal has recently been achieved in cattle. Together with the recent reconstitution of the germ cell differentiation processes from ESCs in mice, these achievements open new avenues for the development of promising technologies oriented toward improving health, animal production and the environment. In this article, we present a strategy that will notably accelerate genetic improvement in livestock populations by reducing the generational interval, namely in vitro breeding (IVB)...
December 14, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Fabian S Rudin, Leigh W Simmons, Joseph L Tomkins
The social environment is expected to have substantial effects on behavior, and as a consequence its heritability and evolvability. We investigated these effects by exposing Australian field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) to either silence or recordings of male acoustic sexual signals. We used a combined pedigree and full-sib/half-sib breeding design to estimate the repeatability, heritability, and evolvability of behaviors related to boldness, exploration, and activity. All behaviors measured were significantly repeatable in both social environments...
December 14, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Amélie Juanchich, Christelle Hennequet-Antier, Cédric Cabau, Elisabeth Le Bihan-Duval, Michel J Duclos, Sandrine Mignon-Grasteau, Agnès Narcy
BACKGROUND: The sustainability of poultry farming relies on the development of more efficient and autonomous production systems in terms of feed supply. This implies a better integration of adaptive traits in breeding programs, including digestive efficiency, in order to favor the use of a wider variety of feedstuffs. The aim of the project was to improve the understanding of genes involved in digestive functions by characterizing the transcriptome of different sections of the digestive tract: the junction between the proventriculus and the gizzard, the gizzard, the gastroduodenal junction, and the jejunum...
December 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
Pratap Pragna, Surinder S Chauhan, Veerasamy Sejian, Brian J Leury, Frank R Dunshea
The ability of an animal to cope and adapt itself to the changing climate virtually depends on the function of rumen and rumen inhabitants such as bacteria, protozoa, fungi, virus and archaea. Elevated ambient temperature during the summer months can have a significant influence on the basic physiology of the rumen, thereby affecting the nutritional status of the animals. Rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) production decreases under conditions of extreme heat. Growing recent evidence suggests there are genetic variations among breeds of goats in the impact of heat stress on rumen fermentation pattern and VFA production...
December 7, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Ashley Ling, El Hamidi Hay, Samuel E Aggrey, Romdhane Rekaya
Ordinal categorical responses are frequently collected in survey studies, human medicine, and animal and plant improvement programs, just to mention a few. Errors in this type of data are neither rare nor easy to detect. These errors tend to bias the inference, reduce the statistical power and ultimately the efficiency of the decision-making process. Contrarily to the binary situation where misclassification occurs between two response classes, noise in ordinal categorical data is more complex due to the increased number of categories, diversity and asymmetry of errors...
2018: PloS One
Mitsuo Nunome, Keiji Kinoshita, Satoshi Ishishita, Yasushige Ohmori, Atsushi Murai, Yoichi Matsuda
The genetic characteristics and diversity of 21 experimental chicken lines registered with the National BioResource Project of Japan were examined using mitochondrial D-loop sequences and 54 microsatellite DNA markers. A total of 12 haplotypes were detected in the 500-bp mitochondrial DNA sequences of the hypervariable segment I for 349 individuals of 21 lines. The 12 haplotypes belonged to three (A, D, and E) haplogroups, out of the seven (A-H) common haplogroups in domestic chickens and red junglefowls. The haplogroups A and D were widely represented in indigenous chickens in the Asian and Pacific regions, and the haplogroup E was the most prevalent in domestic chickens...
