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Melissa Knott, Sherrilene Classen, Sarah Krasniuk, Marisa Tippett, Liliana Alvarez
BACKGROUND: The majority of shift workers experience insufficient sleep as a result of their employment. Insufficient sleep is associated with impaired neurocognitive functioning, affecting key skills required for driving, resulting in shift workers experiencing a disproportionate burden of RTC injuries and fatalities. Yet, to our knowledge, no systematic literature review (SLR) exists to critically appraise and synthesise evidence on the determinants of fitness to drive (assessed on-road) and driving performance (assessed in a driving simulator) in shift workers with insufficient sleep...
December 15, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Thomas R Pisanic, Shiho Asaka, Shiou-Fu Lin, Ting-Tai Yen, Hanru Sun, Asli Bahadirli-Talbott, Tza-Huei Wang, Kathleen H Burns, Tian-Li Wang, Ie-Ming Shih
There is growing evidence that the majority of high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas likely arise from local dissemination of precursor lesions of the fallopian tube. Evolution of these lesions from early "p53 signatures" to latter-stage, serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) is characterized by cytologic atypia, accumulation of somatic mutations, and genomic instability, the etiologies of which remain unclear. Long interspersed element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposon is expressed in many carcinomas, including high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma, where it contributes to genomic instability; however, the timing of LINE-1 activation during this evolution has yet to be elucidated...
December 13, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Elin Lövestam, Alison Steiber, Angela Vivanti, Anne-Marie Boström, Amanda Devine, Orla Haughey, Caroline M Kiss, Nanna R Lang, Jessica Lieffers, Lyn Lloyd, Therese A O'Sullivan, Constantina Papoutsakis, Charlotte Peersen, Lene Thoresen, Ylva Orrevall
BACKGROUND: Dietitians in countries across the world have been implementing the Nutrition Care Process (NCP) and Terminology (NCPT) during the past decade. The implementation process has been evaluated in specific countries and in smaller international studies; however, no large international study comparing implementation between countries has been completed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe and compare the level of NCP/NCPT implementation across 10 countries...
December 12, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Zoe Donnell, Roseanne Hoffman, Gaya Myers, Kelly Sarmiento
INTRODUCTION: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) Guideline was created to help standardize diagnosis, prognosis, and management and treatment of pediatric mTBI. This paper describes the process CDC used to develop educational tools, and a dissemination and implementation strategy, in support of the CDC Pediatric mTBI Guideline. METHODS: Two qualitative data collection projects with healthcare providers who care for pediatric patients were conducted...
December 2018: Journal of Safety Research
Shaylyn S Stark, Loki Natarajan, Diana Chingos, Jennifer Ehren, Jessica R Gorman, Michael Krychman, Brian Kwan, Jun J Mao, Emily Myers, Tom Walpole, John P Pierce, H Irene Su
BACKGROUND: Young breast cancer survivors (YBCS) have unmet needs for managing hot flashes, fertility-related concerns, sexual health and contraception. PURPOSE: Describe the design and participant characteristics of a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of the survivorship care plan on reproductive health (SCP-R) intervention on improving hot flashes, fertility-related concerns, sexual health, and contraception in YBCS. METHODS: SCP-R is a web-based intervention with text message support encompassing evidence- based practices on four reproductive health issues...
December 12, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Lingyan Sun, Tingting Qu, Danying Wang, Yan Chen, Ying Fu, Qing Yang, Yunsong Yu
Here we report the prevalence of the suppressed vanM gene cluster as a reservoir of vancomycin resistance genes. Among 1284 clinical isolates of enterococci from four hospitals in Hangzhou, China, 55 isolates of Enterococcus faecium and one isolate of Enterococcus faecalis screened positive for the vanM genotype. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that 55 of the 56 vanM-positive isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Most of them (54/56) belonged to the main epidemic lineage CC17, mostly the ST78 type...
December 12, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Michell Charlles de Souza Costa, Laura Marina Siqueira Maia, Victor Costa de Souza, Andréia Maria Gonzaga, Vergínia Correa de Azevedo, Letícia Ramos Martins, Juliana Helena Chaves Pavoni, Felipe Gomes Naveca, Renata Dezengrini Slhessarenko
Arboviruses have become a major public health concern in Brazil, especially after Zika virus (ZIKV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) introduction, leading to massive epidemics. We conducted an investigation of arboviruses in patients with acute febrile illness for less than five days in Mato Grosso state (MT) during the period of ZIKV and CHIKV dissemination in Brazil. To achieve that, 453 human serum samples of patients suspected of Dengue (DENV), Yellow Fever (YFV), ZIKV or CHIKV collected in health units of 31 cities of MT were subjected to RT-PCR protocols for 10 flaviviruses, 5 alphaviruses and orthobunyaviruses from Simbu serogroup, nucleotide sequencing and viral isolation...
