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organ AND protection

Aynaz Mihanfar, Hamid Reza Nejabati, Amir Fattahi, Zeinab Latifi, Masoud Pezeshkian, Abbas Afrasiabi, Naser Safaie, Ahmad Reza Jodati, Mohammad Nouri
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Atherosclerotic plaques, as a hallmark of CAD, cause chronic narrowing of coronary arteries over time and could also result in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The standard treatments for ameliorating AMI are reperfusion strategies, which paradoxically result in ischemic reperfusion (I/R) injury. Sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P), as a potent lysophospholipid, plays an important role in various organs, including immune and cardiovascular systems...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Mahmoud F Fathalla
Efforts by the health and scientific community have focused on providing women with the means to control and regulate their fertility. We paid less attention to the reality of women achieving their reproductive revolution while burdened with a reproductive system that evolved to fit the life of our ancestor hunter-gatherers, where women were destined to spend most of their reproductive years pregnant or breastfeeding. This state of evolutionary mismatch impacts on women's health as the reproductive system continues incessantly to work, producing a monthly ovum and exposing the reproductive organs to cyclic hormonal stimulation without the benefit of pregnancy and breastfeeding...
October 20, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Alexander R Mattson, Jorge D Zhingre Sanchez, Paul A Iaizzo
BACKGROUND: Today there is no manufacturer-supplied retrieval tool for the Micra™ pacemaker (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN USA), therefore off-the-shelf catheters have been employed for retrievals. The proximal retrieval feature of the Micra™ can be snared and the device is then retracted from the myocardium, pulling the device through the tricuspid valve. This study characterizes the potential risks of Micra™ nitinol tine engagement with the tricuspid sub-valvular apparatus. METHODS: Fresh human hearts nonviable for transplant (n = 10) were obtained from our regional organ procurement agency (LifeSource, Minneapolis, MN USA)...
October 20, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Sara Arana-Peña, Yuliya Lokha, Roberto Fernández-Lafuente
Lipase A from Candida antarctica (CALA, commercialized as Novocor ADL) was immobilized on octyl agarose, which is a very useful support for lipase immobilization, and coated with polyethylenimine (PEI) to improve the stability. The performance was compared to that of the form B of the enzyme (CALB) immobilized on the same support, as both enzymes are among the most popular ones used in biocatalysis. CALA immobilization produced a significant increase in enzyme activity versus p-nitrophenyl butyrate (by a factor of 7) and the coating with PEI did not have a significant effect on enzyme activity...
October 20, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
Sarah L Poynton, Lauren Ostrenga, Kenneth W Witwer
Pathogenicity, evolutionary history, and unusual cell organization of diplomonads are well known, particularly for Giardia and Spironucleus; however, behavior of these aerotolerant anaerobes is largely unknown. Addressing this deficit, we studied behavior of the piscine diplomonad Spironucleus vortens (ATCC 50386) in in vitro culture. Spironucleus vortens trophozoites from Angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare, were maintained axenically in modified liver digest, yeast extract, and iron (LYI) medium, at 22 °C in the dark, and subcultured weekly...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Takushi Fujimoto, Kenji Inaba, Hiroshi Kadokura
Formation of a disulfide bond is a critical step in the folding of numerous secretory and membrane proteins and catalyzed in vivo. A variety of mechanisms and protein structures have evolved to catalyze oxidative protein folding. Those enzymes that directly interact with a folding protein to accelerate its oxidative folding are mostly thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases that belong to the thioredoxin superfamily. The enzymes of this class often use a CXXC active-site motif embedded in their thioredoxin-like fold to promote formation, isomerization, and reduction of a disulfide bond in their target proteins...
October 19, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Francini Franscescon, Samara C Mazon, Kanandra T Bertoncello, Aline A Boligon, Adrieli Sachett, Cassiano L Rambo, Denis B Rosemberg, Jacir Dal Magro, Anna M Siebel
Jaboticaba Plinia peruviana (Poir.) Govaerts is a Brazilian berry that presents high levels of polyphenols, which may play a key role in preventing cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of harmful agents. Although copper is an essential micronutrient that plays an important role in organisms, high copper concentrations may trigger toxicity to animals and plants. Here, we investigated whether Plinia peruviana hydroalcoholic extract prevents copper-induced cytotoxicity in Allium cepa root cells. Five different anthocyanins and phenolic compounds were identified in Plinia peruviana extract...
