Read by QxMD icon Read

Transport injury

Peter O'Meara, Gary Wingrove, Michael Nolan
INTRODUCTION: For the past 50 years paramedic services and paramedic roles in high-income nations have evolved in response to changes in community needs and expectations. The aim of this article is to review paramedic models of service delivery, with an emphasis on models that have the potential to improve the health and wellbeing of frontier and remote populations. METHODS: Paramedic models of relevance to rural and frontier settings were identified from searches of CINHAL and Medline, while key paramedic-specific journals were individualy searched in the event that they were not indexed...
August 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Beibei Zhang, Zengpeng Lv, Zhui Li, Weiwei Wang, Guang Li, Yuming Guo
Our previous reports suggested that Dietary l-arginine supplementation attenuated gut injury of broiler chickens infected with Clostridium perfringens by enhancing intestinal immune responses, absorption and barrier function, but its effect on the gut microbiome of broiler chickens remains unclear. This experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of Dietary l-arginine supplementation on the gut bacterial community composition and function of broiler chickens challenged with C. perfringens . In total, 105 1-day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chickens were assigned to three groups: Control (CTL), C...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xian Wang, Xiaofeng Shen, Yingli Xu, Shiqin Xu, Fan Xia, Bei Zhu, Yusheng Liu, Wei Wang, Haibo Wu, Fuzhou Wang
Neuropathic pain is a common chronic pain condition with mechanisms far clearly been elucidated. Mounting preclinical and clinical studies have shown neuropathic pain is highly associated with histone acetylation modification, which follows expression regulation of various pain-related molecules such as mGluR1/5, glutamate aspartate transporter, glutamate transporter-1, GAD65, Nav1.8, Kv4.3, μ-opioid receptor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and certain chemokines. As two types of pivotal enzymes involved in histone acetylation, histone deacetylases (HDACs) induce histone deacetylation to silence gene expression; in contrast, histone acetyl transferases (HATs) facilitate histone acetylation to potentiate gene transcription...
August 14, 2018: Molecular Pain
Mostafa A Abolfotouh, Mohamed A Hussein, Sameh M Abolfotouh, Alanoud Al-Marzoug, Suliman Al-Teriqi, Abeer Al-Suwailem, Ra'ed A Hijazi
Background: The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of traumatic injuries and determine the predictors of inhospital mortality in patients admitted to the emergency department. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of 3,786 patients with traumat injuries admitted to the emergency department of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between January 2012 and December 2014. Data on patient characteristics, trauma characteristics and outcomes were extracted from medical records...
2018: Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM
Heath A MacMillan, Basma Nazal, Sahr Wali, Gil Y Yerushalmi, Lidiya Misyura, Andrew Donini, Jean-Paul Paluzzi
For insects, chilling injuries that occur in the absence of freezing are often related to a systemic loss of ion and water balance that leads to extracellular hyperkalemia, cell depolarization, and the triggering of apoptotic signalling cascades. The ability of insect ionoregulatory organs (e.g. the Malpighian tubules) to maintain ion balance in the cold has been linked to improved chill tolerance, and many neuroendocrine factors are known to influence ion transport rates of these organs. Injection of micromolar doses of CAPA (an insect neuropeptide) have been previously demonstrated to improve Drosophila cold tolerance, but the mechanisms through which it impacts chill tolerance are unclear, and low doses of CAPA have been previously demonstrated to cause anti-diuresis in insects, including dipterans...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Yongtao Xiao, Weihui Yan, Ying Lu, Kejun Zhou, Wei Cai
Although the pathogenesis of intestinal failure (IF)-associated liver disease (IFALD) is uncertain, IF-associated cholestasis mediated by the combination of intestinal injury and parenteral nutrition (PN) can lead to disturbed hepatocyte bile acids (BA) homeostasis and cause liver damages. We here show that neurotensin (NT; also known as NTS) concentrations were lower compared to healthy matched controls. Patients with cholestasis [56.1 ng/L (9.7-154.7) vs. 210.4 ng/L (134-400.4), p < .001] had lower serum NT concentrations than others...
August 10, 2018: EBioMedicine
Chin-Mao Hung, Chung-Kan Peng, Chin-Pyng Wu, Kun-Lun Huang
Bumetanide is a potent loop diuretic that acts as an inhibitor of sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (NKCC2) and its isoform NKCC1. Although the expression of NKCC2 is limited to the kidney, NKCC1 is widely expressed in various cells, where it participates in a variety of physiological functions including ion transport, alveolar fluid secretion, and cell volume regulation. We investigated the role of NKCC1 in modulation of host immunity. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated the expression and phosphorylation of NKCC1 in RAW264...
