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organ AND protection

Yasuko Nagasaka, Bernadette O Fernandez, Andrea U Steinbicker, Ester Spagnolli, Rajeev Malhotra, Donald B Bloch, Kenneth D Bloch, Warren M Zapol, Martin Feelisch
BACKGROUND: Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) may contribute to ischemic and anesthetic preconditioning while exogenous NO protects against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in the heart and other organs. Why those beneficial effects observed in animal models do not always translate into clinical effectiveness remains unclear. To mitigate reperfusion damage a source of NO is required. NO inhalation is known to increase tissue NO metabolites, but little information exists about the lifetime of these species...
August 13, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Felipe Berti Valer, Maiaro Cabral Rosa Machado, Rui Milton Patrício Silva-Junior, Ricardo Guelerman Pinheiro Ramos
The Irre Cell-Recognition Module (IRM) is a group of evolutionarily conserved and structurally related transmembrane glycoproteins of the immunoglobulin superfamily. In Drosophila melanogaster it comprises the products of the genes roughest (rst; also known as irreC-rst), kin-of-irre (kirre; also known as duf), stick-and-stones (sns) and hibris (hbs). In this model organism, the behavior of this group of proteins as a partly redundant functional unit mediating selective cell recognition was demonstrated in a variety of developmental contexts, but their possible involvement in ovarian development and oogenesis has not been investigated, notwithstanding the fact that some rst mutant alleles are also female sterile...
August 16, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Ali Naji, John Houston Iv, Caroline Skalley Rog, Ali Al Hatem, Saba Rizvi, Ransome van der Hoeven
The mitis group, a member of the genetically diverse viridans group streptococci, predominately colonizes the human oropharynx. This group has been shown to cause a wide range of infectious complications in humans, including bacteremia in patients with neutropenia, orbital cellulitis and infective endocarditis. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been identified as a virulence factor produced by this group of streptococci. More importantly, it has been shown that Streptococcus oralis and S. mitis induce epithelial cell and macrophage death via the production of H2O2...
2018: PloS One
D G Wong, M K Arevalo, N M Passoni, N S Iqbal, T Jascur, A J Kern, E J Sanchez, A Satyanarayan, J Gattineni, L A Baker
OBJECTIVE: To design a novel system of scoring Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS) phenotypic severity at any presenting age and apply it to a large pilot cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 2000-2017, PBS patients were recruited to our prospective PBS study and medical records were cross-sectionally analyzed, generating individualized RUBACE scores. We designed the pragmatic RUBACE scoring system based on six sub-scores (R: renal, U: ureter, B: bladder/outlet, A: abdominal wall, C: cryptorchidism, E: extra-genitourinary, generating the acronym RUBACE), yielding a potential summed score of 0-31...
August 16, 2018: BJU International
Yiannis Philippou, Eli Harriss, Lucy Davies, Ibrahim Jubber, Tom Leslie, Richard W Bell, Richard J Bryant, Freddie C Hamdy, Clare Verill, Alastair D Lamb
INTRODUCTION: Capsular Incision (CapI) is an iatrogenic breach of the prostatic capsule during radical prostatectomy that can cause positive surgical margins (PSM) in organ-confined (pT2) prostate cancer (PCa), or the retention of benign prostatic tissue. We systematically interrogated the literature in order to clarify the definition of CapI, and the implications of this event for rates of PSM and biochemical recurrence (BCR). METHODS: A literature search was conducted according to PRISMA criteria using the search terms 'CapI' AND 'prostatectomy' and variations of each...
August 16, 2018: BJU International
Matthew N Hurley, Alan R Smyth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The cystic fibrosis (CF) lung has long been appreciated as a competitive niche for complex interactions between bacterial species. The individual relationships between effects on the host, and thereafter clinical outcomes, has been poorly understood. We aim to describe the role of Staphyloccus aureus, one of the most commonly encountered bacteria cultured from the respiratory tracts of people with CF, and it's complex interplay with other organisms, with particular attention to Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
August 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Deivis de Campos, Miriam da Costa Oliveira
According to Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574), the great genius of anatomy, Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564), in painting the frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (1508-1512), demonstrated to the world a new dimension/perspective of painting, especially in the sublime manner with which the artist represented the anatomical details of the characters that made up his frescoes. Since then, the Sistine Chapel has received millions of tourists annually, who marvel at the anatomical beauty of the characters depicted on its ceiling...