October 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Emanuela Ferretti, Eric Tremblay, Marie-Pierre Thibault, Sepideh Fallah, David Grynspan, Karolina M Burghardt, Marcos Bettolli, Corentin Babakissa, Emile Levy, Jean-François Beaulieu
BACKGROUND: The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as indomethacin (INDO) and ibuprofen (IBU) has been shown to be an effective therapy for the closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). However, this treatment has been associated with an increased risk of developing enteropathies in neonates. Whether the use of IBU is safer than INDO for the immature intestine remains to be elucidated. METHODS: The direct impact of IBU on the human immature intestinal transcriptome was investigated using serum-free organ culture...
October 16, 2018: Pediatric Research
Daniel A Charlebois, Kevin Hauser, Sylvia Marshall, Gábor Balázsi
Most organisms must cope with temperature changes. This involves genes and gene networks both as subjects and agents of cellular protection, creating difficulties in understanding. Here, we study how heating and cooling affect expression of single genes and synthetic gene circuits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae We discovered that nonoptimal temperatures induce a cell fate choice between stress resistance and growth arrest. This creates dramatic gene expression bimodality in isogenic cell populations, as arrest abolishes gene expression...
October 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Christy Goldsmith, P Nicholas Plowman, Melanie M Green, Roger G Dale, Patricia M Price
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) offers an alternative treatment for pancreatic cancer, with the potential for improved tumour control and reduced toxicity compared with conventional therapies. However, optimal dose planning and delivery strategies are unelucidated and gastro-intestinal (GI) toxicity remains a key concern. METHODS: Patients with inoperable non-metastatic pancreatic cancer who received CyberKnife® SABR (18-36 Gy) in three fractions as primary, adjuvant, consolidation or re-treatment options were studied...
October 19, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Xiang Wang, Nicolas A Jelinski, Brandy Toner, Kyungsoo Yoo
The interaction of soil organic matter (SOM) and minerals is a critical mechanism for retaining SOM in soil and protecting soil fertility and long-term agricultural sustainability. The chemical speciation of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in mineral-associated SOM can be sensitive to both anthropogenic management practices and landscape positions, but these two aspects are rarely examined in tandem. Here we examined the effects of long-term (>100 years) agricultural management and erosion on mineral-associated SOM along grassland and agricultural hillslope transect...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Jingjing Xiong, Zhen Wang, Xue Ma, Huizhen Li, Jing You
Extensive use of neonicotinoid insecticides (NNIs) worldwide calls for further knowledge on their environmental occurrence and risk. The present study highlighted the need for more research on long-term exposure of NNIs in aquatic environment, which is important but remains elusive. Time weighted average concentrations of five commonly used NNIs in urban waterways of Guangzhou, China were measured using newly developed polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). Acetamiprid (from 18.8 ± 1.9 to 157 ± 31 ng/L; mean ± standard deviation), clothianidin (from 14...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Baoxin Xu, Congcong Qu, Wenhua Zheng, Yaya Xi, Xin Zhao, Huifen Li, Jiangting Liu, Xuelan Zhang
Radix Polygala (Yuanzhi in Chinese) is well-known in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has been used for treatment of depression, brain protection, and memory improvement for thousands of years. This plant medicine is rich in saponins, glycolipids, and organic acids. The purpose of the current study was to develop a rapid, accurate, and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of the following seven active components of Radix Polygala extracts in rat plasma: sibiricose A5 (A5); sibiricose A6 (A6); 3,6'-disinapoyl sucrose (DSS); tenuifoliside A (TFSA); tenuifoliside B (TFSB); tenuifoliside C (TFSC); and 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid (TMCA)...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Daniel M Chevrier, Lluís Raich, Carme Rovira, Anindita Das, Zhentao Luo, Qiaofeng Yao, Amares Chatt, Jianping Xie, Rongchao Jin, Jaakko Akola, Peng Zhang
Due to the small size and large surface area of thiolate-protected Au nanoclusters (NCs), the protecting ligands are expected to play a substantial role in modulating the structure and properties, particularly in the solution phase. How-ever, little is known on how thiolate ligands explicitly modulate the structural properties of the NCs at atomic level, alt-hough this information is critical for predicting the performance of AuNCs in application settings including as a catalyst interacting with small molecules and as a sensor interacting with biomolecular systems...
