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Long Sun, Juan Xu, Fang He
OBJECTIVES: Escherichia coli is the leading cause of urinary tract infections worldwide. Carbapenemase producing clinical isolates leave few therapeutic options. Here we report the draft genome sequence of a NDM-5, CTX-M-15, and OXA-1 co-producing E. coli ST167: a multidrug-resistant strain isolated from urine sample of a male hospitalized patient diagnosed with intracranial injury from a traffic accident. METHODS: The genome of E. coli ECWJ1 was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 4000 platform...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Ailiang Zeng, Zhiyun Wei, Wei Yan, Jianxing Yin, Xiaoxu Huang, Xu Zhou, Rui Li, Feng Shen, Weining Wu, Xiefeng Wang, Yongping You
Chemoresistance blunts the effect of Temozolomide (TMZ) in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Whether exosomal transfer of miRNAs derived from TMZ-resistant GBM cells could confer TMZ resistance remains to be determined. qPCR was used to determine miR-151a expression in two TMZ-resistant GBM cell lines. The direct targets of miR-151a were identified by microarray assays, bioinformatics and further RNA chromatin immunoprecipitation (RNA-ChIP) assay. We characterized exosomes from TMZ-resistant cell lines, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and determined the effect of exosomes from TMZ-resistant cells on recipient GBM cells...
August 10, 2018: Cancer Letters
Stephanie L Brandt, Nathan Klopfenstein, Soujuan Wang, Seth Winfree, Brian P McCarthy, Paul R Territo, Lloyd Miller, C Henrique Serezani
The early events that shape the innate immune response to restrain pathogens during skin infections remain elusive. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection engages phagocyte chemotaxis, abscess formation, and microbial clearance. Upon infection, neutrophils and monocytes find a gradient of chemoattractants that influence both phagocyte direction and microbial clearance. The bioactive lipid leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is quickly (seconds to minutes) produced by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and signals through the G protein-coupled receptors LTB4R1 (BLT1) or BLT2 in phagocytes and structural cells...
August 13, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Thorsten Brink, Veronika Leiss, Peter Siegert, Doris Jehle, Julia K Ebner, Carsten Schwan, Aliaksei Shymanets, Sebastian Wiese, Bernd Nürnberg, Michael Hensel, Klaus Aktories, Joachim H C Orth
Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is one of the most frequent causes of food-borne illness in humans and usually associated with acute self-limiting gastroenteritis. However, in immunocompromised patients, the pathogen can disseminate and lead to severe systemic diseases. S. Typhimurium are facultative intracellular bacteria. For uptake and intracellular life, Salmonella translocate numerous effector proteins into host cells using two type-III secretion systems (T3SS), which are encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 (SPI-1) and 2 (SPI-2)...
August 13, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Saul Lozano-Fuentes, Joan L Kenney, Wendy Varnado, Brian D Byrd, Kristen L Burkhalter, Harry M Savage
The rapid expansion of Zika virus (ZIKV), following the recent outbreaks of Chikungunya virus, overwhelmed the public health infrastructure in many countries and alarmed many in the scientific community. Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) have previously been incriminated as the vectors of these pathogens in addition to dengue virus. In our study, we challenged low generation Ae. aegypti (Chiapas, Mexico) and Ae. albopictus (North Carolina, Mississippi), with three strains of ZIKV, Puerto Rico (GenBank: KU501215), Honduras (GenBank: KX694534), and Miami (GenBank: MF988743)...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Kaat De Pourcq, Paul Gemmel, Ben Devis, Jan Van Ooteghem, Tom De Caluwé, Jeroen Trybou
BACKGROUND: Healthcare managers often attempt to enhance process-oriented performance. However, this remains a challenge. New approaches aimed at increasing the implementation success of process-oriented performance measurement should be investigated. METHODS: This study investigates and discusses a step-by-step methodology to implement an automated and effective process-oriented performance measurement system in a hospital. The methodology is based on a framework for developing dashboards based on three steps: the demand side, supply side, and the fit between the two...
