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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100844/phospholipids-and-products-of-their-hydrolysis-as-dietary-preventive-factors-for-civilization-diseases
#1
Karol Parchem, Agnieszka Bartoszek
The results of numerous epidemiological studies indicate that phospholipids play an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases faced by contemporary society. Firstly, these compounds are responsible for the proper functioning of cell membranes, by ensuring liquidity and permeability, which is pivotal for normal activity of membrane proteins, including receptors. These mechanisms are at the core of prevention of cancer, autoimmune or neurological disorders. Secondly, structure and properties of phospholipids cause that they are highly available source of biologically active fatty acids...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100786/inositol-depletion-induced-by-acute-treatment-of-the-bipolar-disorder-drug-valproate-increases-levels-of-phytosphingosine
#2
Shyamalagauri Jadhav, Sarah Russo, L Ashley Cowart, Miriam L Greenberg
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric illness affecting ~2% of the world population. Valproate (VPA) and lithium, though widely used for the treatment of BD, are not universally effective. These drugs have been shown to cause inositol depletion, but translating this observation to a specific therapeutic mechanism has been difficult, hampering the development of more effective therapies. We have shown previously in yeast that chronic VPA treatment induces the unfolded protein response due to increasing ceramide levels...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089991/mitochondrial-targeting-of-ceramides-induces-apoptosis
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088541/secretory-pathway-optimization-of-cho-producer-cells-by-co-engineering-of-the-mitosrna-1978-target-genes-cers2-and-tbc1d20
#4
Lisa A Pieper, Michaela Strotbek, Till Wenger, Martin Gamer, Monilola A Olayioye, Angelika Hausser
Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are the most commonly used host for the production of biopharmaceuticals. Although transcription and translation engineering strategies have been employed to generate high-producer cell clones, the secretory pathway still remains a bottleneck in cellular productivity. In this study we show that ectopic expression of a human mitochondrial genome-encoded small RNA (mitosRNA-1978) in an IgG expressing CHO cell line strongly improved specific productivity by functioning in a microRNA-like fashion...
January 11, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087695/novel-interconnections-in-lipid-metabolism-revealed-by-overexpression-of-sphingomyelin-synthase-1
#5
Gergana M Deevska, Patrick P Dotson, Alexander A Karakashian, Giorgis Isaac, Mark Wrona, Samuel B Kelly, Alfred H Merrill, Mariana N Nikolova-Karakashian
This study investigates the consequences of elevating sphingomyelin synthase 1 (SMS1) activity, which generates the main mammalian sphingolipid, sphingomyelin. HepG2 cells stably transfected with SMS1 (HepG2-SMS1), exhibit elevated enzyme activity in vitro and increased sphingomyelin content (mainly C22:0- and C24:0-sphingomyelin), but lower hexosylceramide (Hex-Cer) levels. HepG2-SMS1 cells have less triacylglycerols than controls but similar diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity, triacylglycerol secretion, and mitochondrial function...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081222/at7867-inhibits-human-colorectal-cancer-cells-via-akt-dependent-and-akt-independent-mechanisms
#6
Shihu Zhang, Zhengming Deng, Chen Yao, Ping Huang, Yi Zhang, Shibing Cao, Xiangcheng Li
AKT is often hyper-activated in human colorectal cancers (CRC). This current study evaluated the potential anti-CRC activity by AT7867, a novel AKT and p70S6K1 (S6K1) dual inhibitor. We showed that AT7867 inhibited survival and proliferation of established (HT-29, HCT116 and DLD-1 lines) and primary human CRC cells. Meanwhile, it provoked caspase-dependent apoptosis in the CRC cells. Molecularly, AT7867 blocked AKT-S6K1 activation in CRC cells. Restoring AKT-S6K1 activation, via expression of a constitutively-active AKT1 ("ca-AKT1"), only partially attenuated AT7867-induced HT-29 cell death...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078995/sphingolipids-in-genetic-and-acquired-forms-of-chronic-kidney-diseases
#7
Norishi Ueda
Sphingolipids (SLs) regulate apoptosis, proliferation, and stress response. SLs, including ceramide, glycosphingolipids (glucosylceramide, lactosylceramide, and gangliosides) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of genetic (lysosomal storage disease, congenital nephrotic syndrome and polycystic kidney disease) and non-genetic forms of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). SLs metabolism defects promote complications (cardiovascular events, etc.) via oxidant stress in CKDs...