October 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
B-H Bin, S-H Lee, J Bhin, T Irié, S Kim, J Seo, K Mishima, T R Lee, D Hwang, T Fukada, E-G Cho
BACKGROUND: The skin is the first organ that manifests changes in response to zinc deficiency. However, the molecular mechanism underlying how zinc is involved in skin homeostasis, especially in its epigenetic regulation, is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we demonstrate the importance of zinc levels and the zinc transporter ZIP10 in the epigenetic maintenance of human epidermal homeostasis. METHODS: Adult human skin, including skin appendages were stained with anti-ZIP10 antibody...
October 19, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Pravin Vejan, Rosazlin Abdullah, Tumirah Khadiran, Salmah Ismail
Sustainable crop production for a rapidly growing human population is one of the current challenges faced by the agricultural sector. However, many of the chemical agents used in agriculture can be hazardous to humans, non-targeted organism and environment. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria have demonstrated role in promoting plant growth and health under various stress conditions including disease. Unfortunately, bacteria viability degrades due to temperature and other environmental factors (Bashan et al...
October 19, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Tingyan Mi, Yiying Dong, Uma Santhanam, Nan Huang
Skin surface is constantly exposed to environmental and secreted stressors such as UV, air pollution, and peroxidized sebum. The current study aims to use reconstructed human skin equivalents to demonstrate topical stressor induced hyperpigmentation and evaluate bioactives' potential protective effect. Given that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are representative airborne particle-bound organic compounds with known relevance to pigmentation pathways, benzo(a)pyrene was selected as surrogate environmental toxin...
October 19, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Narges Hedayati, Mehri Bemani Naeini, Alireza Nezami, Hossein Hosseinzadeh, A Wallace Hayes, Sarasadat Hosseini, Mohsen Imenshahidi, Gholamreza Karimi
People are exposed to a number of environmental, occupational, and therapeutic toxic agents which may be natural or man made. These hazardous substances may manifest as direct side effects on the function of organs or indirectly induced alteration of gene expression, cancer-associated metabolic pathways, and/or alter homeostasis. Lycopene, as a one of the most potent antioxidant, is found in fruits and vegetables. High-intake of lycopene has been shown to be effective in decreasing the risk of both natural toxins including mycotoxins, bacterial toxins, and chemical toxins including heavy metals, pesticides as well as herbicides...
October 19, 2018: BioFactors
Xin-Yuan Huang, Huan Liu, Yu-Fei Zhu, Shannon R M Pinson, Hong-Xuan Lin, Mary Lou Guerinot, Fang-Jie Zhao, David E Salt
Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential micronutrient for most living organisms, including humans. Cereals such as rice are the major dietary source of Mo. However, little is known about the genetic basis of the variation in Mo content in rice (Oryza sativa) grain. We mapped a quantitative trait locus (QTL) qGMo8 that controls Mo accumulation in rice grain by using a recombinant inbred line population and a backcross introgression line population. We identified a molybdate transporter, OsMOT1;1, as the causal gene for this QTL...
October 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Michael Di Gioacchino, Fabio Bruni, Maria Antonietta Ricci
The ability of a wide class of organisms to reversibly go through cycles of suspended life and active metabolism, depending on the turnover of drought and normal water availability conditions, represents a challenging issue. The interest in the natural mechanism for drought survival has grown over time along with the request for always more efficient conservation techniques for biological materials. Carbohydrates, such as trehalose, accumulated in the cytoplasm of drought resistant cells, are considered responsible for desiccation tolerance...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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