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Compensation and injury

F Y Chen, Y Z Zhang, C Q Wu, Y Cheng, J Hu, P Han, Z C Chen, Y Gao, X Y Ren, M Xu, Q Zhang
Objective: To study the parameters of the suppression head impulse paradigm of vestibular neuritis and explore the application value of suppression head impulse paradigm in vestibular neuritis. Method: Twenty patients with vestibular neuritis in our outpatient clinic were selected. The HIMP and SHIMP gain of unilateral vestibular neuritis patients were detected by video pulse detector. Result: All patients with HIMP examination in the affected side can elicit compensatory saccade, the healthy side with no compensatory saccade; SHIMP examination in the healthy side can elicit anti-compensatory saccade, the affected side without compensatory saccade or weak saccades...
September 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Karel Dewulf, Emmanuel Weyne, Thomas Gevaert, Yves Deruyver, Thomas Voets, Dirk De Ridder, Wouter Everaerts, Maarten Albersen
OBJECTIVES: To create a rat model for neurogenic detrusor underactivity (DU) by bilateral pelvic nerve crush injury (BPNI) and to study temporal changes in detrusor contractility and morphology. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to BPNI or sham surgery and evaluated 1, 3 and 9 weeks after surgery. Bladder function was determined in vivo by awake cystometry, micturition pattern analysis and 24-hours urine collection. Bladders were harvested for in vitro pharmacological investigation by isometric tension recording...
December 14, 2018: BJU International
Francisco García-Bernal, Noelia Geribaldi-Doldán, Samuel Domínguez-García, Manuel Carrasco, Maribel Murillo-Carretero, Antonio Delgado-Ariza, Mónica Díez-Salguero, Cristina Verástegui, Carmen Castro
Brain injuries of different etiologies lead to irreversible neuronal loss and persisting neuronal deficits. New therapeutic strategies are emerging to compensate neuronal damage upon brain injury. Some of these strategies focus on enhancing endogenous generation of neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs) to substitute the dying neurons. However, the capacity of the injured brain to produce new neurons is limited, especially in cases of extensive injury. This reduced neurogenesis is a consequence of the effect of signaling molecules released in response to inflammation, which act on intracellular pathways, favoring gliogenesis and preventing recruitment of neuroblasts from neurogenic regions...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Carrie Ritchie, Samantha A Hollingworth, Jacelle Warren, Michele Sterling
Medicine use as part of multimodal management for whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) is common: neck pain is the cardinal symptom, mental health conditions are common, and some individuals may have neurological signs and symptoms. Almost half of WAD individuals have on-going pain and disability. However, medicine use during acute and chronic recovery periods for WAD management is unknown. We analysed medicine use during acute (<12 weeks) and chronic (12 weeks - 2 years) post-injury periods in adults claiming compensation for WAD in the no-fault jurisdiction of Victoria, Australia (n=2871)...
December 7, 2018: Pain
Evgeniya V Pushchina, Anatoly A Varaksin
In contrast to astrocytes in mammals, fish astrocytes promote axon regeneration after brain injury and actively participate in the regeneration process. Neurolin, a regeneration-associated, Zn8-labeled protein, is involved in the repair of damaged optic nerve in goldfish. At 1 week after unilateral eye injury, the expression of neurolin in the optic nerve and chiasm, and the expression of Pax6 that influences nervous system development in various brain regions in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were detected...
January 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Zhi Chai, Cungen Ma, Xiaoming Jin
Hyperexcitability of neural network is a key neurophysiological mechanism in several neurological disorders including epilepsy, neuropathic pain, and tinnitus. Although standard paradigm of pharmacological management of them is to suppress this hyperexcitability, such as having been exemplified by the use of certain antiepileptic drugs, their frequent refractoriness to drug treatment suggests likely different pathophysiological mechanism. Because the pathogenesis in these disorders exhibits a transition from an initial activity loss after injury or sensory deprivation to subsequent hyperexcitability and paroxysmal discharges, this process can be regarded as a process of functional compensation similar to homeostatic plasticity regulation, in which a set level of activity in neural network is maintained after injury-induced activity loss through enhanced network excitability...
