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Carotid thrombus

Atsushi Masuyama, Tomoya Mita, Kosuke Azuma, Yusuke Osonoi, Kenichi Nakajima, Hiromasa Goto, Yuya Nishida, Takeshi Miyatsuka, Masako Mitsumata, Hirotaka Watada
Autophagy is considered as an evolutionarily conserved cellular catabolic process. Defective autophagy has been implicated in various human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Recently, we and others demonstrated that defective autophagy in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) promotes the progression of atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the role of autophagy in SMCs on plaque instability in vivo. We generated mice with a defect atg7in which is an essential gene for autophagy, in SMCs by crossing Atg7f/f mice with transgelin (Tagln) Cre+/0 mice (Atg7cKO)...
October 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Marco Heestermans, Amber B Ouweneel, Jasmin Hassan, Meander Kloosterman, Pieter H Reitsma, Marion J J Gijbels, Bart J M van Vlijmen, Miranda van Eck
Silencing of anticoagulant protein C using RNA interference (siProc) evokes low incident but spontaneous atherothrombosis in the aortic root of apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/- ) mice. The aims of the current study were (1) to analyze if plaque characteristics or circulating factors could be linked to atherothrombosis susceptibility, (2) to increase the incidence of atherothrombosis by transiently increasing blood pressure, and (3) to direct atherothrombosis to an additional predefined vascular site by applying a semi-constrictive collar around the carotid artery...
October 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sergio Barros-Gomes, Abdallah El Sabbagh, Mackram F Eleid, Sunil V Mankrad
Non-atherosclerotic myocardial infarction (MI) is an important but often misdiagnosed cause of acute MI. Furthermore, non-atherosclerotic MI with concomitant acute stroke and pulmonary embolism due to in-transit thrombus across a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a rare but potentially fatal combination (1, 2, 3). Early detection of this clinical entity can facilitate delivery of targeted therapies and avoid poor outcome (1, 2). Here, we describe a 68-year-old female with hypertension, tobacco abuse and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presenting with facial droop, right arm weakness and aphasia...
December 1, 2018: Echo Research and Practice
Carola Marie Wieker, Katharina Harcos, Ulrich Ronellenfitsch, Serdar Demirel, Hans Bruijnen, Dittmar Böckler
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of completion digital subtraction angiography (cDSA) after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) on technical and early clinical results. METHODS: This retrospective study included consecutive patients undergoing CEA from January 2011 to January 2015. Routine cDSA was performed in all patients. Study end points were the incidence of pathologic findings on completion angiography necessitating intraoperative revision, type of revision, periprocedural stroke rate, mortality, morbidity, and recurrent stenosis rate during follow-up (median, 5 months; range, 0-39 months)...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Ya-Hui Ge, Yan-Yan Chen, Gui-Sheng Zhou, Xin Liu, Yu-Ping Tang, Rui Liu, Pei Liu, Na Li, Jie Yang, Jing Wang, Shi-Jun Yue, Huiping Zhou, Jin-Ao Duan
Sipunculus nudus , an old marine species, has great potential for use as functional seafood due to its various bioactivities. Its potential antithrombotic activity pushed us to isolate the bio-active components bio-guided by tracking fibrinolytic activity. As a result, a novel protease named as SK (the kinase obtained from S. nudus ) was obtained, which possessed a molecular weight of 28,003.67 Da and 15 N-terminal amino acid sequences of PFPVPDPFVWDTSFQ. SK exerted inhibitory effects on thrombus formation through improving the coagulation system with dose-effect relationship within a certain range...
October 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jaeho Do, Jungwon Gwak, Jung Jin Rho, Kwangseung Lee, Muhammad Irfan, Man Hee Rhee, Dong Chung Kim
The inhibitory effects of taegeuk ginseng extract (TGE) on platelet aggregation and thrombus formation were investigated. The TGE significantly inhibited collagen- and adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Also oral administration of TGE to rats significantly prevented ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation ex vivo, but it did not affect the plasma coagulation system. The oral administration of TGE significantly delayed the occlusion of the carotid artery in ferrous chloride-treated rats in vivo...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Christoph Reinhardt
There is emerging evidence for the participation of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) expressed on platelets and endothelial cells in the setting of arterial thrombosis. In isolated human platelets, TLR2/1 activation was demonstrated to induce platelet activation, secretion, aggregation, adhesion to collagen coatings and the formation of platelet-leukocyte conjugates, whereas murine platelets were less sensitive to TLR2/1 stimulation. Also, endothelial cells can be activated by stimulation with TLR2 agonists, resulting in increased expression of adhesion molecules, synthesis of inflammatory mediators and Weibel-Palade body exocytosis...
