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Acute spinal injury

Amber M Brochetti, Steven W Brose, Angela M Kuemmel, David J Dang, Dennis J Bourbeau
OBJECTIVE: Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) have a higher prevalence of being overweight than the general population, which is thought to be due to a variety of metabolic, physiologic and psychological changes. The quality improvement project described in this work was designed to help overweight persons with SCI lose bodyweight through nutrition, exercise, and behavioral management strategies. METHODS: Eighteen persons with SCI who were overweight were enrolled in a 12-week interdisciplinary weight management program...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Qiang Wu, Guihua Wei, Fengtao Ji, Shushan Jia, Shaogen Wu, Xinying Guo, Long He, Zhiqiang Pan, Xuerong Miao, Qingxiang Mao, Yong Yang, Minghui Cao, Yuan-Xiang Tao
Peripheral nerve injury downregulates the expression of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and voltage-gated potassium channel subunit Kv1.2 by increasing their DNA methylation in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (TET1) causes DNA demethylation. Given that DRG MOR and Kv1.2 downregulation contribute to neuropathic pain genesis, this study investigated the effect of DRG TET1 overexpression on neuropathic pain. Overexpression of TET1 in the DRG through microinjection of herpes simplex virus expressing full-length TET1 mRNA into the injured rat DRG significantly alleviated the fifth lumbar spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced pain hypersensitivities during the development and maintenance periods, without altering acute pain or locomotor function...
December 4, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Cara L Sedney, Uzer Khan, Patricia Dekeseredy
CONTEXT: Medicaid has been linked to worse outcomes in a variety of diagnoses such as lung cancer, uterine cancer, and cardiac valve procedures. It has furthermore been linked to the reduced health-related quality of life outcomes after traumatic injuries when compared to other insurance groups. In spinal cord injury (SCI), the care provided in the subacute setting may vary based upon payor status, which may have implications on outcomes and cost of care. DESIGN: A retrospective review utilizing the institutional trauma databank was performed for all adult patients with spinal cord injury since 2009...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Andréane Richard-Denis, Bich-Han Nguyen, Jean-Marc Mac-Thiong
Context/Objectives: To determine the impact of spasticity presenting during the acute care hospitalization on the rehabilitation outcomes following a traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A single Level 1 trauma center specialized in SCI care. PARTICIPANTS: 150 individuals sustaining an acute TSCI. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. OUTCOME MEASURES: The total inpatient functional rehabilitation length of stay...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Kohei Godai, Keiya Takahashi, Yuta Kashiwagi, Ching-Hang Liu, Hyun Yi, Shue Liu, Chuanhui Dong, David A Lubarsky, Shuanglin Hao
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is one of the most common complaints in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated sensory neuropathy. Ryanodine receptor (RyR) and mitochondrial oxidative stress are involved in neuropathic pain induced by nerve injury. Here, we investigated the role of RyR and mitochondrial superoxide in neuropathic pain induced by repeated intrathecal HIV glycoprotein 120 (gp120) injection. METHODS: Recombinant HIV glycoprotein gp120MN was intrathecally administered to induce neuropathic pain...
November 30, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Lígia Sofia Almeida, José Manuel Castro-Lopes, Fani Lourença Neto, Catarina Soares Potes
BACKGROUND: Amylin is a calcitonin gene-related peptide family member expressed by nociceptors. Amylin's expression is down-regulated following nerve damage and studies suggested it affects nociception. We aimed at clarifying amylin's effects on chronic neuropathic pain and investigating its site of action. METHODS: Chronic neuropathic pain was induced in rats by spared nerve injury (SNI) surgery. Mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia and cold allodynia/hyperalgesia were assessed by the von Frey, pin-prick, acetone and cold plate behavioural tests, respectively...