January 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078596/liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-method-to-study-sphingolipid-metabolism-changes-in-response-to-cd95l
#8
Fatima Bilal, Michaël Pérès, Pauline Le Faouder, Aude Dupuy, Justine Bertrand-Michel, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Thierry Levade, Bassam Badran, Ahmad Daher, Bruno Ségui
Sphingolipids are sphingoid base-containing lipids, among which some metabolites behave as bioactive molecules in various biological processes, including cell death. Whereas ceramide is now viewed as an anti-oncometabolite, leading to cancer cell death, CD95L-induced apoptosis is associated with sphingolipid changes, which likely contribute to caspase-dependent signaling pathway activation. Here, we describe Liquid Chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method (LC-HRMS) to analyze sphingolipid metabolism changes triggered by CD95L...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078595/method-to-measure-sphingomyelin-synthase-activity-changes-in-response-to-cd95l
#9
Fatima Bilal, Michaël Pérès, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Thierry Levade, Bassam Badran, Ahmad Daher, Bruno Ségui
Sphingomyelin synthases 1 and 2 convert the anti-oncometabolite ceramide to sphingomyelin, the most abundant sphingolipid in plasma membrane. CD95L-induced ceramide increase is associated with the caspase-dependent inhibition of sphingomyelin synthesis, which enhances the mitochondrial route to apoptosis. Knocking down sphingomyelin synthase 1 or inhibiting sphingomyelin synthesis facilitates ceramide accumulation, cytochrome c release from mitochondria, and caspase-9 activation in cancer cell upon CD95L treatment...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078525/chitosan-ceramide-coating-on-gold-nanorod-to-improve-its-physiological-stability-and-reduce-the-lipid-surface-related-toxicity
#10
Gantumur Battogtokh, Oyuntuya Gotov, Young Tag Ko
Gold nanoparticles are promising materials for many applications that include imaging, drug delivery, and photothermal therapy. However, AuNPs can be unstable and/or toxic. We purposed to improve the stability and reduce toxicity of gold nanorods (AuNR) upon coating with biocompatible polymer, chitosan-ceramide (CS-CE), without replacing the original layer, CTAB. CS-CE-coated AuNR was prepared by simple mixing for 24 h and purified by centrifugation. The coating was confirmed by UV-Vis absorption analysis and surface charge and size measurement...
January 11, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077289/vitamin-d3-protects-against-a%C3%AE-peptide-cytotoxicity-in-differentiated-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells-a-role-for-s1p1-p38mapk-atf4-axis
#11
Federica Pierucci, Mercedes Garcia-Gil, Alessia Frati, Francesca Bini, Maria Martinesi, Eleonora Vannini, Marco Mainardi, Federico Luzzati, Paolo Peretto, Matteo Caleo, Elisabetta Meacci
Besides its classical function of bone metabolism regulation, 1A,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), acts on a variety of tissues including the nervous system, where the hormone plays an important role as neuroprotective, antiproliferating and differentiating agent. Sphingolipids are bioactive lipids that play critical and complex roles in regulating cell fate. In the present paper we have investigated whether sphingolipids are involved in the protective action of 1,25(OH)2D3. We have found that 1,25(OH)2D3 prevents amyloid-β peptide (Aβ(1-42)) cytotoxicity both in differentiated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and in vivo...
January 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073916/ceramide-cd300f-binding-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-induced-skin-inflammation
#12
Emiko Shiba, Kumi Izawa, Ayako Kaitani, Masamichi Isobe, Akie Maehara, Koichiro Uchida, Keiko Maeda, Nobuhiro Nakano, Hideoki Ogawa, Ko Okumura, Toshio Kitamura, Toshiaki Shimizu, Jiro Kitaura
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers inflammatory responses; however, the negative regulation of LPS responses in vivo remains poorly understood. CD300f is an inhibitory receptor among the CD300 family of paired activating and inhibitory receptors. We have previously identified ceramide as a ligand for CD300f and shown that the binding of ceramide to CD300f inhibits IgE-mediated mast cell activation and allergic responses in mouse models. Here we identify the critical role of CD300f in inhibiting LPS-induced skin inflammation...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067053/global-profiling-of-metabolite-and-lipid-soluble-microbial-products-in-anaerobic-wastewater-reactor-supernatant-using-uplc-mse
#13
Phornpimon Tipthara, Chinagarn Kunacheva, Yan Ni Annie Soh, Stephen C C Wong, Ng Sean Pin, David C Stuckey, Bernhard O Boehm
Identification of soluble microbial products (SMPs) released during bacterial metabolism in mixed cultures in bioreactors is essential to understanding fundamental mechanisms of their biological production. SMPs constitute one of the main foulants (together with colloids and bacterial flocs) in membrane bioreactors widely used to treat, and ultimately recycle wastewater. More importantly, the composition and origin of potentially toxic, carcinogenic, or mutagenic SMPs in renewable/reused water supplies must be determined and controlled...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052715/c2-ceramide-influences-alveolar-epithelial-barrier-function-by-down-regulating-zo-1-occludin-and-claudin-4-expression
#14
Jin Yang, Ying Wan, Hui Liu, Jirui Bi, Youjin Lu
Noncardiogenic lung edema is a key factor affecting the prognosis of acute lung injury (ALI). Previous studies have been focused on regulatory roles of ceramide on lung vascular endothelial barrier functions and had already identified ceramide as mediator involved in the formation of lung edema. However, the effects of ceramide on lung epithelial barrier were still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ceramide on the barrier function of alveolar epithelial cells. Primary mouse alveolar type II epithelial cells (AECII) were grown on Transwell polyester membranes to construct monolayer, and stimulated with different concentrations of ceramide...