August 16, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
S A Kozin, V I Polshakov, Y V Mezentsev, A S Ivanov, S S Zhokhov, M M Yurinskaya, M G Vinokurov, A A Makarov, V A Mitkevich
Intact amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) may undergo prion-like aggregation when they interact with chemically or structurally modified variants of Aβ present in extracellular pathohistological inclusions (amyloid plaques). This aggregation is regarded as one of the key molecular mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Zinc ions are involved in the pathological dimerization and oligomerization of natural Aβ isoforms, and zinc-induced oligomers can also initiate the pathological aggregation of Aβ. Based on the earlier found molecular mechanism of zinc-dependent oligomerization of Aβ, it has been suggested that the targeted inhibition of the 11EVHH14 site in one Aβ molecule from zinc-mediated interactions with the same site of another Aβ molecule can effectively inhibit the oligomerization and aggregation of Aβ...
July 2018: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Gene G Abel, Alan Jordan, Nora Harlow, Yu-Sheng Hsu
Approximately 10% of children and adolescents are sexually abused by adults caring for them outside the home. The current study tested the validity and reliability of a child protection screen to identify job applicants who pose a sexual risk to children. The screen uses three separate measures. In combination, they attempt to identify two types of sexually problematic job applicants: hidden abusers and people with cognitive distortions that encourage child sexual boundary violations by themselves or tolerate them by others...
August 16, 2018: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
Bence Mátyás, Gabriela Bautista, Máté Szarka, Vanessa Serrano, Juan Morales Arteaga, David Loja, Stalin Gabriel Yaguana, Francisco Gómez, Lenin J Ramírez-Cando
The search for biotic compounds beyond planet Earth is among the highest priorities in space discovery. We sought to detect organic molecules in various earth soil samples collected from environments with extreme climatic conditions comparable to extraterrestrial environments using HPLC, spectrophotometry (UV, IR), GC/MS and vertical gel electrophoresis analyses systems. The applied methods in the study were compared using a self-developed software tool that was designed to evaluate the viability of instrument selection for organics detection in any given exploratory mission...
August 15, 2018: Electrophoresis
Juan Carlos Aledo
The ability to make decisions at the cellular level is absolutely critical for the survival of organisms. Eukaryotic cells are constantly making binary decisions in response to internal and environmental signals. Among the most notable transducers of information are protein kinases. The regulation of these signaling proteins often relies on the activity of other protein kinases located upstream in the signaling cascade. However, these signaling systems are by their own nature an important source of molecular noise...
August 16, 2018: FEBS Journal
Blanca H Lapizco-Encinas
Insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP), also known as electrodeless DEP, has become a well-known dielectrophoretic technique; no longer viewed as a new methodology. Significant advances on iDEP have been reported during the last 15 years. This review article aims to summarize some of the most important findings on iDEP organized by the type of dielectrophoretic mode: streaming and trapping iDEP. The former is primarily used for particle sorting, while the later has great capability for particle enrichment...
August 16, 2018: Electrophoresis
Mosaad A Abdel-Wahhab, Aziza A El-Nekeety, Nabila S Hassan, Abdullah A Y Gibriel, Khaled G Abdel-Wahhab
Fumonisin B1 (FB1 ) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) are fungal metabolites that frequently co-occur in foodstuffs and are responsible for mycotoxicosis and several primary cancers. Cinnamon essential oil (CEO) has a spacious range of benefit effects but also has some limitations owing to its strong taste or its interaction with some drugs. This study aimed to use the cinnamon oil emulsion droplets (COED) for the protection against oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats sub-chronically exposed to FB1 and/or AFB1 ...
