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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331331/interaction-of-ceramides-and-tear-lipocalin
#1
Ben J Glasgow, Adil R Abduragimov
The distribution of lipids in tears is critical to their function. Lipids in human tears may retard evaporation by forming a surface barrier at the air interface. Lipids complexed with the major lipid binding protein in tears, tear lipocalin, reside in the bulk (aqueous) and may have functions unrelated to the surface. Many new lipids species have been revealed through recent mass spectrometric studies. Their association with lipid binding proteins has not been studied. Squalene, (O-acyl) omega-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFA) and ceramides are examples...
January 10, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331057/manifestations-and-mechanisms-of-myocardial-lipotoxicity-in-obesity
#2
Arthur C Sletten, Linda R Peterson, Jean E Schaffer
Environmental and socioeconomic changes over the past thirty years have contributed to a dramatic rise in the worldwide prevalence of obesity. Heart disease is among the most serious health risks of obesity, with increases in both atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and heart failure among obese individuals. In this review, we focus on primary myocardial alterations in obesity that include hypertrophic remodeling and diastolic dysfunction. Obesity-associated perturbations in myocardial and systemic lipid metabolism are important contributors to cardiovascular complications of obesity...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331050/exercise-counteracts-lipotoxicity-by-improving-lipid-turnover-and-lipid-droplet-quality
#3
Evelyn Zacharewicz, Matthijs K C Hesselink, Patrick Schrauwen
The incidence of obesity and metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), are rising globally. Dietary lipid over-supply leads to lipid accumulation at ectopic sites, such as skeletal muscle. Ectopic lipid storage is highly correlated with insulin resistance and T2D, likely due to a loss of metabolic flexibility - the capacity to switch between fat and glucose oxidation upon insulin stimulation - and cellular dysfunction because of lipotoxicity. However, muscle lipid levels are also elevated in endurance trained athletes, presenting a paradoxical phenotype of increased intramuscular lipids along with high insulin sensitivity - the "athletes' paradox"...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329781/dopamine-transporter-trafficking-is-regulated-by-neutral-sphingomyelinase-2-ceramide-kinase
#4
Jong Hoon Won, Seok Kyun Kim, In Chul Shin, Hae Chan Ha, Ji Min Jang, Moon Jung Back, Dae Kyong Kim
Dopamine (DA) reuptake is the primary mechanism to terminate dopaminergic transmission in the synaptic cleft. The dopamine transporter (DAT) has an important role in the regulation of DA reuptake. This study provides anatomical and physiological evidence that DAT recycling is regulated by ceramide kinase via the sphingomyelin pathway. First, the results show that DAT and neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) were successfully co-precipitated from striatal samples and were colocalized in the mouse striatum or PC12 cells...
January 9, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327584/gama-aminobutyric-acid-enriched-rice-bran-diet-attenuates-insulin-resistance-and-balances-energy-expenditure-via-modification-of-gut-microbiota-and-scfas
#5
Xu Si, Wenting Shang, Zhongkai Zhou, Guanghou Shui, Sin Man Lam, Christopher L Blanchard, Padraig Strappe
In this study, gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) enriched rice bran (ERB) was supplemented to obese rats to investigate the attenuation of metabolic syndromes induced by high-fat diet. ERB-containing diet stimulated butyrate and propionate production by promoting Anaerostipes, Anaerostipes sp. and associated synthesizing enzymes. This altered SCFA distribution further enhanced circulatory levels of leptin and glucagon-like peptide-1, controlling food intake by down-regulating orexigenic factors. Together with the enhanced fatty acid β-oxidation highlighted by Prkaa2, Ppara, Scd1 expression via AMPK signaling pathway and Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease pathway, energy expenditure was positively modulated...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325876/nogo-a-interacts-with-trka-to-alter-nerve-growth-factor-signaling-in-nogo-a-overexpressing-pc12-cells
#6
Robert G Farrer, Gwendolyn L Kartje
The Nogo-A protein, originally discovered as a potent myelin-associated inhibitor of neurite outgrowth, is also expressed by certain neurons, especially during development and after injury, but its role in neuronal function is not completely known. In this report, we overexpressed Nogo-A in PC12 cells to use as a model to identify potential neuronal signaling pathways affected by endogenously expressed Nogo-A. Unexpectedly, our results show that viability of Nogo-A-overexpressing cells was reduced progressively due to apoptotic cell death following NGF treatment, but only after 24 h...
January 8, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323104/the-mechanism-of-glycosphingolipid-degradation-revealed-by-a-galc-sapa-complex-structure
#7
Chris H Hill, Georgia M Cook, Samantha J Spratley, Stuart Fawke, Stephen C Graham, Janet E Deane
Sphingolipids are essential components of cellular membranes and defects in their synthesis or degradation cause severe human diseases. The efficient degradation of sphingolipids in the lysosome requires lipid-binding saposin proteins and hydrolytic enzymes. The glycosphingolipid galactocerebroside is the primary lipid component of the myelin sheath and is degraded by the hydrolase β-galactocerebrosidase (GALC). This enzyme requires the saposin SapA for lipid processing and defects in either of these proteins causes a severe neurodegenerative disorder, Krabbe disease...