December 2, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Dong-Yeong Lee, Young-Jin Park, Sang-Youn Song, Sun-Chul Hwang, Kun-Tae Kim, Dong-Hee Kim
Background: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a tragic event that has a major impact on individuals and society as well as the healthcare system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the strength of association between surgical treatment timing and neurological improvement. Methods: Fifty-six patients with neurological impairment due to traumatic SCI were included in this study. From January 2013 to June 2017, all their medical records were reviewed...
December 2018: Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery
Sarah L Pollema-Mays, Maria Virginia Centeno, Zheng Chang, A Vania Apakarian, Marco Martina
The neuropathic pain phenotype is the consequence of functional and morphological reorganization of the PNS and CNS. This reorganization includes DRGs and the spinal cord, and extends to multiple supraspinal areas including the limbic and reward systems. Several recent papers show that acute manipulation of cortical and subcortical brain areas causally correlates with the cognitive, emotional and sensory components of neuropathic pain, yet mechanisms responsible for pain chronification remain largely unknown...
November 29, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Chunyang Fang, Ziping Ma, Liqiu Chen, Hongjie Li, Chao Jiang, Wenbin Zhang
In the present work, a facile biosynthetic approach for the synthesis of AuNPs using bark extract of Juglans regia (J. regia) is reported. Ultra-violet visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopic studies exhibited and narrow SPR absorption band at 540 nm, represented the isotropy in particle size. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, confirmed the fabrication of spherical and crystalline nanoparticles of average size of about 14 nm. Also, typical characteristic selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern showed the crystalline nature of AuNPs...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Andrew D Gaudet, Laura K Fonken, Monica T Ayala, Heather M D'Angelo, Elana J Smith, Emily M Bateman, Wolfgang E Schleicher, Steven F Maier, Linda Watkins
Spinal cord injury (SCI) dysregulates metabolic homeostasis. Metabolic homeostasis is optimized across the day by the circadian system. Despite the prevalence of metabolic pathologies after SCI, post-SCI circadian regulation of metabolism remains under-studied. Here, we hypothesized that SCI in rats would disrupt circadian regulation of key metabolic organs, leading to metabolic dysregulation. Female and male Sprague-Dawley rats received moderate thoracic (T)-9 contusion SCI (or sham surgery). First, SCI disrupted diurnal rhythms in two metabolic behaviors: fecal production and food intake rhythms were ablated acutely...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Sascha R A Alles, Peter A Smith
Although gabapentin (GBP) is a first-line treatment in the management of neuropathic pain, its mechanism of action is incompletely understood. We have previously shown, in rats made neuropathic following sciatic chronic constriction injury, that IP injection of 100 mg/kg GBP decreases overall excitability of spinal cord slices obtained ex vivo. Excitability was assessed using confocal imaging to monitor the amplitude of K+ - induced increases in cytoplasmic Ca2+ . This decrease in excitability involved a reduction in the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous EPSC's (sEPSC) in putative excitatory substantia gelatinosa neurons and an increase in sEPSC frequency in putative inhibitory neurons...
November 27, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Laiana A Quagliato, Antonio E Nardi
Increases in the activated state of microglia, the main neuroimmune cells, are widely reported in the brains of patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders. Microglia transform from the resting to the activated state by sensing their environment, aided by a variety of ion channels. To examine the effect of ion channels on microglial phenotypes, we conducted a systematic review of immunohistochemical analyses of these neuroimmune cells in animal models following administration of ion channel antagonists, compared to control conditions...
November 29, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Kun-Ze Lee
The present study was designed to investigate breathing patterns across the sleep-wake state following a high cervical spinal injury in rats. The breathing patterns (e.g., respiratory frequency, tidal volume and minute ventilation), neck electromyogram (EMG), and electroencephalography (EEG) of unanesthetized adult male rats were measured at the acute (i.e., one day), subchronic (i.e., two weeks), and/or chronic (i.e., six weeks) injured stages after unilateral contusion of the 2nd cervical spinal cord. Cervical spinal cord injury caused a long-term reduction in the tidal volume, but did not influence the sleep-wake cycle duration...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Kazuhide Inoue
Acute nociceptive pain is an undesirable feeling but has a physiological significance as a warning system for living organisms. Conversely, chronic pain is lacking physiological significance, but rather represents a confusion of nerve functions. The neuropathic pain that occurs after peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is perhaps the most important type of chronic pain because it is refractory to available medications and thus remains a heavy clinical burden. In recent decades, studies have shown that spinal microglia play a principal role in the alterations in synaptic functions evoking this pain...