August 10, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Kimberly Stanford, Alyssa Cappetta, Roy Ahn, Wendy Macias-Konstantopoulos
Trafficking of adults and children for both sex and labor is a human rights violation occurring with alarming frequency throughout the world, and resulting in profound harm to close-knit communities and severe health consequences for victims. Certain areas, such as the country of Paraguay, are at a higher risk for trafficking due to unique economic, cultural, and geographic factors. Thousands of people, especially children, are trafficked within Paraguay's borders, and many eventually are transported to neighboring countries and sometimes to Europe and elsewhere...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Anyan Xie, René J Robles, Samiran Mukherjee, Haohai Zhang, Linda Feldbrügge, Eva Csizmadia, Yan Wu, Keiichi Enjyoji, Alan C Moss, Leo E Otterbein, Francisco J Quintana, Simon C Robson, Maria Serena Longhi
In Crohn's disease, pathogenic Th17-cells express low levels of CD39 ectonucleotidase and are refractory to the immunosuppressive effects of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), an endogenous ligand for aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor (AhR). This resistance to AhR ligation might be associated with alterations in responses to hypoxia. Limited exposure to hypoxia appears beneficial in acute tissue injury. However, in protracted inflammation, hypoxemia may paradoxically result in Th17-cell activation. We report here that in vitro exposure of Th17-cells from Crohn's disease patients to hypoxia limits responsiveness to AhR stimulation by UCB, as reflected by lower CD39 levels...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Hanna Bragde, Ulf Jansson, Mats Fredrikson, Ewa Grodzinsky, Jan Söderman
Establishing a celiac disease (CD) diagnosis can be difficult, such as when CD-specific antibody levels are just above cutoff or when small intestinal biopsies show low-grade injuries. To investigate the biological pathways involved in CD and select potential biomarkers to aid in CD diagnosis, RNA sequencing of duodenal biopsies from subjects with either confirmed Active CD (n = 20) or without any signs of CD (n = 20) was performed. Gene enrichment and pathway analysis highlighted contexts, such as immune response, microbial infection, phagocytosis, intestinal barrier function, metabolism, and transportation...
August 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
B M Carter, B J Sullivan, J R Landers, S D Kadam
Neonatal seizures have an incidence of 3.5 per 1000 newborns; while hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) accounts for 50-60% of cases, half are resistant to 1st-line anti-seizure drugs such as phenobarbital (PB). Tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) activation following ischemic injury is known to increase neuronal excitability by downregulation of K-Cl co-transporter 2 (KCC2); a neuronal chloride (Cl- ) co-transporter. In this study, three graded doses of ANA12, a small-molecule selective TrkB antagonist, were tested in CD1 mice at P7 and P10 following induction of neonatal ischemia by a unilateral carotid ligation...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ole-Petter Vinjevoll, Oddvar Uleberg, Elaine Cole
BACKGROUND: Sensitive decision making tools should assist prehospital personnel in the triage of injured patients, identifying those who require immediate lifesaving interventions and safely reducing unnecessary under- and overtriage. In 2014 a new trauma team activation (TTA) tool was implemented in Central Norway. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of the new TTA tool to identify severe injury. METHODS: This was a multi-center observational cohort study with retrospective data analysis...
August 10, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Laleh Kamalian, Oisin Douglas, Carol Jolly, Jan Snoeys, Damir Simic, Mario Monshouwer, Dominic P Williams, B Kevin Park, Amy E Chadwick
The importance of mitochondrial toxicity in drug-induced liver injury is well established. The bioenergetic phenotype of the HepaRG cell line was defined in order to assess their suitability as a model of mitochondrial hepatotoxicity. Bioenergetic phenotyping categorised the HepaRG cells as less metabolically active when measured beside the more energetic HepG2 cells. However, inhibition of mitochondrial ATP synthase induced an increase in glycolytic activity of both HepaRG and HepG2 cells suggesting an active Crabtree Effect in both cell lines...