September 27, 2018: Hämostaseologie
Anastasia Plotkin, Matthew G Bartley, Kathryn E Bowser, Jeniann A Yi, Gregory A Magee
The search for etiology of stroke in a young patient may present a diagnostic challenge. In rare cases, chronic trauma to the carotid artery may be the cause of cerebral thromboembolic events. The hyoid bone lies in close proximity to the carotid artery bifurcation, and anatomic variants have been implicated in carotid compression, stenosis, dissection, and pseudoaneurysm. We report a case of recurrent strokes in a 32 year-old woman due to an elongated hyoid bone causing thrombus formation in her right internal carotid artery (ICA) resulting in recurrent embolic strokes confirmed on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
September 12, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Jie Liao, Xiaoting Ren, Bowen Yang, Hou Li, Yuexin Zhang, Zongning Yin
Lumbrokinase (LK) has strong fibrinolytic and thrombolytic activities, but it has a short half-life, can be easily inactivated, and may cause hemorrhage as a side effect. This study develops a potential thrombolytic therapy by fabricating N,N,N-Trimethyl Chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles modified with the cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp-Phe-Lys peptide (c-RGD) and loaded with LK (i.e. c-RGD-LK-NPs). The binding of c-RGD to platelet membrane GPIIb/IIIa receptors is expected to enable targeted delivery of the c-RGD-conjugated TMC to the thrombus...
October 8, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Xiaomiao Qiu, Weiting Wang, Zhuanyou Zhao, Shuangyong Sun, Lida Tang
Zifaxaban is an orally active, direct Factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor that is in development for the prevention and treatment of arterial and venous thrombosis. This study was conducted to investigate the biochemical and pharmacological activity of zifaxaban. In vitro activity was evaluated by enzyme, platelet aggregation, and clotting assays. In vivo effects were examined in venous thrombosis, arteriovenous-shunt thrombosis, carotid thrombosis, and bleeding models in rats. Zifaxaban competitively inhibits human FXa (IC50 = 11...
October 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
George M DeKornfeld, Julia Boll, Kenneth R Ziegler, Jonathan Ratcliff, Thomas C Naslund, C Louis Garrard, R James Valentine, John A Curci
An embolic event originating from thrombus on an otherwise un-diseased or minimally diseased proximal artery (Phantom Thrombus) is a rare but significant clinical challenge. All patients from a single center with an imaging defined luminal thrombus with a focal mural attachment site on an artery were evaluated retrospectively. We excluded all patients with underlying anatomic abnormalities of the vessel at the attachment site. Six patients with a mean age of 62.5 years were identified over a 2.5-year period...
August 19, 2018: Vascular Medicine
Kevin Carr, Dustin Tew, Luis Becerra, Kristina Siddall, Laurence Dubensky, Yafell Serulle
Free-floating thrombi of the common carotid artery (CCA) are a very rare cause of ischemic stroke. To date, only a few reports have been described in the academic literature. Revascularization is indicated due to the risk of thromboembolic disease and hemodynamic-related stroke syndromes. Medical treatment typically includes anticoagulation and, in some circumstances, open surgical thrombectomy is an additional option. Although rarely described in the literature, endovascular thrombectomy is a viable treatment alternative in these patients...
October 2018: Neuroradiology
Sergio Barros-Gomes, Abdullah El Sabbagh, Mackram F Eleid, Sunil V Mankad
Non-atherosclerotic myocardial infarction (MI) is an important but often misdiagnosed cause of acute MI. Furthermore, non-atherosclerotic MI with concomitant acute stroke and pulmonary embolism due to in-transit thrombus across a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a rare but potentially fatal combination (1-3). Early detection of this clinical entity can facilitate delivery of targeted therapies and avoid poor outcome (1, 2). Here, we describe a 68-year-old female with hypertension, tobacco abuse, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presenting with facial droop, right arm weakness and aphasia...
