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Transport injury

E Brooke Lerner, Jonathan R Studnek, Nicole Fumo, Anjishnu Banerjee, Igli Arapi, Lorin R Browne, Daniel G Ostermayer, Stacy Reynolds, Manish I Shah
BACKGROUND: Although all emergency departments (ED) should be ready to treat children, some may have illnesses or injuries that require higher-level pediatric resources that are not available at all hospitals. There are no national guidelines for EMS providers about when to directly transport children to hospitals with higher-level pediatric resources, with the exception of severe trauma. Variability exists in EMS protocols about when children warrant transport to hospitals with higher-level pediatric care...
October 21, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Mark Real, Michele S Barnhill, Cory Higley, Jessica Rosenberg, James H Lewis
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI), herbal-induced liver injury, and herbal and dietary supplement (HDS)-induced liver injury are an important aspect of drug safety. Knowledge regarding responsible drugs, mechanisms, risk factors, and the diagnostic tools to detect liver injury have continued to grow in the past year. This review highlights what we considered the most significant publications from among more than 1800 articles relating to liver injury from medications, herbal products, and dietary supplements in 2017 and 2018...
October 20, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Andrea M Halsey, Alex C Conner, Roslyn M Bill, Ann Logan, Zubair Ahmed
After injury to the spinal cord, edema contributes to the underlying detrimental pathophysiological outcomes that lead to worsening of function. Several related membrane proteins called aquaporins (AQPs) regulate water movement in fluid transporting tissues including the spinal cord. Within the cord, AQP1, 4 and 9 contribute to spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced edema. AQP1, 4 and 9 are expressed in a variety of cells including astrocytes, neurons, ependymal cells, and endothelial cells. This review discusses some of the recent findings of the involvement of AQP in SCI and highlights the need for further study of these proteins to develop effective therapies to counteract the negative effects of SCI-induced edema...
October 18, 2018: Cells
Linda J Cobiac, Anja Mizdrak, Nick Wilson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is an important risk factor for road transport injuries. We aimed to determine if raising alcohol taxes would be a cost-effective intervention strategy for reducing this burden. METHODS: We modelled the effect of a one-off increase in alcohol excise tax (NZ$0.15 (US$0.10)/standard drink) on alcohol consumption in New Zealand, using price elasticities to determine change in on-trade and off-trade sales of beer, cider, wine, spirits and ready-to-drink products...
October 18, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Jacob A Swann, Marc R Matthews, Curt Bay, Kevin N Foster
OBJECTIVE: Native Americans (NAs) have worse healthcare outcomes over some measures than non-Native Americans (non-NAs) (i.e., lower life expectancy, higher heart disease and psychiatric disease rates). Little data exists to show if there are differences in the hospital course of burned NAs versus non-NA patients. The purpose of this study is to analyze the epidemiology, clinical course, and outcomes of NA burn injury in Arizona. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective database review of all burn center burn admissions from 2000 to 2015...
October 15, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Péter Hertelendy, Dániel P Varga, Ákos Menyhárt, Ferenc Bari, Eszter Farkas
Secondary injury following acute brain insults significantly contributes to poorer neurological outcome. The spontaneous, recurrent occurrence of spreading depolarization events (SD) has been recognized as a potent secondary injury mechanism in subarachnoid hemorrhage, malignant ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. In addition, SD is the underlying mechanism of the aura symptoms of migraineurs. The susceptibility of the nervous tissue to SD is subject to the metabolic status of the tissue, the ionic composition of the extracellular space, and the functional status of ion pumps, voltage-gated and other cation channels, glutamate receptors and excitatory amino acid transporters...
October 15, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Steve O'Hern, Jennie Oxley
OBJECTIVES: The number of casualty road crashes in Australia has steadily reduced over the past few decades; however, a concurrent reduction has not been achieved for crashes involving cyclists. This has resulted in a disproportionate overrepresentation of cyclists in fatal injury statistics. This article explores the contributing factors and injury mechanisms among coronial reported fatal cyclist crashes in Australia. METHODS: The National Coronial Information System (NCIS) is a remote data entry and retrieval system containing detailed coronial information managed by the Victorian Department of Justice and Regulation...