January 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Bamini Gopinath, Jagnoor Jagnoor, Annette Kifley, Michael Nicholas, Fiona Blyth, Justin Kenardy, Ashley Craig, Ian D Cameron
There is paucity of prospective studies that have examined rates and prognostic indicators of pain severity following a road-traffic crash injury. This cohort study involved 1854 participants aged ≥17 years with a non-catastrophic injury. Primary analyses of pain severity involved 1604 individuals who reported any pain since the injury at baseline, of these, 1188 and 972 participants were re-examined at 6- and 12-month follow-up, respectively. Mean pain severity (primary study outcome) was assessed using a numeric rating scale (NRS), and a range of possible pain predictors were assessed...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Peng Liu, Boyan Tian, Lifei Yang, Xinglong Zheng, Xufeng Zhang, Jianhui Li, Xuemin Liu, Yi Lv, Junxi Xiang
Thrombogenicity is the predominant obstacle to successful implantation of decellularized spleen matrix (DSM). The aim of this study was to construct a transplantable functional bioartificial liver (BAL) with the use of DSM. This was achieved by layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic immobilization technique by using poly dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (PDADMAC) and heparin. After heparin immobilization, DSM gradually turned from translucent into completely opaque milky white. Toluidine blue staining showed strong positive staining of the entire coated DSM...
November 23, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Sorino Claudio, Scichilone Nicola, Pedone Claudio, Negri Stefano, Visca Dina, Spanevello Antonio
A significant interaction between kidneys and lungs has been shown in physiological and pathological conditions. The two organs can both be targets of the same systemic disease (eg., some vasculitides). Moreover, loss of normal function of either of them can induce direct and indirect dysregulation of the other one. Subjects suffering from COPD may have systemic inflammation, hypoxemia, endothelial dysfunction, increased sympathetic activation and increased aortic stiffness. As well as the exposure to nicotine, all the foresaid factors can induce a microvascular damage, albuminuria, and a worsening of renal function...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
Ting Xia, Alex Collie
Objective Health and social care workers have a significantly higher rate of work-related injury and illness than workers in other industries. The objective of this study was to examine the rate and distribution of work-related injury and illness in the Victorian health and social care sector by demographic, occupation and injury characteristics. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted of population-level workers' compensation claim records, including 43910 claims from the Victorian health and social care over a 10-year period from 2006 to 2015...
December 5, 2018: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
Beom Jin Lim, Woon-Kyu Lee, Hyun Woong Lee, Kwan Sik Lee, Ja Kyung Kim, Hye Young Chang, Jung Il Lee
BACKGROUND: Platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) expression is increased in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in cirrhotic liver, while normal hepatocytes express PDGFRα at a negligible level. However, cancerous hepatocytes may show upregulation of PDGFRα, and hepatocellular carcinoma is preceded by chronic liver injury. The role of PDGFRα in non-cancerous hepatocytes and liver fibrosis is unclear. We hypothesized that upon liver injury, PDGFRα in insulted hepatocytes contributes to liver fibrosis by facilitating intercellular crosstalk between hepatocytes and HSCs...
December 3, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Scott A Holmes, Rajeet Singh-Saluja, Jen-Kai Chen, Isabelle Gagnon, Alain Ptito
The diagnosis of a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) places large emphasis on patient-reported symptoms which has restricted our ability to evaluate patients. Task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging has the potential to act as an objective measurement of abnormal brain activity and inform clinical decision-making; however, there is little research evaluating pediatric subjects as a function of mTBI-related symptoms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extent to which brain activity during a spatial navigation task is different between children with mTBI and a group of healthy controls (HCs) based on symptom reporting...