November 28, 2018: Open Biology
Philippa M Warren, Stephanie C Steiger, Thomas E Dick, Peter M MacFarlane, Warren J Alilain, Jerry Silver
There exists an abundance of barriers that hinder functional recovery following spinal cord injury, especially at chronic stages. Here, we examine the rescue of breathing up to 1.5 years following cervical hemisection in the rat. In spite of complete hemidiaphragm paralysis, a single injection of chondroitinase ABC in the phrenic motor pool restored robust and persistent diaphragm function while improving neuromuscular junction anatomy. This treatment strategy was more effective when applied chronically than when assessed acutely after injury...
November 27, 2018: Nature Communications
Albert Cheng, Laxminarayanan Krishnan, Pallab Pradhan, Laura D Weinstock, Levi B Wood, Krishnendu Roy, Robert E Guldberg
Delayed union and nonunion are a significant concern in long bone fractures and spinal fusions. Treatment of nonunion often entails multiple revision surgeries that further increase the financial, physical, and emotional burden on patients. The optimal treatment strategy for nonunions remains unclear in many cases, and the risk of complications after revision procedures remains high. This is in part due to our limited understanding of the biological mechanisms that inhibit proper bone healing and lead to nonunion...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Wangying Dai, Xingguo Wang, Honglin Teng, Chi Li, Bin Wang, Jing Wang
Pyroptosis pathway is closely related to inflammation. However, Celastrol effect on pyroptosis pathway after spinal cord injury (SCI) are poorly understood. We studied the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of Celastrol on acute spinal cord injury in rats, and its anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/ATP-induced microgliosis. Our results show that Celastrol can improve the recovery of hindlimb motor function after SCI in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, and reduce the cavity area of spinal cord injury along with the neuronal loss...
November 22, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Regev Cohen, Talya Finn, Frida Babushkin, Maurice Shapiro, Martina Uda, Tamar Grossman
BACKGROUND: We describe a patient with Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection associated with Streptococcus pyogenes and with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. To the best of our knowledge this association has not been previously described. CASE PRESENTATION: A 78 year-old Israeli man, who was born in Iraq but lived in Israel for 66 years, presented with multi-organ failure including acute kidney and hepatic injury, coagulopathy, and lactic acidosis. He had a medical history including aortic valve replacement, diabetes mellitus, spinal stenosis, and low back pain treated with repeated local steroid injections...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Yoshibumi Bunno
PURPOSE: Motor imagery, the process of imagining a physical action, has been shown to facilitate the excitability of spinal anterior horn cells. In the acute phase after a stroke, the excitability of spinal anterior horn cells is significantly reduced, which leads to motor deficits. This loss of movement can be prevented by increasing the excitability of spinal anterior horn cells immediately following an injury. Motor imagery is an effective method for facilitating the excitability of spinal anterior horn cells in patients with impaired movement; however, the optimal duration for motor imagery is unclear...
November 21, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Takuya Fujikawa, Shin Yamamoto, Susumu Oshima, Kensuke Ozaki, Junichi Shimamura, Hiroaki Asada, Randolph H L Wong
BACKGROUND: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair has become the preferred treatment for a variety of descending thoracic aortic pathologies. However, there are unresolved issues such as morphologic appearance of chronic dissection, persistent false lumen perfusion, and adequacy of landing zone. Enthusiasm for improving the technique of open aortic repair and perioperative management is fading. In this study, we would like to demonstrate how we improve our surgical outcomes by establishing a dedicated aortic multidisciplinary team at the Kawasaki Aortic Center...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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