August 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dilek Öztaş, Burak Kurt, Ayşegül Koç, Muhsin Akbaba, Hüseyin İlter
Introduction and Purpose: Farmers are particularly at high risk of pesticide exposure due to added risk from occupational exposure. The aim of this study is to evaluate knowledge level of farmers in the Çukurova region of the effects of pesticides, toxic symptoms, and protective equipment as well as assessing their attitudes and practices regarding pesticides. Material and Method: A total of 420 seasonal agricultural workers in Karataş District of Adana Province, Turkey, were included in the study...
2018: BioMed Research International
Eun Young Lee, Sena Lee, Semi Rho, Jae-Ouk Kim, Seuk Keun Choi, Young Jin Lee, Joo Young Park, Manki Song, Jae Seung Yang
Purpose: An oral cholera vaccine (OCV), Euvichol, with thimerosal (TM) as preservative, was prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015. In recent years, public health services and regulatory bodies recommended to eliminate TM in vaccines due to theoretical safety concerns. In this study, we examined whether TM-free Euvichol induces comparable immunogenicity to its TM-containing formulation in animal model. Materials and Methods: To evaluate and compare the immunogenicity of the two variations of OCV, mice were immunized with TM-free or TM-containing Euvichol twice at 2-week interval by intranasal or oral route...
July 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Trygve Holmøy, Øivind Torkildsen, Svetozar Zarnovicky
During treatment with fingolimod, B cells are redistributed from blood to secondary lymphoid organs, where they are protected from the effect of anti-CD20 and other cell-depleting therapies. We describe a multiple sclerosis patient who had almost complete depletion of B cells in blood during and shortly after treatment with fingolimod. He developed severe disease activity resembling immune reconstitution syndrome after switching from fingolimod to rituximab, with first dose being six weeks after fingolimod cessation...
2018: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Robert Jay Rowen
The world is facing crisis in management of infectious diseases. The mainstay of treatment has been chemical anti-infectives. These drugs are failing, as superbugs emerge and medicine becomes more sophisticated with treatments such as prosthetic devices, which can harbor bacteria protected by biofilm. This case report describes a 68-year-old woman who received bilateral artificial hips on October 27, 2015. The right hip prosthesis subsequently became septic by June 2016. Three orthopedic surgeons offered her a several month program, which included removal of the prosthesis, implantation of an antibiotic impregnated "spacer" and months of intravenous antibiotics...
April 2018: Medical Gas Research
Thomas E Ichim, Santosh Kesari, Kim Shafer
There are numerous downstream consequences of marketed drugs like antineoplastic agents on the gut microbiome, an effect that is suggested to contribute to adverse event profiles and may also influence drug responses. In cancer, progress is needed toward modulation of the host microbiome to prevent off-target side effects of drugs such as gastrointestinal mucositis that result from gut dysbiosis. The objective of this study was evaluation of the bioactivity of a supplement consisting of capsules with a blend of 9 probiotic organisms of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium plus 10 digestive enzymes, in protecting the human gastrointestinal tract from chemotherapy and an antibiotic...
July 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Yu-Wen Lin, Li-Chiu Wang, Chien-Kuo Lee, Shun-Hua Chen
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infection can induce encephalitis, which causes death or long-term neurological sequelae, especially in young children. Using a murine infection model, we searched for anti-EV-A71 agents, because effective therapies are not available to control fatal infection. In EV-A71-infected mice, treatment with the hematopoietic growth factor, Fms-like tyrosine-kinase 3 ligand (Flt3 ligand) before infection reduced the lethality and tissue viral loads. Flt3 ligand failed to enhance the production of type I interferons...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Emma Derbyshire
The brain is the most significant and complex organ of the human body. Increasingly, we are becoming aware that certain nutrients may help to safeguard brain health. An expanse of research has investigated the effects of omega fatty acids in relation to brain health but effects across the lifespan have not been widely evaluated. The present systematic review collated evidence from 25 randomized controlled trials ( n = 3633) published since 2013. Compared with control groups, omega-3 supplementation generally correlated with improvements in blood biomarkers...
August 15, 2018: Nutrients
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