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Acute spinal injury

Mushfiquddin Khan, Tajinder S Dhammu, Inderjit Singh, Avtar K Singh
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the leading causes of disability and chronic pain. In SCI-induced pathology, homeostasis of the nitric oxide (NO) metabolome is lost. Major NO metabolites such as S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and peroxynitrite are reported to play pivotal roles in regulating the activities of key cysteine proteases, calpains. While peroxynitrite (a metabolite of NO and superoxide) up regulates the activities of calpains leading to neurodegeneration, GSNO (a metabolite of NO and glutathione) down regulates the activities of calpains leading to neuroprotection...
August 13, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Suliang Chen, Mathew J Gallagher, Florence Hogg, Marios C Papadopoulos, Samira Saadoun
To guide management of patients with acute spinal cord injuries, we developed intraspinal pressure monitoring from the injury site. Here, we examine the complex fluctuations in the intraspinal pressure signal using network theory. We analyzed 7,097 hours of intraspinal pressure data from 58 patients with severe cord injuries. Intraspinal pressure signals were split into hourly windows. Each window was mapped into a visibility graph as follows: Vertical bars were drawn at 0.1 Hz representing signal amplitudes...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Dawei Xu, Wei Zhao, Chengniu Wang, Hao Zhu, Mingqing He, Xinhui Zhu, Wei Liu, Fei Wang, Jianbo Fan, Chu Chen, Daoran Cui, Zhiming Cui
TNF receptor-associated factor 7 (TRAF7), is an E3 ubiquitin ligase for several proteins involved in the activation of TLR-dependent NF-kappaB signaling. TRAF7 links TNF receptor family proteins to signaling pathways, thus participates in regulating cell death and survival mediated by TNF family ligands. To date, the biological function of TRAF7 after spinal cord injury (SCI) is still with limited acquaintance. In this study, we have performed an acute SCI model in adult rats and investigated the dynamic changes of TRAF7 expression in the spinal cord...
August 8, 2018: Neuropeptides
Xiao-Ning Li, Xue-Song Liang, Lei Wu, Xiao-Chun Shan, Hao Fu, Ji-Lin Mei, Nuo Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) of "Jiaji" (EX-B 2) on limb locomotor function and expression of Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA), Rho-associated kinase Ⅱ (ROCK Ⅱ) and myosin light chain (MLC) proteins in the anterior horn of spinal cord in acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) rats, so as to explore its mechanisms under-lying improvement of SCI-induced limb locomotor dysfunction. METHODS: Forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham operation (sham), ASCI model (model), EA EX-B 2 (EA) and ROCK inhibitor (Fasudil) groups which were further divided into 14 d and 28 d subgroups ( n =6 in each)...
July 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Debopam Samanta
Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a rare X-linked multisystem disease caused because of mutation in the IKBKG (inhibitor of kappa-B kinase gamma, previously NEMO ) gene. Involvement of central nervous system is seen in approximately one-third of these patients. Ischemic strokes, symptomatic seizures, and encephalopathy can be seen during neonatal or early infancy age group. Typically, early bilateral brain involvement is seen with periventricular white matter injury, hemorrhagic infarction, and multifocal cortical injury...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
H Z Hu, N D Jeffery, N Granger
Some dogs that become paraplegic after severe spinal cord injury regain ambulation on the pelvic limbs despite permanent loss of pelvic limb sensation, a phenomenon termed 'spinal walking'. Plastic changes in spinal cord circuitry are thought to mediate this form of recovery but the precise circumstances that favor its development are not known. More information on this phenomenon would be helpful because it might be possible to coax more function in chronically paraplegic animals so improving their, and their owners', quality of life...