January 4, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049397/insulin-resistance-in-alzheimer-disease-p53-and-micrornas-as-important-players
#15
Kazimierz Gąsiorowski, Barbara Brokos, Jerzy Leszek, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Gjumrakch Aliev
Glucose homeostasis is crucial for neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and is indispensable for learning and memory. Reduced sensitivity of cells to insulin and impaired insulin signaling in brain neurons participate in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). The tumor suppressor protein p53 coordinates with multiple cellular pathways in response to DNA damage and cellular stresses. However, prolonged stress conditions unveil deleterious effects of p53-evoked insulin resistance in neurons; enhancement of transcription of pro-oxidant factors, accumulation of toxic metabolites (e...
January 3, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042036/pharmacological-characterization-of-synthetic-serine-palmitoyltransferase-inhibitors-by-biochemical-and-cellular-analyses
#16
Ryutaro Adachi, Yasutomi Asano, Kazumasa Ogawa, Motomi Oonishi, Yukiya Tanaka, Tomohiro Kawamoto
Human serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) is a PLP-dependent enzyme residing in the endoplasmic reticulum. It catalyzes the synthesis of 3-ketodihydrosphingosine (3-KDS) from the substrates palmitoyl-CoA and L-serine. It is a rate-limiting enzyme for sphingolipid synthesis in cells. In the present study, we characterized and pharmacologically profiled a series of tetrahydropyrazolopyridine derivatives that potently inhibit human SPT enzymatic activity, including two cell-active derivatives and one fluorescent-labelled derivative...
December 29, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039158/inhibition-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-signaling-ameliorates-murine-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#17
Amy S Mauer, Petra Hirsova, Jessica L Maiers, Vijay H Shah, Harmeet Malhi
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a lipotoxic disorder, wherein proinflammatory lipids, such as ceramide and its derivative sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), contribute to macrophage-associated liver inflammation. For example, we have previously demonstrated a role for S1P in steatotic hepatocyte-derived S1P enriched extracellular vesicles in macrophage chemotaxis in vitro. Therefore, we hypothesized that FTY720, an S1P antagonist, would ameliorate NASH by inhibiting proinflammatory monocyte chemotaxis...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035934/the-association-between-plasma-ceramides-and-sphingomyelins-and-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease-differs-by-sex-and-apoe-in-the-baltimore-longitudinal-study-of-aging
#18
Michelle M Mielke, Norman J Haughey, Dingfen Han, Yang An, Veera Venkata Ratnam Bandaru, Constantine G Lyketsos, Luigi Ferrucci, Susan M Resnick
BACKGROUND: Cellular and animal studies demonstrated relationships between sphingolipid metabolism and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. High blood ceramide levels have been shown to predict cognitive impairment and AD, but these studies had small sample sizes and did not assess differences in risk by sex or APOE genotype. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether plasma ceramides and sphingomyelins were associated with risk of AD, and whether the association varied by sex and APOE genotype...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035926/pleiotropic-effect-of-human-apoe4-on-cerebral-ceramide-and-saturated-fatty-acid-levels
#19
Sandra den Hoedt, Carola I F Janssen, Guiseppe Astarita, Daniele Piomelli, Frank P J Leijten, Simone M Crivelli, Adrie J M Verhoeven, Helga E de Vries, Jochen Walter, Pilar Martinez-Martinez, Eric J G Sijbrands, Amanda J Kiliaan, Monique T Mulder
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is known for its role in lipid trafficking and the ɛ4 allele is a risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, aberrant ceramide and fatty acid (FA) levels have been implicated in AD. OBJECTIVE: To determine the specific effects of human ApoE4 (hE4) on cerebral ceramide and FA content during chow or a high fat/high cholesterol (HFHC) diet. METHODS: Cerebral ceramide and FA profiles were determined by LC-MSMS in 15-month-old female wild-type (WT), ApoE-knockout (E0), and hE4-knockin mice fed chow or a HFHC diet for 3 months...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035360/hepatic-inflammatory-cytokine-production-can-be-regulated-by-modulating-sphingomyelinase-and-ceramide-synthase-6
#20
Min Hee Kim, Hee Kyung Ahn, Eun-Ji Lee, Su-Jeong Kim, Ye-Ryung Kim, Joo-Won Park, Woo-Jae Park
Chronic inflammation is associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and diabetic complications, and palmitate has been nominated as a candidate for the molecular link between these disorders. Recently, a crucial role of ceramide in inflammation and metabolic diseases has been reported. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether ceramide formation is involved in palmitate‑induced hepatic inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Ceramide can be generated either by the de novo pathway or by sphingomyelin degradation, and six different ceramide synthases (CerS) determine the specific acyl chain length of ceramide in mammals...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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