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Compensation and injury

Kohsuke Hagisawa, Manabu Kinoshita, Bonpei Takase, Kenichi Hashimoto, Daizoh Saitoh, Shuhji Seki, Yasuhiro Nishida, Hiromi Sakai
INTRODUCTION: We have developed hemoglobin vesicles (HbVs) as a substitute for red blood cells (RBCs). We investigated the efficacy of HbV transfusion in the treatment of massive hemorrhage in rabbits in the setting of thrombocytopenic coagulopathy, focusing on the efficacy of hemostasis by subsequent platelet transfusion. METHODS: Thrombocytopenic coagulopathy was induced in rabbits by repeated blood withdrawal and isovolemic retransfusion of autologous RBC (platelet counts <45,000/μL)...
September 2018: Shock
Mei-Hui Wang, Chuan-Yi Chien, Hung-Man Yu, Ping-Yen Wang, Wuu-Jyh Lin
Many biochemical tests detecting the presence of liver disease are not liver-specific and may be abnormal in non-hepatic conditions. Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) is a hepatocyte-specific receptor for Gal/GalNAc-terminated glycopeptide or glycoprotein. The number of these receptors decreases in patients with chronic liver diseases. Here, we aimed to evaluate the use of 111 In-hexavalent lactoside, a known ASGPR imaging biomarker, as a more sensitive probe to detect small changes in liver reserve in animal models of chronic liver injury...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Michael J Gross, Len Doyal, Michael Swash
We describe our misgivings concerning the use of transcripts of covert recordings of medico-legal assessments made by claimants as evidence in actions for compensation for personal injury. These recordings raise issues of lack of trust between the claimant and the medical expert, leading to bias in the consultation that is hidden from the medical expert. In addition, there is a risk of widespread dissemination of the recording through social media to the detriment of the reputation of the medical expert, and likely interference with the probity of the court hearing...
August 8, 2018: Medico-legal Journal
Denise D Quigley, Madeline B Doyle, Barbara O Wynn
California's workers' compensation (WC) program provides medical care and wage-replacement benefits to workers who suffer on-the-job injuries and illnesses. Individuals who are injured on the job are entitled to receive the medical care they need to relieve the effects of their injury with no deductibles or copayments. Physicians who treat and provide care to injured workers are required to file reports with the WC payer that address the worker's treatment, medical progress, and work-related issues. California's Division of Workers' Compensation (DWC) asked the RAND Corporation to review the reporting process and pricing structure of the WC-required reports to ensure that the policies are consistent with efficient program administration...
March 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Young-Hui Chang, Stephen N Housley, Kerry S Hart, Paul Nardelli, Richard T Nichols, Huub Maas, Timothy C Cope
The ability to recover purposeful movement soon after debilitating neuromuscular injury is essential to animal survival. Various neural and mechanical mechanisms exist to preserve whole-limb kinematics despite exhibiting long-term deficits of individual joints following peripheral nerve injury. However, it is unclear whether functionally relevant whole-limb movement is acutely conserved following injury. Therefore, the objective of this longitudinal study of the injury response from four individual cats was to test the hypothesis that whole-limb length is conserved following localized nerve injury of ankle extensors in cats with intact nervous systems...
August 6, 2018: Biology Open
Julio Acosta-Cabronero, Carlos Milovic, Hendrik Mattern, Cristian Tejos, Oliver Speck, Martina F Callaghan
Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM), best known as a surrogate for tissue iron content, is becoming a highly relevant MRI contrast for monitoring cellular and vascular status in aging, addiction, traumatic brain injury and, in general, a wide range of neurological disorders. In this study we present a new Bayesian QSM algorithm, named Multi-Scale Dipole Inversion (MSDI), which builds on the nonlinear Morphology-Enabled Dipole Inversion (nMEDI) framework, incorporating three additional features: (i) improved implementation of Laplace's equation to reduce the influence of background fields through variable harmonic filtering and subsequent deconvolution, (ii) improved error control through dynamic phase-reliability compensation across spatial scales, and (iii) scalewise use of the morphological prior...
