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Transport injury

Xudong Cao, Zhongyuan Yao, Fei Dou, Yifang Zhang, Yinli Qiu, Song Zhao, Xiangqing Xu, Xin Liu, Bi-Feng Liu, Yin Chen, Guisen Zhang
In this study, a series of phenyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives was synthesized and evaluated for anti-allodynic activity. Structure activity relationship studies identified compound 39 with excellent affinity for the σ1 receptor and selectivity for the σ2 receptor, with poor activity to other central nervous system neurotransmitter receptors and transporters associated with pain. Compound 39 exhibited dose-dependent efficacy in suppressing the formalin-induced flinching and attenuating mechanical allodynia in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic rats...
December 13, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVEIn combat and austere environments, evacuation to a location with neurosurgery capability is challenging. A planning target in terms of time to neurosurgery is paramount to inform prepositioning of neurosurgical and transport resources to support a population at risk. This study sought to examine the association of wait time to craniectomy with mortality in patients with severe combat-related brain injury who received decompressive craniectomy.METHODSPatients with combat-related brain injury sustained between 2005 and 2015 who underwent craniectomy at deployed surgical facilities were identified from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry and Joint Trauma System Role 2 Registry...
December 1, 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
Esther Bayiga Zziwa, Christine Muhumuza, Kennedy M Muni, Lynn Atuyambe, Abdulgafoor M Bachani, Olive C Kobusingye
A cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect primary data prospectively on pre-hospital care time intervals of Road Traffic Crash (RTC) victims that had been rescued by the Uganda police and to determine what factors were related to those intervals. The survey was conducted between 1 May 2015 and 31 May 2015. The Police responses to 96 RTCs were recorded, but only 74 of them were considered serious enough to warrant hospital transfer, and those 74 are the subject of the analysis. Pre-hospital care time ranged between 10 and 220 min...
December 12, 2018: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
Pamela L Martín, Paula L Ceccatto, María V Razori, Daniel Ea Francés, Sandra Mm Arriaga, Gerardo B Pisani, Alejandra I Martínez, Enrique J Sánchez Pozzi, Marcelo G Roma, Cecilia L Basiglio
We previously demonstrated in in vitro and ex vivo models that physiological concentrations of unconjugated bilirubin prevent oxidative stress (OS)-induced hepatocanalicular dysfunction and cholestasis. Here, we aimed to ascertain, in the whole rat, whether a similar cholestatic OS injury can be counteracted by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction that consequently elevates endogenous bilirubin (BR) levels. This was achieved through the administration of hemin, an inducer of HO-1, the rate-limiting step in BR generation...
December 11, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Péter Poór, Péter Borbély, Zalán Czékus, Zoltán Takács, Attila Ördög, Boris Popović, Irma Tari
Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many salt stress-related processes of plants such as water balance, osmotic stress tolerance and photosynthesis. In this study we investigated the responses of wild type (WT) and the ABA-deficient sitiens mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Rheinlands Ruhm) to sublethal and lethal salt stress elicited by 100 mM and 250 mM NaCl, respectively. Sitiens mutants displayed much higher decrease in water potential, stomatal conductance and net CO2 assimilation rate under high salinity, especially at lethal salt stress, than the WT...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Joseph K Maddry, Eric M Ball, Daniel B Cox, Kathleen M Flarity, Vikhyat S Bebarta
Introduction: The U.S. Air Force utilizes specialized Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATT) for transporting "stabilized" patients. Given the drawdown of military forces from various areas of operation, recent CCATT operations have increasingly involved the evacuation of unstable and incompletely resuscitated patients from far forward, austere locations. This brief report describes unique cases representative of the evolving CCATT mission and provides future direction for changes in doctrine and educational requirements in preparation for en route combat casualty care...
December 7, 2018: Military Medicine
Chiara Lorini, Jacopo Bianchi, Gino Sartor, Maria Grazia Santini, Anna Mersi, Saverio Caini, Guglielmo Bonaccorsi
INTRODUCTION: About 1.25 million people worldwide die every year because of road accidents. Risk is higher when drivers use mobile phones, whereas seat belts help to prevent crash-related injury. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence, associated factors, and temporal trend of the use of seat belts and mobile phones among drivers and passengers in Florence, Italy (2005-2015). METHODS: Use of seat belts and mobile phones use was monitored via direct observation in four areas in the province of Florence...