August 13, 2018: Informatics for Health & Social Care
Nana Motokawa, Taiga Miyazaki, Atsuko Hara, Yuichi Fukuda, Shigeyuki Morino, Hiroaki Nakamura, Keisuke Iwasaki, Hiroshi Soda, Koichi Izumikawa, Katsunori Yanagihara, Hideaki Ohno, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Shigeru Kohno, Hiroshi Mukae
Scedosporium apiospermum is an opportunistic fungus that can cause various types of infections, including localized infections and life-threatening disseminated infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Treatment is especially challenging due to its multidrug resistance. We herein report the case of a 73-year-old woman who was non-immunocompromised but developed S. apiospermum lung infection and a pulmonary tumorlet. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the coexistence of pulmonary S...
August 10, 2018: Internal Medicine
Qiaoli Ma, Lothar C Dieterich, Kristian Ikenberg, Samia B Bachmann, Johanna Mangana, Steven T Proulx, Valerie C Amann, Mitchell P Levesque, Reinhard Dummer, Peter Baluk, Donald M McDonald, Michael Detmar
Tumor lymphangiogenesis is accompanied by a higher incidence of sentinel lymph node metastasis and shorter overall survival in several types of cancer. We asked whether tumor lymphangiogenesis might also occur in distant organs with established metastases and whether it might promote further metastatic spread of those metastases to other organs. Using mouse metastasis models, we found that lymphangiogenesis occurred in distant lung metastases and that some metastatic tumor cells were located in lymphatic vessels and draining lymph nodes...
August 2018: Science Advances
Laís Braga Soares, Renata Buccheri, Renata Bacic Palhares, Amaro Nunes Duarte-Neto
Disseminated human cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease occurs mainly as a congenital infection and among immunocompromised hosts. Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are at increased risk for CMV infection, and the most prevalent clinical manifestation is retinitis, followed by colitis, esophagitis, pneumonitis, and encephalitis. CMV oophoritis is poorly described in the literature with some cases reported in patients with hematological or solid malignancies, bone marrow or solid organ transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, and advanced AIDS cases...
July 2018: Autopsy & Case Reports
Ning Dong, Xuemei Yang, Rong Zhang, Edward Wai-Chi Chan, Sheng Chen
The recent convergence of genetic elements encoding phenotypic carbapenem-resistance and hypervirulence within a single Klebsiella pneumoniae host strain represents a major public concern. To obtain a better understanding of the genetic characteristic of this emerging 'superbug', the complete genomes of 3 isolates of ST11 carbapenemase-producing hypervirulent K. pneumoniae were generated using the Oxford nanopore MinION platform. Comparative whole-genome analysis identified 13 SNPs and 3 major regions of indels in the chromosomes of the clonally disseminated isolates...
August 12, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Majed F Alghoribi, Hanan H Balkhy, Neil Woodford, Matthew J Ellington
The recent declaration by the United Nations to establish an interagency coordination group (IACG) on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) emphasises the global nature of the AMR threat. Rapid dissemination and spread of AMR is exacerbated by the movements of humans, animals, foods and materials. International monitoring and surveillance of AMR indicates to policy makers, regulators and auditors the magnitude of the problem and also informs appropriate and mindful interventions that will impact public health policy and mitigate AMR...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Anja Müller, Wiebke Jansen, Nils Th Grabowski, Stefan Monecke, Ralf Ehricht, Corinna Kehrenberg
Multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) constitute a serious healthcare concern. Contaminated meat and meat products have been suggested as a major transmission route for these strains in the population. In this study, 36 ESBL-/AmpC-producing Escherichia (E.) coli isolates recovered from meat products imported into the EU from third countries (non-EU countries), both legally and illegally, were examined with regard to their antibiotic resistance profiles, virulence-associated genes and their genetic relatedness...
October 20, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
T E Warkentin
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an acquired immune-mediated hypercoagulability state strongly associated with thrombosis. During the 1970s and 1980s, the prevailing concept was that HIT was associated only with arterial thrombosis, through its unique pathogenesis via heparin-dependent, platelet-activating IgG antibodies. Yet, in 1990, when I began to encounter HIT in my clinical practice, I found that most such patients developed symptomatic venous thrombosis. This historical sketch summarizes some of the research that challenged the dogma of HIT as a mainly arterial prothrombotic disorder...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Sun H Park, Matthew R Eber, Russell S Taichman, Yusuke Shiozawa
The ability of cancer cells to compete with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to target the bone marrow microenvironment, or the HSC niche, during the dissemination process is critical for the development of bone metastasis. Here, we describe the methods for testing the relative potential of cancer cells to compete with HSCs for occupancy of the HSC niche by measuring the peripheral blood level of engrafted HSCs by flow cytometry in mice after bone marrow transplantation and tandem cancer cell inoculation. This method is useful for determining the molecular mechanisms for the roles of HSCs in the regulation of bone metastases...