August 7, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Giuseppe Paradies, Valeria Paradies, Francesca Maria Ruggiero, Giuseppe Petrosillo
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Increased reactive oxygen species production, impaired electron transport chain activity, aberrant mitochondrial dynamics, calcium overload and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore have been proposed as major contributory factors to mitochondrial dysfunction during myocardial I/R injury. Cardiolipin (CL), a mitochondria-specific phospholipid, plays a pivotal role in multiple mitochondrial bioenergetic processes, including respiration and energy conversion, in mitochondrial morphology and dynamics, as well as, in several steps of the apoptotic process...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Isabel Romero-Calvo, Borja Ocón, Reyes Gámez-Belmonte, Cristina Hernández-Chirlaque, Hugo R de Jonge, Marcel J Bijvelds, Olga Martínez-Augustin, Fermín Sánchez de Medina
One of the cardinal symptoms of intestinal inflammation is diarrhea. Acute intestinal inflammation is associated with inhibition of ion absorption and increased secretion, along with fluid leakage due to epithelial injury and changes in permeability. However, in the chronic situation, a downregulation of both absorptive and secretory transport has been reported. We investigated how experimental colitis reduces cAMP levels in intestinal epithelial cells through modulation of adenylyl cyclases (AC). Primary colonic epithelial cells obtained from rats with trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid colitis and non-colitic controls were analyzed for AC expression by RT-qPCR and Western blot, following a preliminary microarray analysis...
August 9, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Kyle H Flippo, Aswini Gnanasekaran, Guy A Perkins, Ajmal Ahmad, Ronald A Merrill, Audrey S Dickey, Susan S Taylor, G S McKnight, Anil K Chauhan, Yuriy M Usachev, Stefan Strack
Mitochondrial fission and fusion impact numerous cellular functions and neurons are particularly sensitive to perturbations in mitochondrial dynamics. Here we describe that male mice lacking the mitochondrial A-kinase anchoring protein 1 (AKAP1) exhibit increased sensitivity in the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model of focal ischemia. At the ultrastructural level, AKAP1-/- mice have smaller mitochondria and increased contacts between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum in the brain. Mechanistically, deletion of AKAP1 dysregulates complex II of the electron transport chain, increases superoxide production and impairs Ca2+ homeostasis in neurons subjected to excitotoxic glutamate...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Li-Li Li, Ya-Chao Li, Dong-Jing Zhao, Mei-Fang Jin, Hong Ni
Metabolic disorders play an important role in the pathogenesis of many neurological diseases. Recent evidence suggests that leptin levels in peripheral blood and brain are lower in patients with epilepsy. Leptin is an energy-regulating hormone that plays a neuroprotective role in neurodegenerative diseases and brain trauma. However, little is known about the effects and molecular mechanisms of leptin treatment on long-term neurobehavioral impairment caused by developmental seizures. The present study evaluated whether chronic leptin treatment protected against neurobehavioral impairments induced by recurrent seizures in newborns treated with flurothyl...
August 3, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Henry Lujan, Christie M Sayes
Nanotechnology is advancing rapidly; many industries are utilizing nanomaterials because of their remarkable properties. As of 2017, over 1800 "nano-enabled products" ( i.e. products that incorporate a nanomaterial feature and alter the product's performance) have been used to revolutionize pharmaceutical, transportation, and agriculture industries, just to name a few. As the number of nano-enabled products continues to increase, the risk of nanoparticle exposure to humans and the surrounding environment also increases...
September 1, 2017: Toxicology Research
Masahiko Terasaki, Hiromu Ito, Hiromi Kurokawa, Masato Tamura, Susumu Okabe, Hirofumi Matsui, Ichinosuke Hyodo
Acetic acid can cause cellular injury. We previously reported that acetic acid induces cancer cell-selective death in rat gastric cells. However, the mechanism is unclear. Generally, cancer cells are more sensitive to reactive oxygen species than normal cells. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the involvement of oxidative stress in cancer cell-selective death by acetic acid using normal gastric mucosal cells and cancerous gastric mucosal cells. The cancer cell-selective death was induced at the concentration of 2-5 µM acetic acid...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Theodore G Karrison, L Philip Schumm, Masha Kocherginsky, Ronald Thisted, Douglas R Dirschl, Selwyn Rogers
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ambulance driving distance and transport time on mortality among trauma incidents occurring in the City of Chicago, a large metropolitan area. METHODS: We studied individuals >16 years old who suffered a Level I or II injury and were taken to a Level I trauma center. The outcome was in-hospital mortality, including those dead on arrival but excluding those deemed dead on scene. Driving distance was calculated from the scene of injury to the trauma center where the patient was taken...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"