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Protein phosphatase 2a

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774021/mitotic-spindle-organizing-protein-mzta-mediates-septation-signaling-by-suppressing-the-regulatory-subunit-of-protein-phosphatase-2a-para-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#1
Ping Jiang, Shujun Zheng, Ling Lu
The proper timing and positioning of cytokinesis/septation is crucial for hyphal growth and conidiation in Aspergillus nidulans . The septation initiation network (SIN) components are a conserved spindle pole body (SPB) localized signaling cascade and the terminal kinase complex SidB-MobA, which must localize on the SPB in this pathway to trigger septation/cytokinesis. The regulatory subunit of phosphatase PP2A-ParA has been identified to be a negative regulator capable of inactivating the SIN. However, little is known about how ParA regulates the SIN pathway and whether ParA regulates the septum formation process through affecting the SPB-localized SIN proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764860/membrane-initiated-estrogen-receptor-signaling-mediates-metabolic-homeostasis-via-central-activation-of-protein-phosphatase-2a
#2
Kazutaka Ueda, Eiki Takimoto, Qing Lu, Pangyen Liu, Nobuaki Fukuma, Yusuke Adachi, Ryo Suzuki, Shengpu Chou, Wendy Baur, Mark J Aronovitz, Andrew S Greenberg, Issei Komuro, Richard H Karas
Women gain weight and their diabetes risk increases as they transition through menopause; these changes can in part be reversed by hormone therapy. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms mediating these effects are unknown. A novel knock-in mouse line with the selective blockade of the membrane-initiated estrogen receptor (ER) pathway was employed, and we found that the lack of this pathway precipitated excessive weight gain and glucose intolerance independent of food intake, and that this was accompanied by impaired adaptive thermogenesis and reduced physical activity...
May 15, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752834/h-2-o-2-induces-pp2a-demethylation-to-downregulate-mtorc1-signaling-in-hek293-cells
#3
Shen Tang, Fu Qin, Xinhang Wang, Ziwei Liang, Haiqing Cai, Laiming Mo, Yue Huang, Boyin Liang, Xuejing Wei, Qingqing Ao, Yilu Xu, Yuyang Liu, Deqiang Xiao, Songchao Guo, Cailing Lu, Xiyi Li
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that functions as an ATP and amino acid sensor to govern cell growth and proliferation by mediating mitogen- and nutrient-dependent signal transduction. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine phosphatase, negatively regulates mTOR signaling. Methylation of PP2A is catalyzed by leucine carboxyl methyltransferase-1 (LCMT1) and reversed by protein phosphatase methylesterase 1 (PME-1), which regulates PP2A activity and substrate specificity...
May 12, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735529/global-loss-of-leucine-carboxyl-methyltransferase-1-causes-severe-defects-in-fetal-liver-hematopoiesis
#4
Jocelyn A Lee, Zhengqi Wang, Danielle Sambo, Kevin D Bunting, David C Pallas
Leucine Carboxyl Methyltransferase-1 (LCMT-1)3 methylates the carboxy-terminal leucine α-carboxyl group of the catalytic subunits of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) subfamily of protein phosphatases, PP2Ac, PP4c, and PP6c. LCMT-1 differentially regulates the formation and function of a subset of the heterotrimeric complexes that PP2A and PP4 form with their regulatory subunits. Global LCMT-1 knockout causes embryonic lethality in mice, but LCMT-1 function in development is unknown. In the current study, we analyzed the effects of global LCMT-1 loss on embryonic development...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721551/investigating-the-role-of-rts1-in-dna-replication-initiation
#5
Ana B A Wallis, Conrad A Nieduszynski
Background: Understanding DNA replication initiation is essential to understand the mis-regulation of replication seen in cancer and other human disorders. DNA replication initiates from DNA replication origins. In eukaryotes, replication is dependent on cell cycle kinases which function during S phase. Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) act to phosphorylate the DNA helicase (composed of mini chromosome maintenance proteins: Mcm2-7) and firing factors to activate replication origins...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719209/sit4p-mediated-dephosphorylation-of-atp2p-regulates-atp-synthase-activity-and-mitochondrial-function
#6
Clara Pereira, Andreia T Pereira, Hugo Osório, Pedro Moradas-Ferreira, Vítor Costa
Sit4p is a type 2A-related protein phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in a wide spectrum of cellular functions, including the glucose repression of mitochondrial transcription. Here we report that Sit4p is also involved in post-translational regulation of mitochondrial proteins and identified 9 potential targets. One of these, the ATP synthase (FoF1 complex) beta subunit Atp2p, was characterized and two phosphorylation sites, T124 and T317, were identified. Expression of Atp2p-T124 or T317 phosphoresistant versions in sit4Δ cells decreased Atp2p phosphorylation confirming these as Sit4p-regulated sites...
