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Road trauma

Bamini Gopinath, Jagnoor Jagnoor, Annette Kifley, Michael Nicholas, Fiona Blyth, Justin Kenardy, Ashley Craig, Ian D Cameron
There is paucity of prospective studies that have examined rates and prognostic indicators of pain severity following a road-traffic crash injury. This cohort study involved 1854 participants aged ≥17 years with a non-catastrophic injury. Primary analyses of pain severity involved 1604 individuals who reported any pain since the injury at baseline, of these, 1188 and 972 participants were re-examined at 6- and 12-month follow-up, respectively. Mean pain severity (primary study outcome) was assessed using a numeric rating scale (NRS), and a range of possible pain predictors were assessed...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Aidan Lyanzhiang Tan, Yi Chiong, Nivedita Nadkarni, Jolene Yu Xuan Cheng, Ming Terk Chiu, Ting Hway Wong
Background: There is increasing focus on long-term survival, function and quality-of-life for trauma patients. There are few studies tracking longitudinal changes in functional outcome over time. The goal of our study was to compare the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) at 6 months and 12 months in blunt trauma survivors with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of more than 15. Methods: Using the Singapore National Trauma Registry 2011-2013, patients with 6-month GOSE and 12-month GOSE scores were analysed...
2018: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
Emily Banfield, Alexander Stoll, Richard Thomas
Trauma associated with slaughter is identified occasionally archaeologically in the cranial remains of domesticated animals, with evidence for pole-axing occurring in Europe, especially from the Roman period onwards. The injury typically extends through the frontal bone and sinuses to penetrate the braincase, causing haemorrhage, loss of consciousness, brain damage, and death. Evidence for slaughter methods in the British Neolithic, however, is lacking. We report such evidence from a healed blunt-force impact trauma to the frontal bone of a domestic cattle skull from Beckhampton Road Neolithic long barrow, Wiltshire...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Christopher A Butts, Roberto Gonzalez, Linh Nguyen, John P Gaughan, Steven Ross, John Porter, Joshua P Hazelton
OBJECTIVE: Traditionally, all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and dirt bikes (DBs) have been used in rural locations for recreation and work. Recently, there has been an increase in the use of these vehicles in an urban environment. The aim of this study is to compare the injury patterns of patients involved in crashes while riding off-road vehicles in both urban (UORV) and rural (RORV) environment. METHODS: A retrospective review (2005-2016) of patients who presented to an urban level 1 trauma center as a result of any ATV or DB crash was performed...
January 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
Paul M Salmon, Gemma J M Read, Vanessa Beanland, Jason Thompson, Ashleigh J Filtness, Adam Hulme, Rod McClure, Ian Johnston
The so-called 'fatal five' behaviours (drink and drug driving, distraction and inattention, speeding, fatigue, and failure to wear a seat belt) are known to be the major behavioural contributory factors to road trauma. However, little is known about the factors that lead to drivers engaging in each behaviour. This article presents the findings from a study which collected and analysed data on the factors that lead to drivers engaging in each behaviour. The study involved a survey of drivers' perceptions of the causes of each behaviour and a subject matter expert workshop to gain the views of road safety experts...
January 2019: Applied Ergonomics
A Mancini, A Duramé, S Barbois, J Abba, F-X Ageron, C Arvieux
INTRODUCTION: Diaphragmatic rupture following blunt trauma occurs rarely. Classically described after high-velocity accidents, ruptures are often associated with multiple organ injuries. The diagnosis is sometimes difficult. The goal of this study was to analyze and to discuss the modalities of early radiologic diagnosis and management of these injuries. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study included patients seen between 2009 and 2017 within the Northern Alpine Emergency Network [REseau Nord Alpin des Urgences (RENAU)]...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Visceral Surgery
Sjaan Koppel, Lyndal Bugeja, Phuong Hua, Rachel Osborne, Amanda N Stephens, Kristie L Young, Richard Chambers, Craig Hassed
Mindfulness has been identified as a potentially effective intervention for reducing road trauma. In this paper, we report on the results of a systematic review which examined the evidence regarding the relationship between mindfulness and road safety. The review was conducted following PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO 2017: CRD42017075704). The primary outcomes measured were crash or near-crash rates and the secondary outcomes were driving violations (including speeding and texting while driving) and driving performance (i...