August 12, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Akifumi Miyakawa, Yuta Shibamoto, Shinya Takemoto, Tatsuo Hirai, Toru Serizawa
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): Radiosurgery plus whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) has been reported to be useful for patients with ≤ 4 brain metastases (BM), but we hypothesized that similar treatment may be applicable to patients with ≥ 5 BM with or without meningeal dissemination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of low-dose Gamma Knife (GK) followed by WBRT for patients with advanced BM. MATERIALS/METHODS: Major eligibility criteria for this phase II study were: (1) ≥ 5 BM with or without meningeal dissemination and (2) the largest tumor diameter ≤ 4 cm...
August 11, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Terri R Fried, Colleen A Redding, Steven Martino, Andrea Paiva, Lynne Iannone, Maria Zenoni, Laura A Blakley, Joseph S Rossi, John O'Leary
INTRODUCTION: Advance care planning (ACP) is a key component of high-quality end-of-life care but is underused. Interventions based on models of behaviour change may fill an important gap in available programmes to increase ACP engagement. Such interventions are designed for broad outreach and flexibility in delivery. The purpose of the Sharing and Talking about My Preferences study is to examine the efficacy of three behaviour change approaches to increasing ACP engagement through two related randomised controlled trials being conducted in different settings (Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centre and community)...
August 10, 2018: BMJ Open
Maureen Seguin, Laura Hall, Helen Atherton, Rebecca Barnes, Geraldine Leydon, Elizabeth Murray, Catherine Pope, Sue Ziebland, Fiona A Stevenson
INTRODUCTION: Many patients now turn to the internet as a resource for healthcare information and advice. However, patients' use of the internet to manage their health has been positioned as a potential source of strain on the doctor-patient relationship in primary care. The current evidence about what happens when internet-derived health information is introduced during consultations has relied on qualitative data derived from interview or questionnaire studies. The 'Harnessing resources from the internet to maximise outcomes from GP consultations (HaRI)' study combines questionnaire, interview and video-recorded consultation data to address this issue more fully...
August 10, 2018: BMJ Open
Genevieve Thompson, Chloe Lyn Shindruk, Adebusola Abiodun Adekoya, Lisa Demczuk, Susan McClement
INTRODUCTION: There is a growing demand for long-term care services for older adults that embrace a model of care centred on individual recipients of care. In long-term care, models of person, resident and relationship-centred care have been developed and implemented to promote independence, decision making and choices of residents. Although the concepts of centredness have been readily adopted in these environments, what constitutes centredness is often vague and lacks conceptual clarity and definition...
August 10, 2018: BMJ Open
Nancy A Scott, Jeanette L Kaiser, Taryn Vian, Rachael Bonawitz, Rachel M Fong, Thandiwe Ngoma, Godfrey Biemba, Carol J Boyd, Jody R Lori, Davidson H Hamer, Peter C Rockers
INTRODUCTION: Maternity waiting homes (MWHs) aim to improve access to facility delivery in rural areas. However, there is limited rigorous evidence of their effectiveness. Using formative research, we developed an MWH intervention model with three components: infrastructure, management and linkage to services. This protocol describes a study to measure the impact of the MWH model on facility delivery among women living farthest (≥10 km) from their designated health facility in rural Zambia...
August 10, 2018: BMJ Open
Matthieu Heidet, Roland Amathieu, Etienne Audureau, Oriane Augusto, Violaine Nicolazo de Barmon, Amandine Rialland, David Schmitz, François Pierrang, Jean Marty, Charlotte Chollet-Xémard, Olivier Thirion, Line Jacob
INTRODUCTION: The management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is challenging in patients with cirrhosis, as it is responsible for severe complications and high mortality rates. Tranexamic acid (TXA) may help control the bleeding by counterbalancing cirrhosis-related hyperfibrinolysis. Still, there is a lack of unbiased data to conclude on its efficacy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of TXA in the early treatment of acute UGIB in patients with cirrhosis...
August 10, 2018: BMJ Open
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