April 29, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704550/tau-hyperphosphorylation-and-p-creb-reduction-are-involved-in-acrylamide-induced-spatial-memory-impairment-suppression-by-curcumin
#7
Dandan Yan, Jianling Yao, Ying Liu, Xing Zhang, Yiqi Wang, Xiaoyi Chen, Liegang Liu, Nian Shi, Hong Yan
Acrylamide (ACR) is an axonal toxicant that produces peripheral neuropathy in laboratory animals and humans. Epidemiological study found that diet ACR exposure was associated with a mild cognitive decline in men. However, limited information is available as regards its potential and underlying mechanism to cause memory alterations. Curcumin is a polyphenol with neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing properties. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism of ACR-induced spatial memory impairment and the beneficial effect of curcumin...
April 26, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693750/protein-phosphatase-2a-mediates-js-k-induced-apoptosis-by-affecting-bcl-2-family-proteins-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hepg2-cells
#8
Ling Liu, Zile Huang, Jingjing Chen, Jiangang Wang, Shuying Wang
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is an important enzyme within various signal transduction pathways. The present study was investigated PP2A mediates JS-K-induced apoptosis by affecting Bcl-2 family protein. JS-K showed diverse inhibitory effects in five HCC cell lines, especially HepG2 cells. JS-K caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction in cell viability and increased in levels of LDH release. Meanwhile, JS-K- induced apoptosis was characterized by mitochondrial membrane potential reduction, Hoechst 33342+ /PI+ dual staining, release of cytochrome c (Cyt c), and activation of cleaved caspase-9/3...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689717/mechanism-of-tau-hyperphosphorylation-involving-lysosomal-enzyme-asparagine-endopeptidase-in-a-mouse-model-of-brain-ischemia
#9
Gustavo Basurto-Islas, Jin-Hua Gu, Yunn Chyn Tung, Fei Liu, Khalid Iqbal
Dementias including Alzheimer's disease (AD) are multifactorial disorders that involve several different etiopathogenic mechanisms. Cerebral ischemia has been suspected in the altered regulation of protein kinases and phosphatases that leads to hyperphosphorylation of tau and further neurofibrillary pathology, a key hallmark of AD and related neurodegenerative diseases. However, the deregulation of these enzymes and their relationship with ischemia and AD remain unclear. Previously, we reported a mechanism by which the lysosomal enzyme asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) is associated with brain acidosis and AD...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688618/se-methylselenocysteine-ameliorates-neuropathology-and-cognitive-deficits-by-attenuating-oxidative-stress-and-metal-dyshomeostasis-in-alzheimer-model-mice
#10
Yongli Xie, Qiong Liu, Lin Zheng, BingTao Wang, Xiaogang Qu, Jiazuan Ni, Yan Zhang, Xiubo Du
SCOPE: Se-methylselenocysteine (SMC) is a major selenocompound in selenium (Se) enriched plants such as garlic and broccoli florets. Se is vital for proper brain function, and Se-deficient is considered to be related with cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we evaluated for the first time the potential of SMC in intervening cognitive deficits and neuropathology of triple transgenic AD (3 × Tg-AD) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: AD mice were treated with SMC (0...