December 13, 2018: Experimental Animals
Patrick Henry Lim, Guang Shi, Tengfei Wang, Sophia T Jenz, Megan K Mulligan, Eva E Redei, Hao Chen
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a complex illness, frequently co-morbid with depression, caused by both genetics, and the environment. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD), which also co-occurs with depression, is often co-morbid with PTSD. To date, very few genes have been identified for PTSD and even less for PTSD comorbidity with AUD, likely because of the phenotypic heterogeneity seen in humans, combined with each gene playing a relatively small role in disease predisposition. In the current study, we investigated whether a genetic model of depression-like behavior, further developed from the depression model Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat, is a suitable vehicle to uncover the genetics of co-morbidity between PTSD and AUD...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Mengmeng Sang, Hexin Shi, Kun Wei, Meixia Ye, Libo Jiang, Lidan Sun, Rongling Wu
Many quantitative traits are composites of other traits that contribute differentially to genetic variation. QTL mapping of these composite traits can benefit by incorporating the mechanistic process of how their formation is mediated by the underlying components. We propose a dissection model by which to map these interconnected components traits under a joint likelihood setting. The model can test how a composite trait is determined by pleiotropic QTLs for its component traits or jointly by different sets of QTLs each responsible for a different component...
December 11, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
V Harshini, K Sakunthala Devi, B Punya Kumari, J Suresh
Aim: The objective of this experiment was to study the nucleolar organizer region (NOR)-banding pattern in Large White Yorkshire (LWY) crossbred and non-descript pigs and finding differences in the number of NORs between animals and between genetic groups. Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out on 15 females, and 15 males of LWY crossbred and non-descript pigs to study NOR-banding pattern by employing ammoniacal silver staining technique. Results: A total of 63 and 65 number of good metaphases were prepared in LWY crossbred, and non-descript pigs and a total of 168 and 143 number of NORs were detected on the 8th and 10th chromosomes in both genetic groups, respectively...
November 2018: Veterinary World
Yongjun Li, Heidi S Dungey
Genomic selection is a proven technology in animal and plant breeding to accelerate genetic gain, but as yet is to be fully realised in forest tree breeding. This paper examines, through stochastic simulation, the potential benefits of genomic selection (GS) over forward selection (FS) in a typical conifer breeding program. Methods of speeding the deployment of selected material were also considered, including top-grafting onto mature seed orchard ortets, using additional replicates of clones in archives for crossing, and embryogenesis and clonal propagation...
2018: PloS One
Sen Wu, Yue Ning, Sayed Haidar Abbas Raza, Chengtu Zhang, Le Zhang, Gong Cheng, Hongbao Wang, Nicola Schreurs, Linsen Zan
CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 3 (CRTC3) plays an extensive role in glucose and lipid metabolism. This study investigated the genetic variation and haplotype combination in CRTC3 and verified their contribution to bovine growth traits. Firstly, investigated the mRNA expression of CRTC3 in adult Qinchuan cattle and evaluated the effects that genetic variation of CRTC3 had on conformation and carcass traits in two Chinese cattle breeds (Qinchuan and Jiaxian). Four SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) were identified including two in introns (SNP1: g...
December 4, 2018: Genomics
V M P Ribeiro, F S S Raidan, A R Barbosa, M V G B Silva, F F Cardoso, F L B Toral
This study aimed to verify if random regression models using linear splines (RRMLS) are suitable for identifying genetic parameters in multiple-breed populations and also to investigate whether an interaction exists between the breeding value (BV) of sires and their progeny breed group. Ten populations were simulated by crossing 2 breeds with distinct genetic variance and nonzero segregation variance. To obtain the genetic parameters, 2 models were used: a multiple-trait model (MULT), in which the trait was considered distinct when evaluated in each group (1/2P1 + 1/2P2 , 5/8P1 + 3/8P2 , and 3/4P1 + 1/4P2 ), and a RRMLS with the spline polynomial knots adjusted to these same groups...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
S König, K May
In dairy cattle, resistance, tolerance and resilience refer to the adaptation ability to a broad range of environmental conditions, implying stable performances (e.g. production level, fertility status) independent from disease or infection pressure. All three mechanisms resistance, tolerance and resilience contribute to overall robustness, implying the evaluation of phenotyping and breeding strategies for improved robustness in dairy cattle populations. Classically, breeding approaches on improved robustness rely on simple production traits, in combination with detailed environmental descriptors and enhanced statistical modelling to infer possible genotype by environment interactions...