October 18, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Rui-Jian Peng, Yong-Hong Zhang, Xiao-Hui Li, Hua-Nan Shi, Yan-Jun Lu, Qi Yang
OBJECTIVE: To discuss clinical outcomes of accordion operation for the Ilizarov technique in treating tibial bone defects. METHODS: From January 2014 to June 2016, 22 patients with tibial bone defects were treated by Ilizarov bone-transport technique, including 19 males and 3 females with an average age of 44.04 years old ranging from 23 to 60 years old;the length of the bone defects before the bone transport was 5 to 11 cm with an average 7.68 cm; Cause of injury invlved traffic accidents in 14 cases, fall injury in 3, smashing injury in 4, high drop injury in 1; 6 cases were on the left and 16 cases were on the right...
September 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Natalia Pavon, Mabel Buelna-Chontal, Arturo Macias-Lopez, Francisco Correa, Cristina Uribe-Alvarez, Luz Hernández-Esquivel, Edmundo Chavez
In the kidney, the accumulation of heavy metals, such as Cd2+, produce mitochondrial dysfunctions, i.e., uncoupling of the oxidative phosphorylation, inhibition of the electron transport through the respiratory chain, and collapse of the transmembrane electrical gradient. This derangement may be due to the fact that Cd2+ induces the transition of membrane permeability from selective to non-selective via the opening of a transmembrane pore. In fact, Cd2+ produces this injury through the stimulation of oxygen-derived radical generation conducing to oxidative stress...
October 17, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Hui-Ching Lee, Marilyn Johnson, Lyndal Bugeja, Sjaan Koppel, Derek Chong, Joseph E Ibrahim
OBJECTIVE: To examine fatal road transport crashes of residential aged care facility (RACF) residents to determine crash characteristics and risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a retrospective national cohort of RACF resident deaths notified to Australian coroners. INCLUSION CRITERIA: death occurred between 1 July 2000 and 30 June 2013; mechanism classified as 'transport injury event'; and completed coronial investigation. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted on crash characteristics and risk factors...
October 16, 2018: Australasian Journal on Ageing
María F González Fleitas, Marcos L Aranda, Hernán H Dieguez, Julian D Devouassoux, Mónica S Chianelli, Damian Dorfman, Ruth E Rosenstein
Retinal ischemia is a condition associated with several degenerative diseases leading to visual impairment and blindness worldwide. Currently, there is no highly effective therapy for ischemic retinopathies. This study was designed to determine possible benefits of pre-exposure to enriched environment against retinal damage induced by acute ischemia. For this purpose, adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to a pre-ischemic standard environment or a pre-ischemic enriched environment for 3 weeks, followed by unilateral ischemia induced by increasing intraocular pressure above 120 mm Hg for 40 min and reperfusion for 1 or 2 weeks in standard environment...
October 13, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Felix Hammann, Verena Schöning, Jürgen Drewe
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the most common cause of acute liver failure and often responsible for drug withdrawals from the market. Clinical manifestations vary, and toxicity may or may not appear dose-dependent. We present several machine-learning models (decision tree induction, k-nearest neighbor, support vector machines, artificial neural networks) for the prediction of clinically relevant DILI based solely on drug structure, with data taken from published DILI cases. Our models achieved corrected classification rates of up to 89%...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Jiang-Hui Liu, Qing Tang, Xiang-Xia Liu, Jian Qi, Rui-Xi Zeng, Zhao-Wei Zhu, Bo He, Yang-Bin Xu
An aging-induced decrease in Schwann cell viability can affect regeneration following peripheral nerve injury in mammals. It is therefore necessary to investigate possible age-related changes in gene expression that may affect the biological function of peripheral nerves. Ten 1-week-old and ten 12-month-old healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into young (1 week old) and adult (12 months old) groups according to their ages. mRNA expression in the sciatic nerve was compared between young and adult rats using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and bioinformatics (n = 4/group)...