December 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Kwan Soo Ko
Antibiotic resistance is a global concern in public health. Antibiotic-resistant clones can spread nationally, internationally, and globally. This review considers representative antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacterial clones-CTX-M- 15-producing ST131 in Escherichia coli, extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing ST11 and KPC-producing ST258 in Klebsiella pneumoniae, IMP-6-producing, carbapenem-resistant ST235 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and OXA-23-producing global clone 2 in Acinetobacter baumannii-that have disseminated worldwide, including in Korea...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Alicja Sękowska, Małgorzata Prażyńska, Magdalena Twarużek, Aleksander Deptuła, Ewa Zastempowska, Ewelina Soszczyńska, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska
Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection in immunocompetent patients, whereas in immunocompromised, it may be systemic and disseminated infection associated with high mortality. Mucormycosis is one of the most rapidly progressing and fulminant forms of fungal infections; Mucor circinelloides is rarely isolated species, also from immunocompromised patients. The reported case of mucormycosis after a traffic accident indicates that it may be the result of a contamination of wound by M. circinelloides coming from the environment...
December 14, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Catherine M Pound, Jaime McDonald, Ken Tang, Gillian Seidman, Radha Jetty, Sarah Zaidi, Amy C Plint
INTRODUCTION: Asthma exacerbations are a leading cause of paediatric hospitalisations. Corticosteroids are key in the treatment of asthma exacerbations. Most current corticosteroids treatment regimens for children admitted with asthma exacerbation consist of a 5-day course of prednisone or prednisolone. However, these medications are associated with poor taste and significant vomiting, resulting in poor compliance with the treatment course. While some centres already use a short course of dexamethasone for treating children hospitalised with asthma, there is no evidence to support this practice in the inpatient population...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Ci Zhang, Xianhong Li, Deborah Koniak-Griffin, Lloyd A Goldsamt, Jing Zhou
INTRODUCTION: HIV epidemic is increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, yet HIV testing uptake remains low. As an emerging approach, HIV self-testing (HIVST) has the potential to promote HIV testing coverage and frequency in this population. However, evidence of the effectiveness on implementation of HIVST among Chinese MSM and their sexual partners is scarce. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The randomised controlled trial will be performed in Changsha, Changde, Shaoyang and Yiyang, Hunan province, China, recruiting 184 recent testers (men who had at least one HIV test within the past 2 years) and 26 non-recent testers (men who did not have HIV tests within 2 years or never had an HIV test)...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Irene A Garcia-Yu, Luis Garcia-Ortiz, Manuel A Gómez-Marcos, Rosario Alonso-Dominguez, Jesus Gonzalez-Sanchez, Sara Mora-Simon, Susana González-Manzano, Emiliano Rodriguez-Sanchez, Jose A Maderuelo-Fernandez, Jose I Recio-Rodriguez
INTRODUCTION: The intake of polyphenols has certain health benefits. This study will aim to assess the effect of adding a daily amount of chocolate high in cocoa content and polyphenols to the normal diet on blood pressure, vascular function, cognitive performance, quality of life and body composition in postmenopausal women. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Here we plan a randomised clinical trial with two parallel groups involving a total of 140 women between 50 and 64 years in the postmenopausal period, defined by amenorrhoea of ​​at least 12 consecutive months...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Brian M Sandroff, Robert W Motl, Marcus Bamman, Gary R Cutter, Mark Bolding, John R Rinker, Glenn R Wylie, Helen Genova, John DeLuca
INTRODUCTION: This randomised controlled trial (RCT) examines treadmill walking exercise training effects on learning and memory performance, hippocampal volume, and hippocampal resting-state functional connectivity in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) who have objective impairments in learning new information. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Forty fully ambulatory persons with MS who demonstrate objective learning and memory impairments will be randomly assigned into either the intervention or active control study conditions...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Margaret Murray, Aimee L Dordevic, Katherine H M Cox, Andrew Scholey, Lisa Ryan, Maxine P Bonham
INTRODUCTION: Hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and chronic inflammation are risk factors for chronic diseases cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Polyphenols are bioactive compounds found in marine algae with potential antihyperlipidaemic, antihyperglycaemic and anti-inflammatory effects. The modulation of these risk factors using bioactive polyphenols may represent a useful strategy for disease prevention and management; research in humans, however, remains limited. This trial aims to determine the impact of a polyphenol-rich brown seaweed extract on fasting hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and inflammation...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Vanessa Selak, Tereki Stewart, Yannan Jiang, Jennifer Reid, Taria Tane, Peter Carswell, Matire Harwood
INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications are more common among Māori and Pacific people compared with other ethnic groups in New Zealand. Comprehensive and sustained approaches that address social determinants of health are required to address this condition, including culturally specific interventions. Currently, New Zealand has no comprehensive T2DM management programme for Māori or Pacific people. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Mana Tū programme was developed by a Māori-led collaborative of primary healthcare workers and researchers, and codesigned with whānau (patients and their families) in order to address this gap...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Eric D Achtyes, Dror Ben-Zeev, Zhehui Luo, Heather Mayle, Brandi Burke, Armando J Rotondi, Jennifer D Gottlieb, Mary F Brunette, Kim T Mueser, Susan Gingerich, Piper S Meyer-Kalos, Patricia Marcy, Nina R Schooler, Delbert G Robinson, John M Kane
INTRODUCTION: Technology-delivered healthcare interventions may enhance dissemination of evidence-based treatments in low-resource areas. These interventions may be accessed 'on-demand,' including after hours. Patients with schizophrenia do engage with technological aids but when/how they would utilize these tools is not known. METHODS: We conducted a large, prospective, ten-site, longitudinal study of four technology-assisted interventions for patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders within 60 days of psychiatric hospital discharge, a high risk period...
December 11, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Ai-Wu Shi, Xiao-Feng Shen, Hong-Juan Ding, Yao-Qiu Liu, Li Meng, Bill Kalionis
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus is strongly related to the risk of pancreatic cancer in pregnant women, but gestational diabetes can precede a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer by many years. Women with a history of gestational diabetes showed a relative risk of pancreatic cancer of 7.1. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most common malignancies associated with thromboembolic events. A clinical study showed that thromboembolic events were detected in 36% of patients diagnosed as having pancreatic cancer...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Peter L Phalen, Pamela Rakhshan Rouhakhtar, Zachary B Millman, Elizabeth Thompson, Jordan DeVylder, Vijay Mittal, Evan Carter, Gloria Reeves, Jason Schiffman
Well-validated screening tools have been developed to identify people at high risk for psychosis, but these are rarely used outside of specialty clinics or research settings. The development of extremely brief and simple screening tools could increase dissemination, especially in settings with low buy-in such as those with low base rates of psychosis and/or time constraints. We sought to identify such a brief measure by modeling participant responses to three psychosis screening questionnaires (Prime Screen; Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief; Youth Psychosis At Risk Questionnaire) in a sample of 139 help-seeking individuals and 335 college students (age range: 12-25)...
December 2018: Psychiatry Research
Rebecca E Lee, Elizabeth Lorenzo, Jacob Szeszulski, Anel Arriola, Meg Bruening, Paul A Estabrooks, Jennie Hill, Flavio Marsiglia, Teresia O'Connor, Kim Sellers Pollins, Gabriel Q Shaibi, Erica Soltero, Michael Todd
Strategies are needed to help early care and education centers (ECEC) comply with policies to meet daily physical activity and fruit and vegetable guidelines for young children. This manuscript describes the design and methodology of Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE), a 12-session cluster-randomized controlled crossover design trial using community-based participatory research (CBPR) to test a garden-based ECEC physical activity and fruit and vegetables promotion intervention for young children aged 3-5 years in 20 sites...
December 11, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Mark Kristoffer U Pasayan, Mary Lorraine S Mationg, David Boettiger, Wilson Lam, Fujie Zhang, Stephane Wen-Wei Ku, Tuti Parwati Merati, Romanee Chaiwarith, Do Duy Cuong, Evy Yunihastuti, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Nguyen Van Kinh, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Ly Penh Sun, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Pacharee Kantipong, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Sanjay Pujari, Benedict Lim Heng Sim, Oon Tek Ng, Jun Yong Choi, Junko Tanuma, Jeremy Ross, Rossana Ditangco
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) prophylaxis is recommended for patients with advanced HIV infection. With the decrease in incidence of disseminated MAC infection and the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the benefits of macrolide prophylaxis were investigated. This study examined the impact of macrolide prophylaxis on AIDS-defining conditions and HIV-associated mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected patients on ART. METHODS: Patients from TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (September 2015 data transfer) aged ≥18 years with a CD4 count <50 cells/mm at ART initiation were included...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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