July 31, 2018: NeuroImage
Takuro Sakai, Masanori Sasaki, Yuko Kataoka-Sasaki, Shinichi Oka, Masahito Nakazaki, Shinobu Fukumura, Masaki Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Tsutsumi, Jeffery D Kocsis, Osamu Honmou
OBJECTIVE Children who have experienced neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy often develop cerebral palsy. Although many treatments have been performed, few effective therapies are available. In this study, the authors tested in rats with hypoxia-ischemia (HI) injuries the hypothesis that the systemic infusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) would result in functional improvement by facilitating neural compensation in the contralesional cortex. METHODS Postnatal day (P) 7 (P7) rats that had undergone unilateral hemisphere hypoxia-ischemia (modified Rice-Vannucci model) were randomly assigned to MSC-infused or vehicle-infused groups...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Sean I Docking, Michael A Girdwood, Jill Cook, Lauren V Fortington, Ebonie Rio
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the mean cross-sectional area (mCSA) of aligned fibrillar structure (AFS) was associated with the presence and severity of symptoms. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred seventy-five elite male Australian football players completed monthly Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center overuse injury questionnaires for both the Achilles and patellar tendon over the season to ascertain the presence and severity of symptoms...
July 31, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Andrée-Anne Berthiaume, David A Hartmann, Mark W Majesky, Narayan R Bhat, Andy Y Shih
The biology of brain microvascular pericytes is an active area of research and discovery, as their interaction with the endothelium is critical for multiple aspects of cerebrovascular function. There is growing evidence that pericyte loss or dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, ischemic stroke and brain injury. However, strategies to mitigate or compensate for this loss remain limited. In this review, we highlight a novel finding that pericytes in the adult brain are structurally dynamic in vivo , and actively compensate for loss of endothelial coverage by extending their far-reaching processes to maintain contact with regions of exposed endothelium...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Ben Schram, Robin Orr, Timothy Rigby, Rodney Pope
Occupational health and safety incidents occurring in the military context are of great concern to personnel and commanders. Incidents such as "dangerous incidents", "exposures", and "near misses" (as distinct from injuries, illnesses, and fatalities) indicate serious health and safety risks faced by military personnel, even if they do not cause immediate harm. These risks may give rise to harm in the future, if not adequately addressed, and in some cases the incidents may cause latent harm...
July 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Cai-Wei Qiu, Zong-Yao Liu, Kun Hou, Shu-Yi Liu, Yue-Xin Hu, Ling Zhang, Feng-Lan Zhang, Ke-Ying Lv, Qiang Kang, Wei-Yan Hu, Na Ma, Yang Jiao, Wen-Jin Bai, Zhi-Cheng Xiao
Neurogenesis correlates closely with the recovery of neural function after brain ischemia but the critical proteins and signaling pathways involved remain unclear. The phosphatase WIP1 has been shown to regulate neurogenesis in models of aging. However, it is not known if WIP1 affects neurogenesis and functional recovery after brain ischemia. To explore these questions, we performed permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice and performed BrdU labeling, neurobehavioral testing, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining...
July 23, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Shimon Tashiro
The Clinical Research Act went into force on April 1, 2018, marking a major shift in clinical research in Japan. Moving forward, review of research plans by a Certified Review Board authorized by the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare will be necessary when conducting clinical research using pharmaceuticals or medical devices which are off-label or have not been approved, or when conducting clinical research supported by company funding. Moreover, even currently ongoing research will need to be reviewed by a Certified Review Board during the transition period...
July 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Mogale L Pilusa, Mataniele S Mogotlane
BACKGROUND:  Environmental hazards such as fumes, gases, poor ventilation and extreme temperatures might lead to occupational illnesses and injuries. To protect workers from potential occupational health and safety risks, the government has promulgated occupational legislation that must be implemented in work settings. OBJECTIVES:  The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge of workers about occupational legislation and its benefits for their health and safety...