2018: PloS One
Baqiyyah N Conway, Ashley N Badders, Tina Costacou, John M Arthur, Kim E Innes
Background: Anemia often complicates chronic kidney disease (CKD), leading to insufficient tissue oxygenation and hypoxic injury, the factor thought to underlie progression from CKD to renal failure. Perfluorocarbons are potent oxygen transporters used in organ preservation and synthetic blood development. Data are scarce on their relationship with kidney function, especially in diabetes where anemia and hypoxia are more prevalent. We investigated the relationship of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAS) with kidney function and variation by diabetes and anemia status...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Zufeng Guo, Sam Y Hong, Jingxin Wang, Shahid Rehan, Wukun Liu, Hanjing Peng, Manisha Das, Wei Li, Shridhar Bhat, Brandon Peiffer, Brett R Ullman, Chung-Ming Tse, Zlatina Tarmakova, Cordelia Schiene-Fischer, Gunter Fischer, Imogen Coe, Ville O Paavilainen, Zhaoli Sun, Jun O Liu
Rapamycin and FK506 are macrocyclic natural products with an extraordinary mode of action, in which they form binary complexes with FK506-binding protein (FKBP) through a shared FKBP-binding domain before forming ternary complexes with their respective targets, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and calcineurin, respectively. Inspired by this, we sought to build a rapamycin-like macromolecule library to target new cellular proteins by replacing the effector domain of rapamycin with a combinatorial library of oligopeptides...
December 10, 2018: Nature Chemistry
Cecily DuPree, Aaron Pinnola, Stefanie Gibson, Keely Muertos, John M Davis, Jason D Sciarretta
BACKGROUND: Mass casualty events are infrequent and create an abrupt surge of patients requiring emergency medical services within a brief period. We hypothesize that implementation of a controlled "traffic loop" pattern during a planned high-volume motorcycle rally could improve overall mortality and impact patient outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of all motorcycle-related injuries during the city's annual motorcycle rally over a 4-y period...
February 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
Kirstin Dahl-Pedersen, Mette S Herskin, Hans Houe, Peter T Thomsen
Cull dairy cows are typically transported to slaughter by road. Across different types of cattle, road transport is recognized as stressful. Cull dairy cows may have different injuries or weaknesses and may thus be more vulnerable to transport stress than other types of cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the clinical condition of cull dairy cows deteriorates during transport (< 8 h), and to evaluate risk factors for potential deterioration of the clinical condition. A total of 411 dairy cows were clinically examined on farm before loading and again after unloading at the slaughter plant...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Barbara Padalino, Chris W Rogers, Danielle Guiver, Kirrilly R Thompson, Christopher B Riley
Injuries resulting from road transport are common in horses and are a potential welfare concern, as well as, a source of economic loss. An online cross sectional survey was used to determine the prevalence of road transport related injuries to horses in New Zealand and the association of human factors including demographics, industry background, training and the horse handling experience of the respondents with transport related injury. The survey generated 1133 valid responses that were analyzed using descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Rob E Schouten, Shuang Fan, Julian C Verdonk, Yuchen Wang, Nur Fauzana Mohd Kasim, Ernst J Woltering, L M M Tijskens
More and more, tropical fruit are subjected to accelerated ripening at receiving markets until "ready to eat." We propose a kinetic model that incorporates the effects of temperature and ethylene on the firmness behavior of "Keitt" and "Kent" mangoes. Stiffness of individual mangoes, as measured by the acoustic firmness tester, was measured repeatedly over time. The firmness model assumes fixed levels of ethylene, established after the climacteric peak, that steadily induces production of softening enzymes that subsequently denaturalize...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Martin R Späth, Malte P Bartram, Nicolàs Palacio-Escat, K Johanna R Hoyer, Cedric Debes, Fatih Demir, Christina B Schroeter, Amrei M Mandel, Franziska Grundmann, Giuliano Ciarimboli, Andreas Beyer, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu, Susanne Brodesser, Heike Göbel, Jan U Becker, Thomas Benzing, Bernhard Schermer, Martin Höhne, Volker Burst, Julio Saez-Rodriguez, Pitter F Huesgen, Roman-Ulrich Müller, Markus M Rinschen
Acute kidney injury (AKI) leads to significant morbidity and mortality; unfortunately, strategies to prevent or treat AKI are lacking. In recent years, several preconditioning protocols have been shown to be effective in inducing organ protection in rodent models. Here, we characterized two of these interventions-caloric restriction and hypoxic preconditioning-in a mouse model of cisplatin-induced AKI and investigated the underlying mechanisms by acquisition of multi-layered omic data (transcriptome, proteome, N-degradome) and functional parameters in the same animals...