December 7, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Hanspeter Stalder, Claudia Bachofen, Matthias Schweizer, Reto Zanoni, Dominik Sauerländer, Ernst Peterhans
The first records of smallpox and rabies date back thousands of years and foot-and-mouth disease in cattle was described in the 16th century. These diseases stood out by their distinct signs, dramatic way of transmission from rabid dogs to humans, and sudden appearance in cattle herds. By contrast, infectious diseases that show variable signs and affect few individuals were identified only much later. Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), endemic in cattle worldwide, was first described in 1946, together with the eponymous RNA virus as its cause...
2018: PloS One
Ricardo Zanella, Luísa V Lago, Arthur N da Silva, Fábio Pértille, Nathã S de Carvalho, João Cláudio do Carmo Panetto, Giovana C Zanella, Fernanda L Facioli, Marcos Vinicius G B da Silva
The Indubrasil breed was developed in the Brazilian region called Triângulo Mineiro as a result of a cross between zebu cattle. Initially, it was used as a terminal cross and currently it represents approximately 4.45% of all the Brazilian zebu cattle. Studies were conducted to estimate genetic parameters in the Indubrasil using pedigree information, however, until now, no study has been developed using large-scale genomic markers in this breed. Pedigree information are widely used to investigate population parameters; however, they can neglect some estimates when compared to the use of genomic markers...
December 3, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
S Thompson, A L Schaefer, G H Crow, J Basarab, J Colyn, K Ominski
Residual feed intake (RFI) has been used to select metabolically efficient cattle in beef breeding programs, particularly for sire selection. Adoption of genetic selection using RFI has been limited due to the cost and difficulty of measuring individual feed intake. An alternative method of predicting RFI is to measure radiated heat loss using infrared thermography (IRT) as previous studies have shown promise using this technique to predict metabolic efficiency in mature cows, heifers, and growing bulls. The objective of this study was to explore use of IRT to predict RFI in growing beef bulls...
December 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Aneta Alama, Anna Jonkisz, Miron Tokarski, Małgorzata Małodobra-Mazur, Arleta Lebioda, Elżbieta Kowalczyk, Tadeusz Dobosz
AIM OF THE STUDY: Genetic tests play a crucial role in the crime investigation process and often provide the strongest evidence for case resolution. Although the majority of genetic analyses in the field of criminalistics focus on the human DNA, genetic identification of animals is becoming an increasingly common procedure. Domestic animals, which live around people, may be silent witnesses and even victims of criminal activity. Their typically limited value as evidence in such cases could radically change thanks to the possibility of using animal biological material present at the crime scene...
2018: Archiwum Medycyny Sa̧dowej i Kryminologii
Jiajia Wang, Qianqian Ge, Jitao Li, Zhao Chen, Jian Li
Growth is among the most important traits for animal breeding. Muscle growth is controlled by different cellular and molecular pathways and environments, and it also relies heavily on high-quality muscle contractions. The troponin complex, composed of troponin T (TnT), troponin C (TnC) and troponin I (TnI), plays a vital role in the regulation of muscle contraction. In this study, the cDNA of EcTnT, EcTnC and EcTnI of the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda were cloned and characterized. The full length cDNA of EcTnT, EcTnC and EcTnI were 1 373 bp, 692 bp, and 1 475 bp, encoding a protein of 385, 150 and 193 amino acid residues, respectively...
December 1, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Amy Flaxman, Yuko Yamaguchi, Pauline M van Diemen, Christine Rollier, Elizabeth Allen, Elizaveta Elshina, David H Wyllie
INTRODUCTION: S. aureus is a pathogen to which individuals are exposed shortly after birth, with immune responses to S. aureus increasing during childhood. There is marked heterogeneity between the anti- S. aureus immune responses of different humans, the basis of which is not fully understood. METHODS: To investigate development of anti-S. aureus immune responses, we studied S. aureus colonised mice under controlled conditions. Mice were either acquired colonised from breeding colonies, or experimentally colonised by exposure to a cage environment which had been sprayed with a S...
November 28, 2018: Vaccine
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