December 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Yuki Kurauchi, Kazuki Noma, Akinori Hisatsune, Takahiro Seki, Hiroshi Katsuki
Na+ , K+ -ATPase is a highly expressed membrane protein. Dysfunction of Na+ , K+ -ATPase has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, however, the underlying mechanism of neuronal cell death resulting from Na+ , K+ -ATPase dysfunction is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the mechanism of neurotoxicity due to Na+ , K+ -ATPase inhibition using rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Treatment with ouabain, a Na+ , K+ -ATPase inhibitor, increased the ratio of propidium iodide-positive cells among NeuN-positive cells in the hippocampal CA1 region, which was prevented by MK-801 and d-AP5, specific blockers of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Xavier R J Moors, Stef J M Bouman, Joost H Peters, Pascal Smulders, Michelle B Oude Alink, Dennis Den Hartog, Robert Jan Stolker
OBJECTIVE: In the prehospital setting, the Nijmegen and Rotterdam helicopter emergency medical services administer packed red blood cells to critically ill or injured pediatric patients. Blood is given on scene or during transport and is derived from nearby hospitals. We summarize our experience with prehospital blood use in pediatric patients. METHODS: The databases from both the Nijmegen and Rotterdam helicopter emergency medical services were reviewed for all pediatric (< 18 years) patients who received packed red blood cells on scene or during transport to the hospital...
September 2018: Air Medical Journal
Chunshuai Wu, Guofeng Bao, Guanhua Xu, Yuyu Sun, Lingling Wang, Jiajia Chen, Jinlong Zhang, Chu Chen, Qiancheng Zhu, Zhiming Cui
Traumatic spinal cord injury is a common and severe complication after an accident. As we all know that neurite outgrowth of neurons is difficult after a spinal cord injury. Endosome system is associated with cargoes transportation and contributes in promoting the neuronal capability for neurite outgrowth. EH domain-containing protein 1 (EHD1) transports proteins through the endosome system, especially in the recycling endosomes and regulating the neurite outgrowth. In mammalian cells, the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in endosomal sorting has been well established...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Brunella Posteraro, Francesco Paroni Sterbini, Valentina Petito, Stefano Rocca, Tiziana Cubeddu, Cristina Graziani, Vincenzo Arena, Gabriele A Vassallo, Carolina Mosoni, Loris Lopetuso, Irene Lorrai, Paola Maccioni, Luca Masucci, Cecilia Martini, Antonio Gasbarrini, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Giancarlo Colombo, Giovanni Addolorato
BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence that alcoholism leads to dysbiosis in both humans and animals. However, it is unclear how changes in the intestinal microbiota (IM) relate to ethanol (EtOH)-induced disruption of gut-liver homeostasis. We investigated this issue using selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats, a validated animal model of excessive EtOH consumption. METHODS: Independent groups of male adult sP rats were exposed to the standard, home-cage 2-bottle "EtOH (10% v/v) vs water" choice regimen with unlimited access for 24 hours/day (Group Et) for 3 (T1), 6 (T2), and 12 (T3) consecutive months...
October 15, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Li-Li Li, Mei-Fang Jin, Hong Ni
The role of leptin in the pathogenesis of epilepsy is getting more and more attention in clinical and basic research. Although there are data indicating neuroprotective effects of elevated serum/brain leptin levels following acute seizures, no study to date has dealt with the impact of chronic leptin treatment on long-term brain injury following developmental seizures. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether chronic leptin treatment may have neuroprotective effects on cognitive and hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting following flurothyl-induced recurrent neonatal seizures and whether these effects are mediated by the zinc/CaMKII-associated mitophagy signaling pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Xianling Gong, Ruibo Sun, Zhuowei Gao, Weili Han, Yawei Liu, Liang Zhao, Linlin Jing, Xueqing Yao, Xuegang Sun
Macropinocytosis is a highly conserved endocytic process which characterizes the engulfment of extracellular fluid and its contents into cells via large, heterogeneous vacuoles known as macropinosomes. Tubeimoside-1 (TBM1) is a low toxic triterpenoid saponin extracted from a traditional Chinese herb Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim.) . TBM1 stimulates a quick accumulation of numerous phase-lucent cytoplasmic vacuoles in multiple colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. These vacuoles can be termed as macropinosomes that efficiently engulf lucifer yellow...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Rong Z Gan
Eardrum or tympanic membrane (TM) is a multilayer soft tissue membrane located at the end of the ear canal to receive sound pressure and transport the sound into the middle ear and cochlea. Rupture of the TM is one of the most frequent injuries of the ear after blast exposure in military service members. The TM mechanical property changes induced by blast waves also affect progressive hearing loss in veterans. This chapter describes the biomechanical measurements and modeling of blast wave transduction through the ear and the TM mechanical property changes after blast exposure...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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