June 28, 2018: Curationis
Ross Armstrong, Nicola Relph
BACKGROUND: Dance involves movements of complexity and physical intensity which result in stress on the body. As a consequence, dancers are at risk of injury which can impact on their well-being. Screening tools are used for injury prevention to identify those dancers at risk of injury. The aim of this study was to investigate which screening tools can predict injury in dancers, encompassing all dance genres, levels and ages. METHODS: An electronic search of seven databases from their inception to December 2017 was conducted...
July 18, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
(no author information available yet)
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its adjudication regulations to add an additional compensation benefit for veterans with residuals of traumatic brain injury (TBI). This final rule incorporates in regulations a benefit authorized by the enactment of the Veterans' Benefits Act of 2010. The Veterans' Benefits Act authorizes special monthly compensation (SMC) for veterans with TBI who are in need of aid and attendance, and in the absence of such aid and attendance, would require hospitalization, nursing home care, or other residential institutional care...
May 8, 2018: Federal Register
Kagari Abiko, Tohru Shiga, Chietsugu Katoh, Kenji Hirata, Yuji Kuge, Kentaro Kobayashi, Satoshi Ikeda, Katsunori Ikoma
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral metabolism may play a significant role in neurobehavioural disability following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, we examined the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2 ) in the lateral prefrontal cortex, which was measured by 15 O-labelled gas positron emission tomography (PET), in patients with TBI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects were 12 patients (eight males and four females) who suffered from neurobehavioural disability following TBI...
July 16, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Xiaofeng Yin, Xiaomeng Zhang, Yuhui Kou, Yanhua Wang, Lijia Zhang, Baoguo Jiang, Dianying Zhang
Using portion of a nearby nerve trunk to reconstruct a severe nerve lesion by artificial biodegradable chitin conduit is the core practicable method based on peripheral nerve amplification regeneration. However, the quantitative influences on skeletal muscle function corresponding to the injury of the donated nerve fibres were not previously reported. Here, we aimed to explore the compensative capacity in tibialis anterior muscles of rats with the models of acute tibialis anterior nerve branch injuries. The tibialis anterior branch of deep peroneal nerve was transected in various levels each time...
July 16, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Kohei Yamahara, Koji Nishimura, Hideaki Ogita, Juichi Ito, Takayuki Nakagawa, Ichiro Furuta, Tomoko Kita, Koichi Omori, Norio Yamamoto
The hybrid or electric-acoustic stimulation cochlear implant is indicated in patients with a residual hearing at low frequencies. It provides electric and acoustic stimulation for compensating for high- and low-frequency sounds, respectively. However, the implantation procedure damages the cochlea, resulting in loss of the residual-hearing and diminished effects of the acoustic-hearing in several patients. To prevent hearing loss after implantation, corticosteroids have been used clinically although their effects are limited...
July 6, 2018: Hearing Research
Gen Hamanaka, Ryo Ohtomo, Hajime Takase, Josephine Lok, Ken Arai
White matter damage caused by neurodegenerative diseases is almost incurable at present and an effective treatment has been waited for a long time. Etiology of the white matter damage is attributed to the collapse of axon-myelin complex and the breakdown of blood-brain barrier (BBB), which result in disruption of the white matter function. While the white matter dysfunction cannot be repaired by itself, some compensative responses may occur after the damage. Oligodendrocyte lineage cells play an important role for the white matter function, and during the chronic phase of diseases, they aim to cooperate with other neurovascular component cells to repair the damaged white matter tissue...
July 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Hiroyoshi Hara
Two theoretical frameworks based on cognitive rehabilitation principles are recommended for the rehabilitation of memory impaired individuals. The first is improving memory function by the remediation of brain plasticity, known as remediation-oriented rehabilitation, and second is the compensation of memory function through the use of external memory aids, environmental modifications, and intact cognitive functions to overcome limitations in daily life. In rehabilitation of episodic memory impaired individuals, it has been recognized that the effortful active retrieval technique is more effective than the memorization technique...
July 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
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