December 3, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Robert A Macpherson, Mieke Koehoorn, Jonathan Fan, William Quirke, Benjamin C Amick, Allen Kraut, Cameron A Mustard, Christopher B McLeod
Purpose Research has shown that there are important sex and gender-based differences in the work disability duration of men and women. This research is often limited to single jurisdictions, using different outcome measures, and therefore has limited generalisability of findings. This study examined if differences between work disability of men and women differed by province and by duration of work disability. Methods Cohorts of injured workers in the Canadian provinces of British Columbia (BC), Manitoba (MB) and Ontario (ON) were analysed using workers' compensation data for work-related injuries occurring between 2007 and 2011...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
G V Voronin, V R Mamikonyan, S V Trufanov, M N Narbut
The article describes a clinical case of Descemet's membrane detachment that occurred during cataract phacoemulsification with implantation of intraocular lens. Significant corneal edema developed in the early post-op period. Considering the ability of endothelium to close its own defects even with large injury area, the patient was followed-up for 2 years. Corneal edema was treated during 4 months and concluded with instillations of osmotic and anti-inflammatory drugs. At 1.5-2 months of therapy, the edema was gradually decreasing, and by the 4th month of the follow-up the cornea was practically transparent...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Suzanne K Powell
Beginning in 2019, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services is expanding the definition of "primarily health-related." Under the new definition, Medicare Advantage Plans allow beneficiaries supplemental benefits if they compensate for physical impairments, diminish the impact of injuries or health conditions, and/or reduce avoidable emergency department utilization. At the discretion of the plan, this could expand the scope of permitted services to include things such as nonskilled in-home workers, portable wheelchair ramps, and other assistive devices...
January 2019: Professional Case Management
Hailong Song, Mei Chen, Chen Chen, Jiankun Cui, Catherine E Johnson, Jianlin Cheng, Xiaowan Wang, Russell Swerdlow, Ralph DePalma, Weiming Xia, Zezong Gu
Service members during military actions or combat training are frequently exposed to primary blasts by weaponry. Most studies have investigated moderate or severe brain injuries from blasts generating overpressures over 100-kPa, while understanding the pathophysiology of low-intensity blast (LIB)-induced mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) leading to neurological deficits remains elusive. Our recent studies, using an open-field LIB-induced mTBI mouse model with an peak overpressure at 46.6-kPa, demonstrated behavioral impairments and brain nanoscale damages, notably mitochondrial and axonal ultrastructural changes...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
E H Wyeth, A Samaranayaka, M Lambert, M Tapsell, D Anselm, P Ellison, M Harwood, B Metzger, T Wright-Tawha, S Derrett
OBJECTIVES: The objectives are to (1) describe disability outcomes at 24 months after injury and (2) identify factors contributing to disability outcomes at 24 months after injury, for Māori and non-Māori who have been hospitalised for injury. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Prospective Outcomes of Injury Study participants were injured New Zealanders aged 18-64 years and recruited from New Zealand's no-fault injury insurer, the Accident Compensation Corporation's entitlement claims register...
October 25, 2018: Public Health
Terri Link
Physical stressors that occur with patient and equipment handling in the OR (eg, moving or lifting patients, carrying heavy instrument sets, prolonged standing) can contribute to musculoskeletal disorders for perioperative personnel. In addition to increasing patient safety, safe patient handling and movement (SPHM) programs have been shown to reduce the risk and severity of injuries, workers' compensation costs, and personnel fatigue and to increase health care workers' morale and quality of life. The AORN "Guideline for safe patient handling and movement" provides guidance for implementing an SPHM program...
December 2018: AORN Journal
Karen D Ethans, Alan Casey, Mohamed Tarhoni, Mayur Nankar, Stella Entcheva
Study design: Double-blind, randomized cross-over placebo-controlled pilot study. Objectives: To determine the effects of tadalafil on systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), and dizziness of men with American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale-A (AIS-A) spinal cord injury (SCI) between cervical-4 (C4) and thoracic-5 (T5) levels. Setting: Outpatient rehabilitation clinic. Design: Double-blind, randomized cross-over placebo-controlled pilot study...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
D King, P A Hume, N Hardaker, C Cummins, T Clark, A J Pearce, C Gissane
OBJECTIVES: To provide epidemiological data and related costs for moderate-to-serious and serious injury claims for women's rugby union in New Zealand. DESIGN: A retrospective analytical review of injury entitlement claims for women's rugby from 2013 to 2017. METHODS: Data were analysed by year of competition, age, body site and injury type for total and moderate-to-severe (MSC) Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) claims and costs. RESULTS: Over 2013 to 2017 there were 26,070 total claims for female rugby union costing $18,440,812 [AD$16,956,998]...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
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