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myopathies review

Aimei Liu, Qinghua Wu, Jingchao Guo, Irma Ares, José-Luis Rodríguez, María-Rosa Martínez-Larrañaga, Zonghui Yuan, Arturo Anadón, Xu Wang, María-Aránzazu Martínez
Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, are currently the most effective lipid-lowering drugs, effectively reducing the plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, while also decreasing three triacylglycerols and increasing plasma high-density lipoprotein to a certain extent. However, the excessive or long-term use of statins can cause in vitro cytotoxicity, in vivo liver injury, liver necrosis, kidney damage, and myopathy in both human beings and animals. Many studies indicate that oxidative stress is involved in the various toxicities associated with statins, and various antioxidants have been evaluated to investigate their protective roles against statin-induced liver, kidney, and muscle toxicities...
October 12, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Francis O Walker, Michael S Cartwright, Katharine E Alter, Leo H Visser, Lisa D Hobson-Webb, Luca Padua, Jeffery A Strakowski, David C Preston, Andrea J Boon, Hubertus Axer, Nens van Alfen, Eman A Tawfik, Einar Wilder-Smith, Joon Shik Yoon, Byung-Jo Kim, Ari Breiner, Jeremy D P Bland, Alexander Grimm, Craig M Zaidman
Over the last two decades, dozens of applications have emerged for ultrasonography in neuromuscular disorders. We wanted to measure its impact on practice in laboratories where the technique is in frequent use. After identifying experts in neuromuscular ultrasound and electrodiagnosis, we assessed their use of ultrasonography for different indications and their expectations for its future evolution. We then identified the earliest papers to provide convincing evidence of the utility of ultrasound for particular indications and analyzed the relationship of their date of publication with expert usage...
September 25, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Yazhou He, Xue Li, Danijela Gasevic, Eleanor Brunt, Fiona McLachlan, Marisa Millenson, Maria Timofeeva, John P A Ioannidis, Harry Campbell, Evropi Theodoratou
Background: Many effects of statins on non-cardiovascular disease (non-CVD) outcomes have been reported. Purpose: To evaluate the quantity, validity, and credibility of evidence regarding associations between statins and non-CVD outcomes and the effects of statins on these outcomes. Data Sources: MEDLINE and EMBASE (English terms only, inception to 28 May 2018). Study Selection: Meta-analyses (published in English) of observational studies and of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined non-CVD outcomes of statin intake...
October 16, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Francesco Ferro, Andrea Delle Sedie
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is one of the most serious pulmonary complications associated with connective tissue diseases (CTDs), resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, lung ultrasound examination has appeared as a useful, feasible, non-invasive, radiation-free imaging technique with high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of CTD-associated ILD. In this review, we discuss the literature concerning lung ultrasound findings (B-lines and pleural irregularities) in systemic sclerosis...
September 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Elba Gerena-Maldonado
The goal of this article is to provide physiatrists, neurologists, and neuromuscular medicine physicians a framework that can be easily used in the process of evaluating, identifying, and treating patients with toxic myopathies. This review attempts to classify these rare but potentially deadly conditions in clinical patterns and distinguishes the cellular mechanisms in which the offending agents tend to impact the structure and function of myocytes.
November 2018: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Sofia Bronzato, Alessandro Durante
The market of nutritional supplements is expected to expand over 6%/year through 2018 due to growing interest in personal health, aging population, and promising personalized care products. The most used dietary supplements are fish oil, multivitamins, Vitamin D, and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in this order, while probiotics is the fastest growing supplement. In the U.S., over 68% of the population use dietary supplements regularly. On the other hand, in the developed countries, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the main cause of death and morbidity from the 1900s...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
S Barsotti, A Tripoli, L E Pollina, M Mosca, R Neri
The presence of muscular symptoms is common in rheumatological clinical practice, but often the differential diagnosis between muscular involvement in connective tissue diseases, vasculitis and drug-induced myopathy may be difficult. In addition to clinical assessment, laboratory analysis and instrumental examinations, muscle biopsy may help to clarify the diagnosis in patients with muscular involvement. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical analysis of the current medical literature on muscular histopathology, to help clinicians to identify when to perform muscular biopsy and to provide a practical guide to a better understanding of the pathology report...