April 24, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688323/silac-based-phosphoproteomics-reveals-new-pp2a-cdc55-regulated-processes-in-budding-yeast
#11
Barbara Baro, Soraya Játiva, Inés Calabria, Judith Vinaixa, Joan-Josep Bech-Serra, Carolina de LaTorre, João Rodrigues, María Luisa Hernáez, Concha Gil, Silvia Barceló-Batllori, Martin R Larsen, Ethel Queralt
Background: Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a family of conserved serine/threonine phosphatases involved in several essential aspects of cell growth and proliferation. PP2ACdc55 phosphatase has been extensively related to cell cycle events in budding yeast, however few PP2ACdc55 substrates have been identified. Here, we performed a quantitative mass spectrometry approach to reveal new substrates of PP2ACdc55 phosphatase and new PP2A-related processes in mitotic arrested cells. Results: We identified 62 statistically significant PP2ACdc55 substrates involved mainly in actin-cytoskeleton organization...
April 24, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673138/marine-longilenes-oxasqualenoids-with-ser-thr-protein-phosphatase-2a-inhibition-activity
#12
Francisco Cen-Pacheco, Claudia Pérez Manríquez, María Luisa Souto, Manuel Norte, José Javier Fernández, Antonio Hernández Daranas
The red seaweed Laurencia viridis is a rich source of oxygenated secondary metabolites that were derived from squalene. We report here the structures of three novel compounds, (+)-longilene peroxide ( 1 ), longilene ( 2 ), and (+)-prelongilene ( 3 ) that were isolated from this alga, in addition to other substances, 4 and 5 , resulting from their acid-mediated degradation. The effect of compounds 1 and 3 against Ser-Thr protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) was evaluated, showing that (+)-longilene peroxide ( 1 ) inhibited PP2A (IC50 11...
April 17, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667783/phap1-promotes-glioma-cell-proliferation-by-regulating-the-akt-p27-stathmin-pathway
#13
Manyi Xie, Zhe Ji, Yaxing Bao, Yufu Zhu, Yang Xu, Lei Wang, Shangfeng Gao, Zhiyi Liu, Zilu Tian, Qingming Meng, Hengliang Shi, Rutong Yu
PHAP1 (Putative HLA-DR-associated protein 1), also termed acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32A (ANP32A), Phosphoprotein 32 (pp32) or protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor (I1PP2A), is a multifunctional protein aberrantly expressed in multiple types of human cancers. However, its expression pattern and clinical relevance in human glioma remain unknown. In this study, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated PHAP1 protein was highly expressed in glioma patients, especially in those with high-grade disease...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656074/protein-phosphatase-2a-as-a-new-target-for-downregulating-osteoclastogenesis-and-alleviating-titanium-particle-induced-bone-resorption
#14
Liangliang Wang, Xiaobin Guo, Wei Zhou, Yayun Ding, Jiawei Shi, Xiexing Wu, Yu Liu, Yaozeng Xu, Huilin Yang, Dechun Geng
Receptor activator of nuclear factor-кB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis is believed to play a critical role in osteolytic diseases including peri-prosthetic osteolysis (PPO), the primary reason for implant failure and revision surgery. In this study, we observed that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major serine-threonine phosphatase, was highly expressed in human periprosthetic interface membranes with aseptic loosening and in a murine osteolysis model induced by titanium particle irritation. PP2A inhibition effectively alleviated titanium particle-induced bone destruction at osteolytic sites...
April 12, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644457/an-interplay-between-shugoshin-and-spo13-for-centromeric-cohesin-protection-and-sister-kinetochore-mono-orientation-during-meiosis-i-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#15
Gunjan Mehta, Guhan Kaliyaperumal Anbalagan, Akhilendra Pratap Bharati, Purna Gadre, Santanu Kumar Ghosh
Meiosis is a specialized cell division process by which haploid gametes are produced from a diploid mother cell. Reductional chromosome segregation during meiosis I (MI) is achieved by two unique and conserved events: centromeric cohesin protection (CCP) and sister kinetochore mono-orientation (SKM). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a meiosis-specific protein Spo13 plays a role in both these centromere-specific events. Despite genome-wide association of Spo13, we failed to detect its function in global processes such as cohesin loading, cohesion establishment and homologs pairing...