November 20, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Paul M Salmon, Gemma J M Read
In complexity science, the many models thinking philosophy argues for a multi-method approach to complex problems. This article investigates whether the use of multiple systems ergonomics methods to examine the same problem is useful, or whether using different approaches creates incompatible analyses. Five systems ergonomics analyses of road trauma are examined and their key insights extracted. The extent to which these insights are compatible with one another and can be integrated when attempting to reduce road trauma is assessed...
November 21, 2018: Ergonomics
Vivek Kumar Kankane, Tarun Kumar Gupta
Aim: Delayed intracerebral tension pneumatocele (DITP) is an uncommon cause of raised intracranial pressure following trauma. However, it can cause herniation syndrome due to a sudden increase in intracranial pressure which requires emergent intervention. Pneumocephalus is a complication of head injury in 3.9%-9.7% of the cases. The accumulation of intracranial air can be acute (<72 h) or delayed (≥72 h). Method: When intracranial air causes intracranial hypertension and has a mass effect with neurological deterioration, it is called tension pneumocephalus...
October 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Gift G Lukumay, Menti L Ndile, Anne H Outwater, Dickson A Mkoka, Mojgan Padyab, Britt-Inger Saveman, Susann Backteman-Erlanson
BACKGROUND: The availability of prehospital trauma care is an important means of reducing serious injuries and fatalities associated with road traffic injuries (RTIs). Lay responders such as traffic police play an important role in the provision of prehospital trauma care to RTI victims, especially where there is no established prehospital care system. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate knowledge, self-reported practice, and attitudes toward post-crash first aid among traffic police officers in Tanzania...
November 20, 2018: BMC Emergency Medicine
Megan Cox, Timothy D Becker, Mpapho Motsumi
Introduction: This study describes the demographics, aetiology, emergency centre diagnosis and severity indicators of patients with head injuries presenting to the largest referral hospital emergency centre in Botswana. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective data was collected from July 2015 to September 2015 for all emergency centre head injury presentations at Princess Marina Hospital. Information was extracted from emergency centre records regarding patient demographics, mechanism of injury, clinical observations, diagnosis, and treatment...
September 2018: African Journal of Emergency Medicine Revue Africaine de la Médecine D'urgence
Leslie Wynveen, Miriam Gamble, Josephine Nabulime, Tonny Luggya, Joseph K Kalanzi, Hani Mowafi
Introduction: In Africa, traumatic brain injuries frequently result from road traffic injuries and assaults. Despite limited resources and the high costs of life-saving neurosurgical interventions, secondary brain injury prevention has the potential for improving outcomes. However, nurses and other medical personnel infrequently monitor vital signs, blood sugar, and pulse oximetry and only sporadically re-assess neurological status. Methods: In one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, 27 nurses from Mulago Hospital's emergency centre, a tertiary care trauma hospital in Kampala, Uganda, provided feedback regarding a traumatic brain injury-focused education session and use of a nursing chart for detecting secondary brain injury...
June 2018: African Journal of Emergency Medicine Revue Africaine de la Médecine D'urgence
Pranav D Modi, Rajavi Solanki, Tripti S Nagdev, Pallavi D Yadav, Nyayosh K Bharucha, Ajay Desai, Paresh Navalkar, Sunil B Kelgane, Deepak Langade
Background and objectives The most widely used emergency medical services (EMS) model in India is the '108' emergency service which primarily functions as an emergency response system to attend patients in need of critical care, trauma and accident victims. This is an observational cross-sectional study which was conducted using a questionnaire that asks the participants about their awareness and opinion of the current EMS system. The results of this study will enable us to ascertain the level of awareness of EMS among the population and address any misconceptions if they exist...