July 2018: Veterinary Journal
Xiao-Jun Cai, Jing-Jing Zhao, Yi Lu, Jian-Ping Zhang, Bing-Yan Ren, Ting-Ting Cao, Zheng Jiao, Guang-Jun Xi, Zai-Wang Li, Yun Xu
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the microenvironment following blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) damage and to evaluate the role of BSCB disruption in secondary damage of spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: A model of BSCB damage was established by co-culture of primary microvascular endothelial cells and glial cells obtained from rat spinal cord tissue followed by oxygen glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation (OGD/R). Permeability was evaluated by measuring the transendothelial electrical resistance(TEER)and the leakage test of Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-dextran)...
August 4, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Pia M Vidal, Antigona Ulndreaj, Anna Badner, James Hong, Michael G Fehlings
BACKGROUND: Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is caused by degenerative or congenital changes to the discs and soft tissues of the cervical spine, which leads to chronic compression of the spinal cord. The current treatment for moderate to severe DCM consists of surgical decompression, which, while effective in most cases, can result in neuroinflammation and spinal cord reperfusion injury, leading to perioperative neurological complications and suboptimal neurological recovery. The primary objective of this study was to assess, in a translationally relevant animal model of DCM, the efficacy of perioperative methylprednisolone (MP) in enhancing neurological recovery and to evaluate its effect on the inflammatory response following decompression...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Steve Casha, Tiffany Rice, David P Stirling, Claudia Silva, Sharmilee Gnanapavan, Gavin Giovannoni, R John Hurlbert, V Wee Yong
Inflammatory changes after spinal cord injury (SCI) have been reported in animal models, but human studies are relatively limited. We examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from subjects enrolled in a phase II placebo-controlled trial of minocycline for evidence of inflammatory and structural changes after acute human SCI. CSF was collected from 29 subjects every 6 h for 7 days and investigated for eight molecules. CSF from 6 normal subjects (lumbar microdiscectomy patients without central nervous system pathology) was also examined for comparison...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Qiang Wu, Li Liu
Opioid receptor like 1 (ORL1 ) receptor activation displayed an anti-nociceptive effect at spinal level for acute and neuropathic pain. SCH221510, an orally active non-peptide ORL1 agonist, was reported to be effective in treating neuropathic pain. The present study used ORL1 antagonist and siRNA to investigate that ORL1 activation mediates intrathecal SCH221510 analgesia in neuropathic pain induced by chronic constrictive injury (CCI) to rat sciatic nerve. Paw withdrawal latency and 50% mechanical threshold were measured for thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in rats...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Hironobu Ueshima, Hiroshi Otake
Damage from extensive burn injury requires pain management that effectively treats the entire affected area. An erector plane (ESP) block has been reported to anesthetize a wide range of spinal nerves. In this time, the continuous ESP block was an effective analgesic for acute pain management for the extensive damage.
July 6, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Jorge Arturo Cabrera Escamilla, Jorge Álvaro González Ross, José Manuel Pérez Atanasio, Gustavo Casas Martínez, Arelhi González Cisneros, Jose Jimenez Avila
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive case series study. PURPOSE: To investigate the frequency, bone pattern, and associated lesions to the spine of gunshot wounds. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Gunshot wounds are penetrating in nature and are caused by a bullet or projectile. These are becoming more common and are associated with significant sequelae, requiring long and costly multidisciplinary treatment. Associated spinal cord injuries (SCIs) in the civilian population represent 13%-17% of all spinal traumas...
August 2018: Asian Spine Journal
Luca Madaro, Magda Passafaro, David Sala, Usue Etxaniz, Francesca Lugarini, Daisy Proietti, Maria Vittoria Alfonsi, Chiara Nicoletti, Sole Gatto, Marco De Bardi, Ricardo Rojas-García, Lorenzo Giordani, Sara Marinelli, Vittoria Pagliarini, Claudio Sette, Alessandra Sacco, Pier Lorenzo Puri
Fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) are typically activated in response to muscle injury, and establish functional interactions with inflammatory and muscle stem cells (MuSCs) to promote muscle repair. We found that denervation causes progressive accumulation of FAPs, without concomitant infiltration of macrophages and MuSC-mediated regeneration. Denervation-activated FAPs exhibited persistent STAT3 activation and secreted elevated levels of IL-6, which promoted muscle atrophy and fibrosis. FAPs with aberrant activation of STAT3-IL-6 signalling were also found in mouse models of spinal cord injury, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and in muscles of ALS patients...