October 3, 2018: Reumatismo
Michael D Richter, Cynthia Crowson, Lisa A Kottschade, Heidi D Finnes, Svetomir N Markovic, Uma Thanarajasingam
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence, clinical presentation, and management of rheumatic immune-related adverse effects (Rh-irAEs) from immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. METHODS: From a database of all patients who received any immune-checkpoint inhibitor at the Mayo Clinic Rochester, Minnesota campus between January 1st, 2011 and March 1st, 2018, we retrospectively identified those with Rh-irAEs using diagnostic codes, search terms, and manual chart review...
October 3, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Silvia Radenkovic, Peter Witters, Eva Morava
PGM1, the enzyme responsible for the reversible inter-conversion of glucose-1-P and glucose-6-P, is also involved in glycosylation, leading to a wide range of clinical manifestations, such as congenital malformations, hypoglycemia, hormonal dysregulation, myopathy, hepatopathy, and cardiomyopathy. So far, PGM1 deficiency has not been associated with central nervous system involvement or intellectual disability. Seizures and neurologic involvement in PGM1-CDG were thought to be a consequence of hypoglycemia...
August 21, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Mara Paneroni, Evasio Pasini, Laura Comini, Michele Vitacca, Federico Schena, Simonetta Scalvini, Massimo Venturelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes: (1) the structural and functional features coupled with pathophysiological factors responsible of skeletal muscle myopathy (SMM) in both heart failure with reduced (HFrEF) and preserved (HFpEF) ejection fraction and (2) the role of exercise as treatment of SMM in these HF-related phenotypes. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent literature showed two main phenotypes of heart failure (HF): (1) HFrEF primarily due to a systolic dysfunction of the left ventricle and (2) HFpEF, mainly related to a diastolic dysfunction...
September 26, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Sandra G Velleman
The functional unit in skeletal muscle is the multinucleated myofiber, which is composed of parallel arrays of microfibrils. The myofiber and sarcomere structure of skeletal muscle are established during embryogenesis, when mononuclear myoblast cells fuse to form multinucleated myotubes and develop into muscle fibers. With the myoblasts permanently unable to enter a proliferative state again after they fuse to form the multinucleated myotube, postnatal myofiber growth, muscle homeostasis, and myofiber regeneration are dependent on a myogenic stem cell, the satellite cell...
September 26, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Nathalie Berghen, Jean-Baptiste Vulsteke, Rene Westhovens, Jan Lenaerts, Ellen De Langhe
OBJECTIVES: To review the therapeutic option of Rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 antibody, in systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) such as systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, primary Sjögren syndrome and idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. METHODS: A non-systematic review was conducted. RESULTS: The specific role and indication of rituximab in SARDs has been the subject of multiple trials in recent years. Evidence supports the use of rituximab in moderate-to-severe refractory systemic lupus erythematosus, diffuse skin involvement in systemic sclerosis and systemic involvement in primary Sjögren syndrome...
September 26, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
Khurshid Ahmad, Eun Ju Lee, Jun Sung Moon, So-Young Park, Inho Choi
The skeletal muscle provides movement and support to the skeleton, controls body temperature, and regulates the glucose level within the body. This is the core tissue of insulin-mediated glucose uptake via glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4). The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides integrity and biochemical signals and plays an important role in myogenesis. In addition, it undergoes remodeling upon injury and/or repair, which is also related to insulin resistance (IR), a major cause of type 2 diabetes (T2DM)...