January 11, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322265/the-role-of-sphingolipids-in-psychoactive-drug-use-and-addiction
#8
REVIEW
Liubov S Kalinichenko, Erich Gulbins, Johannes Kornhuber, Christian P Müller
Psychoactive drug use is a common behavior in many societies worldwide, frequently associated with drug instrumentalization. Regular use may develop into drug addiction, which is a severe psychiatric disorder with multiple pathological effects to virtually all organ systems. Treatment strategies for addiction are often insufficient with no broadly working pharmaco-treatment available. Recently, lipids, and particularly sphingolipids, have been considered as new mediators in the pathogenic pathways and as possible therapeutic targets for the treatment of addictive states...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322079/fibroblast-and-keratinocyte-gene-expression-following-exposure-to-extracts-of-neem-plant-azadirachta-indica
#9
Takao Someya, Katsura Sano, Kotaro Hara, Yoshimasa Sagane, Toshihiro Watanabe, R G S Wijesekara
This data article provides gene expression profiles, determined by using real-time PCR, of fibroblasts and keratinocytes treated with 0.01% and 0.001% extracts of neem plant (Azadirachta indica), local name "Kohomba" in Sri Lanka, harvested in Sri Lanka. For fibroblasts, the dataset includes expression profiles for genes encoding hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1), hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), hyaluronidase-1 (HYAL1), hyaluronidase-2 (HYAL2), versican, aggrecan, CD44, collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1), collagen, type III, alpha 1 (COL3A1), collagen, type VII, alpha 1 (COL7A1), matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1), acid ceramidase, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF7), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), cyclooxygenase-2 (cox2), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and aquaporin 3 (AQP3)...
February 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321137/novel-function-of-ceramide-for-regulation-of-mitochondrial-atp-release-in-astrocytes
#10
Ji-Na Kong, Zhihui Zhu, Yutaka Itokazu, Guanghu Wang, Michael B Dinkins, Liansheng Zhong, Hsuan-Pei Lin, Ahmed Elsherbini, Silvia Leanhart, Xue Jiang, Haiyan Qin, Wenbo Zhi, Stefka D Spassieva, Erhard Bieberich
We reported that amyloid beta peptide (Abeta42) activated neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) thereby increasing the concentration of the sphingolipid ceramide in astrocytes. Here, we show that Abeta42 induced mitochondrial fragmentation in wild type astrocytes, but not in nSMase2-deficient cells or astrocytes treated with Fumonisin B1 (FB1), an inhibitor of ceramide synthases. Unexpectedly, ceramide depletion was concurrent with rapid movements of mitochondria, indicating an unknown function of ceramide for mitochondria...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320678/effect-of-ceramide-tail-length-on-the-structure-of-model-stratum-corneum-lipid-bilayers
#11
Timothy C Moore, Remco Hartkamp, Christopher R Iacovella, Annette L Bunge, Clare McCabe
Lipid bilayers composed of non-hydroxy sphingosine ceramide (CER NS), cholesterol (CHOL), and free fatty acids (FFAs), which are components of the human skin barrier, are studied via molecular dynamics simulations. Since mixtures of these lipids exist in dense gel phases with little molecular mobility at physiological conditions, care must be taken to ensure that the simulations become decorrelated from the initial conditions. Thus, we propose and validate an equilibration protocol based on simulated tempering, in which the simulation takes a random walk through temperature space, allowing the system to break out of metastable configurations and hence become decorrelated from its initial configuration...
January 9, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307520/skeletal-muscle-ceramides-and-daily-fat-oxidation-in-obesity-and-diabetes
#12
Nicholas T Broskey, Diana N Obanda, Jeffrey H Burton, William T Cefalu, Eric Ravussin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Ectopic accumulation of lipids in skeletal muscle and the formation of deleterious lipid intermediates is thought to contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Similarly, impaired fat oxidation (metabolic inflexibility) are predictors of weight gain and the development of T2DM; however, no study has investigated the relation between muscle ceramide accumulation and 24-h macronutrient oxidation. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively explore the relationships between whole body fat oxidation and skeletal muscle ceramide accumulation in obese non-diabetic individuals (ND) and in people with obesity and T2DM...
January 4, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307517/could-ceramides-become-the-new-cholesterol
#13
Scott A Summers
The Mayo Clinic recently introduced a diagnostic test that quantifies plasma ceramides in order to identify patients at risk of major adverse cardiac events. By comparing recent discoveries about these biomarker ceramides with the exhaustive body of literature surrounding cholesterol, Summers aims to highlight important advances and critically needed areas of investigation on this exciting class of bioactive lipids.