September 15, 2018: Curēus
Lemma Negesa Bulto, Yadeta Dessie, Biftu Geda
Introduction: In developing countries, approximately sixteen hundred people die every day from all types of injuries, making injury the third most common cause of all mortalities in the region. The objective of this study was to examine the magnitude, causes and types of traumatic injuries in patients visiting Dilchora Hospital in Dire Dawa Administration of Eastern Ethiopia. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study which was supplemented with qualitative data...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Gerene M Denning, Charles A Jennissen
All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) remain a significant source of death and injury among youth. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the scope of the problem, the risk factors involved, crash-related outcomes and costs, and injury prevention strategies. There are currently more than 100 pediatric ATV-related fatalities each year and over 30,000 emergency department visits, with a potential annual cost for deaths and injuries approaching $1 billion. Major risk factors include lack of training, operating adult-size ATVs, riding as or carrying passengers, riding on the road, and not wearing a helmet...
2018: Research in Sports Medicine
R Joseph Alexis, S Jagdish, Sanjay Sukumar, Vinay R Pandit, C Palnivel, M Jency Antony
Aims: This study aims to correlate the autopsy findings with the clinical picture and imaging report in fatal head injury patients. Settings and Design: A descriptive study conducted at tertiary care hospital in South India from July 2015 to December 2016. Patients and Methods: All patients with head injuries who were admitted to our Emergency and Trauma Centre and underwent autopsy were included in the study. A structured pro forma was used for collecting information...
July 2018: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
Natasa Zatezalo, Mete Erdogan, Robert S Green
Context: With increasing ownership of mobile devices (i.e., cell phones and smartphones), it is important to better understand the role of these devices in motor vehicle collision (MVC)-related trauma. Aims: The primary objective was to synthesize evidence on the proportion of drivers injured or killed in an MVC attributed to driver distraction by a mobile device. As a secondary objective, we assessed for associations between injury risk and mobile device use while driving...
July 2018: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
Dawood Ali-Alsuliman, El-Hakim Ibrahim, Ramat Oyebunmi Braimah
Introduction: Zygomatic bone (ZB), also known as the cheekbone, articulates with the maxilla, temporal sphenoid, and the frontal bones. It forms the prominence of the cheek and part of the orbit, and because of its prominence, it is susceptible to trauma. The aim of this study was to present the pattern of ZB fracture in a country in the Middle East. Patients and Methods: The medical records of all trauma cases admitted to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Ward, Riyadh Dental Centre, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were reviewed and all cases with ZB fractures were included in this study from December 2002 to December 2012...
July 2018: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
Sanjeev Bhoi, Ajai Singh, Tej Prakash Sinha, Ranabir Pal, Sagar Galwankar, Arushi Baluja, Sabir Ali, Vidhu Sharma, Amit Agrawal
Background: Helmet, as a protective gear to prevent fatal injuries while riding two-wheelers, needs to be evaluated by quality data. The aim of the study was to find out spectrum of injuries sustained with downstream outcomes in relation to acceptable ways of use of crash-proof helmet among motorized two-wheeler riders compared to nonuse following road traffic accidents. Methods: The present study was an analytical cross-sectional multicentric study conducted at three dedicated trauma care centers of India: (a) Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, (b) King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, and (c) Narayana Medical College and Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh...
July 2018: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
Muhammad Rizwan, Madiha Hashmi, Hasnain Zafar
Introduction Trauma is the fourth leading cause of death globally and constitutes a huge burden on limited critical care resources. Aim ​​​​This study aimed to identify the trauma patient burden in terms of resources used in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) of Aga Khan University Hospital in Pakistan which also included characteristics and outcomes of trauma and non-trauma patients. ​​​Methods ​​​We retrospectively reviewed all patient data for adult patients (>16 years old) admitted to the SICU from July through December 2014...
August 30, 2018: Curēus
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