September 22, 2018: Cells
Marinos C Dalakas
Patients with advanced malignancies treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors are at increased risk for developing immune-related neurological complications. It is a phenomenon of immunological twist when immunotherapy against co-stimulatory molecules activates previously normal T cells to kill tumor cells but, in so doing, the T cells become unrestrained, triggering other autoimmune diseases for which conventional immunotherapy is needed. The most common autoimmune neurological diseases, usually occurring within 2-12 weeks after immune checkpoint inhibitor initiation, include: inflammatory myopathies, myasthenia gravis, acute and chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathies, vasculitic neuropathies, isolated cranial neuropathies, aseptic meningitis, autoimmune encephalitis, multiple sclerosis and hypophysitis...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Johann Böhm, Jocelyn Laporte
Calcium (Ca2+ ) is a key regulator for a large number of cellular functions in all kinds of cells, and small disturbances of Ca2+ homeostasis can severely compromise normal physiology in various tissues and organs. A major mechanism controlling Ca2+ homeostasis is store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), which relies on the concerted action of the reticular Ca2+ sensor STIM1 and the plasma membrane Ca2+ channel ORAI1. Gain-of-function mutations in the respective genes induce excessive Ca2+ entry, and cause tubular aggregate myopathy (TAM) and Stormorken syndrome...
September 3, 2018: Cell Calcium
Laure Gallay, Catherine Gayed, Baptiste Hervier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antisynthetase syndrome (ASyS) is an acquired myopathy characterized by the presence of myositis-specific autoantibodies directed against tRNA-synthetases. ASyS is potentially life threatening due to lung involvement and treatment remains a challenge to date. With symptoms not limited to muscles but also involving lung, skin and joints, ASyS appears specific and has a particular pathogenesis, different from the other inflammatory myopathies. This review is intended to discuss the current understanding of ASyS pathogenesis, pointing its current knowledge and also the crucial prospects that may lead to critical improvement of ASyS care...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Ioannis Mavroudis, Foivos Petridis, Dimitrios Kazis
BACKGROUND: Sporadic inclusion body myositis is the most common inflammatory myopathy over the age of 50. The aetiopathogenesis of the disease remains unclear and to the day there is no effective treatment. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present review is to present the latest data on the new insights and developments in the treatment of sporadic inclusion body myositis, focusing on Bimagrumab and Alemtuzumab. METHODS: For the purpose of the review we searched multiple internet databases in order to find the most recent studies and clinical trials on the safety, tolerability and efficacy of Bimagrumab and Alemtuzumab in sporadic inclusion body myositis...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Marco Zampiga, Joshua Flees, Adele Meluzzi, Sami Dridi, Federico Sirri
The poultry industry is continuously facing substantial and different challenges such as the increasing cost of feed ingredients, the European Union's ban of antibiotic as growth promoters, the antimicrobial resistance and the high incidence of muscle myopathies and breast meat abnormalities. In the last decade, there has been an extraordinary development of many genomic techniques able to describe global variation of genes, proteins and metabolites expression level. Proper application of these cutting-edge omics technologies (mainly transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) paves the possibility to understand much useful information about the biological processes and pathways behind different complex traits of chickens...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Julia New-Tolley, Caroline Smith, Barbara Koszyca, Sophia Otto, Adam Maundrell, Peter Bardy, Devendra Hiwase, Agnes S M Yong, Ian Lewis, Vidya Limaye
INTRODUCTION: Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a recognized complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) and may affect muscle. We investigated the incidence and subtypes of inflammatory myopathy (IM) in South Australian recipients of allo-SCT. METHODS: Recipients of allo-SCT from 2004 - 2014 at the Royal Adelaide Hospital were identified. Records were reviewed to identify patients with weakness, creatine kinase (CK) elevation, and muscle biopsy confirming IM...
September 8, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Mollie M Smoak, Hannah A Pearce, Antonios G Mikos
Microfluidic devices have advanced significantly in recent years and are a promising technology for the field of tissue engineering. Highly sophisticated microfabrication techniques have paved the way for the development of complex ex vivo models capable of incorporating and measuring the real-time response of multiple cell types interacting together in a single system. Muscle-on-a-chip technology has drastically improved and serves as a drug screening platform for many muscular diseases such as muscular dystrophy, tendinosis, fibromyalgia, mitochondrial myopathy, and myasthenia gravis...
August 30, 2018: Biomaterials
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