December 26, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301259/sphingolipids-in-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-role-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-lyase
#14
Vidyani Suryadevara, Panfeng Fu, David Lenin Ebenezer, Evgeny Berdyshev, Irina A Bronova, Long Shuang Huang, Anantha Harijith, Viswanathan Natarajan
Mechanical ventilation (MV) performed in respiratory failure patients to maintain lung function leads to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). This study investigates the role of sphingolipids and sphingolipid metabolizing enzymes in VILI using a rodent model of VILI and alveolar epithelial cells subjected to cyclic stretch (CS). MV (0 PEEP (Positive End Expiratory Pressure), 30 mL/kg, 4 h) in mice enhanced sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (S1PL) expression, and ceramide levels, and decreased S1P levels in lung tissue, thereby leading to lung inflammation, injury and apoptosis...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300303/lysophosphatidic-acid-signaling-axis-mediates-ceramide-1-phosphate-induced-proliferation-of-c2c12-myoblasts
#15
Caterina Bernacchioni, Francesca Cencetti, Alberto Ouro, Marina Bruno, Antonio Gomez-Muñoz, Chiara Donati, Paola Bruni
Sphingolipids are not only crucial for membrane architecture but act as critical regulators of cell functions. The bioactive sphingolipid ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P), generated by the action of ceramide kinase, has been reported to stimulate cell proliferation, cell migration and to regulate inflammatory responses via activation of different signaling pathways. We have previously shown that skeletal muscle is a tissue target for C1P since the phosphosphingolipid plays a positive role in myoblast proliferation implying a role in muscle regeneration...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300287/a-randomized-controlled-trial-determining-variances-in-ostomy-skin-conditions-and-the-economic-impact-advocate-trial
#16
Janice C Colwell, Joyce Pittman, Rose Raizman, Ginger Salvadalena
PURPOSE: To compare ostomy-related costs and incidence of peristomal skin complications (PSCs) for ceramide-infused ostomy skin barriers and control skin barriers. DESIGN: The ADVOCATE trial is a multi-centered randomized controlled trial, and double-blinded international study with an adaptive design. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: The sample comprised 153 adults from 25 sites from the United States, Canada, and Europe. Participants were seen in hospital and outpatient care settings...
January 2018: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297991/application-of-lipidomics-to-reveal-differences-in-facial-skin-surface-lipids-between-males-and-females
#17
Le Cui, Cong-Fen He, Lin-Na Fan, Yan Jia
PURPOSE: To analyze and compare differences in facial skin surface lipids (SSL) between 18- to 25-year-old males and females. METHODS: Ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) technology was used to measure the facial SSL composition of 18- to 25-year-old males and females. Measurement results were combined with the orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model for analysis and comparisons, and differences in lipids with significance were selected...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290562/cell-size-and-growth-rate-are-modulated-by-torc2-dependent-signals
#18
Rafael Lucena, Maria Alcaide-Gavilán, Katherine Schubert, Maybo He, Matthew G Domnauer, Catherine Marquer, Christian Klose, Michal A Surma, Douglas R Kellogg
The size of all cells, from bacteria to vertebrates, is proportional to the growth rate set by nutrient availability, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that nutrients modulate cell size and growth rate via the TORC2 signaling network in budding yeast. An important function of the TORC2 network is to modulate synthesis of ceramide lipids, which play roles in signaling. TORC2-dependent control of ceramide signaling strongly influences both cell size and growth rate. Thus, cells that cannot make ceramides fail to modulate their growth rate or size in response to changes in nutrients...
December 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282302/acid-sphingomyelinase-promotes-mitochondrial-dysfunction-due-to-glutamate-induced-regulated-necrosis
#19
Sergei A Novgorodov, Joshua R Voltin, Monika A Gooz, Li Li, John J Lemasters, Tatyana I Gudz
Inhibiting the glutamate/cystine antiporter system xc-, a key antioxidant defense machinery in the CNS, could trigger a novel form of regulated necrotic cell death, ferroptosis. The underlying mechanisms of system xc--dependent cell demise were elucidated using primary oligodendrocytes (OLs) treated with glutamate to block system xc- function. Pharmacological analysis revealed ferroptosis as a major contributing factor to glutamate-initiated OL death. Sphingolipid profile showed elevations of ceramide species and sphingosine that were preventable by inhibiting of an acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) activity...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282180/safety-and-antipruritic-efficacy-of-a-menthol-containing-moisturizing-cream
#20
Hong Liang Tey, Evelyn Yuxin Tay, Wei Ding Tan
Itch is frequently associated with dermatoses characterized by a defective skin barrier. We formulated an itch-relieving moisturizing cream containing 3% menthol and ceramides. Our aim was to evaluate the safety and antipruritic efficacy of application of this cream in volunteers with and without skin diseases. Volunteers were asked to apply the cream for 1 month on a minimum body surface area of 6%. Safety was assessed by the absence of contact dermatitis or other side effects, using a self-administered questionnaire completed at 5 minutes, 1 week, and 1 month after application...
2017: Skinmed
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