November 29, 2018: Kidney International
Liraz Fridman, Jessica L Fraser-Thomas, Ian Pike, Alison K Macpherson
BACKGROUND: In Canada, road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death among children and youth ≤19. Across the country, there is variability in road traffic injury prevention policies and legislation. Our objective was to compare pediatric road traffic related injury hospitalization and death rates across Canadian provinces. METHODS: Population-based hospitalization and death rates per 100,000 were analyzed using data from the Discharge Abstract Database and provincial coroner's reports...
December 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
Weituan Xu, Weihua Liu, Wenli Yu
BACKGROUND: Iron is pivotal for life, but it is toxic if in excess. Iron overload mediated by divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) in the central nervous system has participated in various neuroinflammatory diseases. Chemokine-induced neuroinflammation involves the development of pathological pain. Recently, chemokine CXCL10 is implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic pain, however, little is known about the potential link between iron accumulation and CXCL10 in pain condition. Here, we examined whether iron accumulation regulated neuropathic pain via CXCL10...
December 3, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Tim Rahmel, Hartmuth Nowak, Katharina Rump, Winfried Siffert, Jürgen Peters, Michael Adamzik
BACKGROUND: Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) expression impacts on cellular water transport, renal function but also on key mechanisms of inflammation and immune cell migration that prevail in sepsis and ARDS. Thus, the functionally relevant AQP5 -1364A/C promoter single nucleotide polymorphism could impact on the development and resolution of acute kidney injury (AKI). Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that the AQP5 promoter -1364A/C polymorphism is associated with AKI in patients suffering from pneumonia evoked ARDS...
2018: PloS One
Zhihao Qi, Zhen Huang, Feng Xie, Linxi Chen
Mitochondria play a key role in the maintenance of neuronal function by continuously providing energy. Here, we will give a detailed review about the recent developments in regards to dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) induced unbalanced mitochondrial dynamics, excessive mitochondrial division, and neuronal injury in neural system dysfunctions and neurodegenerative diseases, including the Drp1 knockout induced mice embryonic death, the dysfunction of the Drp1-dependent mitochondrial division induced neuronal cell apoptosis and impaired neuronal axonal transportation, the abnormal interaction between Drp1 and amyloid β (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the mutant Huntingtin (Htt) in Huntington's disease (HD), and the Drp1-associated pathogenesis of other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Stephen F Carter, Konstantinos Chiotis, Agneta Nordberg, Elena Rodriguez-Vieitez
PURPOSE: The spatial resolution of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET does not allow the specific cellular origin of its signal to be determined, but it is commonly accepted that transport and trapping of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose reflects neuronal glucose metabolism. The main frameworks for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease suggest that hypometabolism measured with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET is a biomarker of neuronal injury and neurodegeneration. There is preclinical evidence to suggest that astrocytes contribute, at least partially, to the in vivo 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET signal...
December 4, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Anna D Kuprash, Alexey M Shibeko, Ramya Vijay, Sukesh C Nair, Alok Srivastava, Fazoil I Ataullakhanov, Mikhail A Panteleev, Anna N Balandina
Blood coagulation is a delicately regulated space- and time-dependent process that leads to the formation of fibrin clots preventing blood loss upon vascular injury. The sensitivity of the coagulation network was previously investigated without accounting for transport processes. To investigate its sensitivity to coagulation factor deficiencies in a spatial reaction-diffusion system, we combined an in vitro experimental design with a computational systems biology model. Clot formation in platelet-free plasma supplemented with phospholipids was activated with identical amounts of tissue factor (TF) either homogeneously distributed (concentration 5 pM, homogeneous model) or immobilized on the surface (surface density 100 pmole/m2 , spatially heterogeneous model)...
November 14, 2018: Biophysical Journal
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