April 11, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620225/role-of-cantharidin-in-the-activation-of-ikk%C3%AE-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb%C3%AE-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-by-inhibiting-pp2a-activity-in-cholangiocarcinoma-cell-lines
#16
Huijiang Zhou, Jiangfeng Xu, Shuai Wang, Jinfeng Peng
Cantharidin (CAN), a potent inhibitor of serine/threonine‑protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), is widely used in clinical practice, particularly in the treatment of advanced cancer due to its specific action on these types of cancer. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of CAN was examined in two cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (QBC939 and Hucc‑t1). Following treatment with CAN, cell viability was effectively reduced in QBC939 and Hucc‑t1 cells and normal human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells. However, a slight increase in reactive oxygen species levels in QBC939 cells treated with CAN was observed post‑treatment...
April 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608172/live-cell-imaging-of-chromosome-segregation-during-mitosis
#17
Prajakta Varadkar, Kazuyo Takeda, Brenton McCright
Chromosomes must be reliably and uniformly segregated into daughter cells during mitotic cell division. Fidelity of chromosomal segregation is controlled by multiple mechanisms that include the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC). The SAC is part of a complex feedback system that is responsible for prevention of a cell progress through mitosis unless all chromosomal kinetochores have attached to spindle microtubules. Chromosomal lagging and abnormal chromosome segregation is an indicator of dysfunctional cell cycle control checkpoints and can be used to measure the genomic stability of dividing cells...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603632/metabolic-regulation-of-methionine-restriction-in-diabetes
#18
REVIEW
Jie Yin, Wenkai Ren, Shuai Chen, Yuying Li, Hui Han, Jing Gao, Gang Liu, Xin Wu, Tiejun Li, Sung Woo Kim, Yulong Yin
Although the effects of dietary methionine restriction have been investigated in the physiology of aging and diseases related to oxidative stress, the relationship between methionine restriction and the development of metabolic disorders has not been explored extensively. This review summarizes studies of the possible involvement of dietary methionine restriction in improving insulin resistance, glucose homeostasis, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, the pentose phosphate pathway, and inflammation, with an emphasis on the fibroblast growth factor 21 and protein phosphatase 2A signals and autophagy in diabetes...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597147/caffeic-acid-phenethyl-ester-down-regulates-claudin-2-expression-at-the-transcriptional-and-post-translational-levels-and-enhances-chemosensitivity-to-doxorubicin-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-a549-cells
#19
Hiroyuki Sonoki, Asami Tanimae, Takumi Furuta, Satoshi Endo, Toshiyuki Matsunaga, Kenji Ichihara, Akira Ikari
Claudin-2 is highly expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma cells and involved in the promotion of proliferation. Here, we searched for a compound, which can decrease claudin-2 expression using lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. In the screening using compounds included in royal jelly and propolis, the protein level of claudin-2 was dose-dependently decreased by caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), whereas the mRNA level and promoter activity were only decreased by 50 μM CAPE. These results suggest that CAPE down-regulates claudin-2 expression mediated by two different mechanisms...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581727/reference-gene-identification-for-reliable-normalisation-of-quantitative-rt-pcr-data-in-setaria-viridis
#20
Duc Quan Nguyen, Andrew L Eamens, Christopher P L Grof
Background: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the key platform for the quantitative analysis of gene expression in a wide range of experimental systems and conditions. However, the accuracy and reproducibility of gene expression quantification via RT-qPCR is entirely dependent on the identification of reliable reference genes for data normalisation. Green foxtail ( Setaria viridis ) has recently been proposed as a potential experimental model for the study of C4 photosynthesis and is closely related to many economically important crop species of the Panicoideae subfamily of grasses, including Zea mays (maize), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) and Sacchurum officinarum (sugarcane)...
2018: Plant Methods
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