August 2018: Nature Cell Biology
Wei Liu, Peng Quan, Qingqing Li, Pengyu Tang, Jian Chen, Tao Jiang, Weihua Cai
Introduction: After traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), an inhibitory environment that contains chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) is formed that prevents axonal regeneration and growth. Materials and methods: As previously reported, local administration of Taxol® at a low concentration has shown promising abilities to promote axonal regeneration and downregulate inhibitory molecules after acute SCI. However, the application of an invasive miniosmotic pump to deliver Taxol and the Cremophor-related toxicity caused by Taxol limits the administration of Taxol...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Jürgen Pannek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 20, 2018: European Urology
Yan-Lei Wang, Ying-Na Qi, Wei Wang, Chun-Ke Dong, Ping Yi, Feng Yang, Xiang-Sheng Tang, Ming-Sheng Tan
Decompression is the major therapeutic strategy for acute spinal cord injury, but there is some debate about the time window for decompression following spinal cord injury. An important goal and challenge in the treatment of spinal cord injury is inhibiting or reversing secondary injury. Governor Vessel electroacupuncture can improve symptoms of spinal cord injury by inhibiting cell apoptosis and improving the microenvironment of the injured spinal cord. In this study, Governor Vessel electroacupuncture combined with decompression at different time points was used to treat acute spinal cord injury...
July 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Kristen E DeDominicis, Hye Hwang, Casandra M Cartagena, Deborah A Shear, Angela M Boutté
Treatments to improve outcomes following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are limited but may benefit from understanding subacute-chronic brain protein profiles and identifying biomarkers suitable for use in this time. Acute alterations in the well-known TBI biomarkers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), αII-spectrin, and their breakdown products (BDPs) have been well established, but little is known about the subacute-chronic post-injury profiles of these biomarkers. Thus, the current study was designed to determine the extended profile of these TBI-specific biomarkers both in brain tissue and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Max A Odem, Alexis G Bavencoffe, Ryan M Cassidy, Elia R Lopez, Jinbin Tian, Carmen W Dessauer, Edgar T Walters
Ongoing pain has been linked to ongoing activity (OA) in human C-fiber nociceptors, but rodent models of pain-related OA have concentrated on allodynia rather than ongoing pain, and on OA generated in non-nociceptive Aβ-fibers rather than C-fiber nociceptors. Little is known about how ongoing pain or nociceptor OA is generated. To define neurophysiological alterations underlying nociceptor OA, we have utilized isolated dorsal root ganglion neurons that continue to generate OA after removal from animals displaying ongoing pain...
July 12, 2018: Pain
Diana M Norden, Timothy D Faw, Daniel B McKim, Rochelle J Deibert, Lesley C Fisher, John F Sheridan, Jonathan Phillip Godbout, D Michele Basso
Spinal cord injury (SCI) produces a toxic inflammatory microenvironment that negatively affects plasticity and recovery. Recently, we showed glial activation and peripheral myeloid cell infiltration extending beyond the epicenter through the remote lumbar cord after thoracic SCI. The presence and role of infiltrating monocytes is important, especially in the lumbar cord where locomotor central pattern generators are housed. Therefore, we compared the inflammatory profile of resident microglia and peripheral myeloid cells after SCI...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Lewis W Chan, Tomas L Griebling, Edwin P Arnold, Peggy S Chu, Peter W New, Adrian Wagg
PURPOSE: This paper reports the key findings of Committee 8 of the Joint SIU-ICUD Consultation on Urologic Management of the Spinal Cord Injured Patient and address issues pertaining to the older person with a SCI and the time-related changes relevant to their urological, gastrointestinal and functional management. METHODS: A literature review using the Pubmed and Ovid search engines was performed examining pertinent literature regarding SCI in the older patient...
July 12, 2018: World Journal of Urology
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