August 11, 2018: Echo Research and Practice
Donny Hanjaya-Putra, Carolyn Haller, Xiaowei Wang, Erbin Dai, Bock Lim, Liying Liu, Patrick Jaminet, Joy Yao, Amy Searle, Thomas Bonnard, Christoph E Hagemeyer, Karlheinz Peter, Elliot L Chaikof
Despite advances in antithrombotic therapy, the risk of recurrent coronary/cerebrovascular ischemia or venous thromboembolism remains high. Dual pathway antithrombotic blockade, using both antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy, offers the promise of improved thrombotic protection; however, widespread adoption remains tempered by substantial risk of major bleeding. Here, we report a dual pathway therapeutic capable of site-specific targeting to activated platelets and therapeutic enrichment at the site of thrombus growth to allow reduced dosing without compromised antithrombotic efficacy...
August 9, 2018: JCI Insight
Bo Yu, ZhenHua Liu, Chao Xue, JinCheng Liu, Jian Yang, ZhenXiao Jin, ShiQiang Yu, WeiXun Duan
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of total arch repair with open placement of a novel double-branched stent graft for acute Type A aortic dissection (TAAD). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the effect of the double-branched stent graft for total aortic arch placement with acute TAAD from December 2013 to February 2015. The effectiveness of the open placement of the double-branched stent graft was estimated by complete thrombus obliteration of the false lumen surrounding it on computed tomography angiography...
August 1, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Nikolaos Tsilimparis, Konstantinos Spanos, E Sebastian Debus, Fiona Rohlffs, Tilo Kölbel
PURPOSE: To present the technique for removing mural thrombus from the ascending aorta using the AngioVac System. TECHNIQUE: The technique is demonstrated in a 66-year-old woman who presented with free-floating mural thrombus in the ascending aorta and was considered unsuitable for either open (comorbidities) or endovascular approaches (high risk of stroke). Because of the free-floating thrombus, the Angiovac system was suggested, although it is approved for only the venous system...
October 2018: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
Craig Kilburg, M Yashar S Kalani, Min S Park
Occlusion of branch vessels is a known potential sequela of the treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow diversion. We present a case of occlusion and distal reconstitution of the origin of the posterior communicating artery through a fusiform aneurysm of the internal carotid artery after flow diversion. A 56-year-old woman was incidentally found to have a large fusiform aneurysm of the posterior communicating segment of the internal carotid artery incorporating the origin of the posterior communicating artery...
September 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Mariusz Hofman, Tomasz Jamróz, Izabela Jakutowicz, Paweł Jarski, Wilhelm Masarczyk, Marcin Niedbała, Nikodem Przybyłko, Damian Kocur, Jan Baron
Purpose: Complex intracranial aneurysms (CIA) are heterogenous group of intracranial vascular malformations. Due to its giant size, difficult location, broad neck, branches arising from the aneurysm, wall structure, calcification, presence of intraluminal thrombus or previous treatments it requires more careful approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate endovascular treatment results of CIA in our Department. Material and methods: In order to differentiate CIA from all the aneurysms, treated endovascularly in years 2008-2014, authors proposed their own qualification criteria...
2018: Polish Journal of Radiology
Timothy Hampton, Donal Walsh, Christos Tolias, David Fiorella
BACKGROUND: Flow-diverting stents have demonstrated great promise for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms; however, clinical experience with the devices remains very preliminary. We present two cases of spontaneous delayed complications-one fatal aneurysm rupture and one symptomatic increase in aneurysm volume-following the treatment of intradural aneurysms with the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED). PRESENTATION/INTERVENTION: Two patients with unruptured, intradural aneurysms of the carotid artery underwent uneventful treatment with the PED (eV3, Irvine, California, USA)...
July 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Mehmet Akif Topcuoglu, Eva A Rocha, Ahmer Khawdja Siddiqui, Brittany B Mills, Gisele S Silva, Lee H Schwamm, Glenn M Lamuraglia, Aneesh B Singhal
OBJECTIVE: To characterize isolated upper extremity (UE) weakness from stroke. METHODS: In our Get with the Guidelines-Stroke dataset (n = 7643), 87 patients (1.14%) had isolated UE weakness and underwent thorough stroke evaluation with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and good-quality arterial imaging. We analyzed clinical-imaging features, etiology, management, and outcome. Since isolated UE weakness is typically associated with contralateral hand-knob area infarcts, patients were classified into Group-A (motor strip infarct) or Group-B (non-motor strip infarct)...
October 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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