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Acute spinal injury

Atsushi Kodani, Takahiro Kikuchi, Chihiro Tohda
Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) is difficult to cure, even by several approaches effective at the acute or subacute phase. We focused on skeletal muscle atrophy as a detrimental factor in chronic SCI and explored drugs that protect against muscle atrophy and activate secretion of axonal growth factors from skeletal muscle. We found that acteoside induced the secretion of axonal growth factors from skeletal muscle cells and proliferation of these cells. Intramuscular injection of acteoside in mice with chronic SCI recovered skeletal muscle weight reduction and motor function impairment...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Teena Shetty, Joseph T Nguyen, Anita Wu, Mayu Sasaki, Eric Bogner, Alissa Burge, Taylor Cogsil, Esther U Kim, Kelianne Cummings, Edwin P Su, Stephen Lyman
BACKGROUND: Postsurgical acute nerve injury is rare but potentially devastating following total hip arthroplasty (THA). Previous literature suggests a wide range of incidence from 0.1% to 7.6%. Confirmed risk factors for these injuries remain unclear. METHODS: THA patients at our institution who developed nerve injury during their admission for THA between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2013, were systematically identified and matched with 2 control subjects by surgical date...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Yabin Zhou, Cheng Zhang, Shimeng Zhao, Qingxian Wang
RATIONALE: Traumatic hip dislocation is a common joint dislocation. Delayed reduction has been shown to increase the risk of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Most of the traditional methods must be performed under general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia to relax hip muscles. Anesthesia will prolong the interval between the injury and the reduction. PATIENT CONCERNS: 16 patients presented with hip pain and a leg shortened, flexed, internally rotated and adducted...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mir Sepehr Pedram, Mohammad Mehdi Dehghan, Maryam Shojaee, Reza Fekrazad, Davood Sharifi, Arash Farzan, Setareh Ghasemi, Katayoun AliMohammad Kalhori
STUDY DESIGN: Application of Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) and meloxicam in acute spinal cord injury, functional recovery and histological evaluation. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the effect of simultaneous PBMT and meloxicam on treatment of acute experimental spinal cord injury and comparing it with the effect of application of each of them separately. SETTING: The study was conducted at the Department of Surgery & Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Institute of Biomedical Research, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Makoto Tsuda
Neuropathic pain occurring after peripheral nerve injury is not simply a consequence of temporal continuity of acute nociceptive signals, but rather of maladaptive nervous system function. Over the past decades, a body of literature has provided evidence for the necessity and sufficiency of microglia, the tissue-resident macrophages of the central nervous system, for nerve injury-induced alterations in synaptic function. Recent studies have also revealed active roles for microglia in brain regions important for emotion and memory...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Tiphaine Ruggeri, Cédric Jacqueline, Xavier Ambrosi, Alexis Broquet, Juliette Desfrançois, Antoine Roquilly, Frédéric Altare, Karim Asehnoune
OBJECTIVES: In patients with spinal cord injury, spinal cord injury-immune depression syndrome induces pneumonia. We aimed to develop a new spinal cord injury-immune depression syndrome mouse model and to test antiprogrammed cell death 1 therapy. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: Research laboratory. SUBJECTS: RjOrl: SWISS and BALB/cJ mice. INTERVENTIONS: Mouse model of spinal cord injury-immune depression syndrome followed by a methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia...
October 9, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Takamasa Hashizaki, Yukihide Nishimura, Kenzo Teramura, Yasunori Umemoto, Manabu Shibasaki, C A Leicht, Ken Kouda, Fumihiro Tajima
OBJECTIVES: Passive rise in core body temperature achieved by head-out hot water immersion (HHWI) results in acute increases in serum interleukin (IL)-6 but no change in plasma adrenaline in patients with cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI). The purpose of the present study was to determine the mechanism of heat stress-induced increase in serum IL-6. SETTING: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: The study subjects were nine with CSCI, ten with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (TLSCI) and eight able-bodied (AB) subjects...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Reza Ehsanian, Molly A Timmerman, Jerry M Wright, Stephen McKenna, Ben Dirlikov, James Crew
BACKGROUND: The role of vitamin D (VitD) in the pathogenesis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and prevalence of low VitD (LVitD) in spinal cord injury (SCI) has motivated VitD testing and supplementation. This is an exploratory study of data collected at a time before the routine clinical practice of VitD supplementation, allowing for evaluation of the natural history of LVitD levels in patients with SCI. OBJECTIVE: To determine if VitD supplementation in persons with SCI and LVitD levels is associated with decreased prevalence of VTE...
October 6, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Tamara A Strohm, Seby John, Muhammad S Hussain
Background: Current management of acute spinal cord infarction (SCI) is limited. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid drainage (CSFD) with blood pressure augmentation is utilized in the thoracic/thoracoabdominal aortic repair and thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) populations to increase spinal perfusion pressure. Case description: We identified 3 patients who sustained acute SCI and underwent CSFD and maintenance of elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP) within 24 hours of injury...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Jacob T Didesch, Peter Tang
Scapular winging is a painful and debilitating condition. The composite scapular motion of rotation, abduction, and tilting is necessary for proper shoulder function. Weakness or loss of scapular mechanics can lead to difficulties with elevation of the arm and lifting objects. The most common causes reported in the literature for scapular winging are dysfunction of the serratus anterior from long thoracic nerve injury causing medial winging or dysfunction of the trapezius from spinal accessory nerve injury causing lateral winging...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Rachel E Cowan, Kim D Anderson
STUDY DESIGN: Replication of previously developed prognostic model. OBJECTIVES: In motor complete injuries at admission to rehabilitation, perform; (1) replication analyses of the relationships between ISNCSCI motor level and motor scores and SCIM and (2) novel analyses to determine if age and/or sex moderate relationship between neurological impairment and function. SETTING: Admission to initial inpatient rehabilitation in the United States...
October 5, 2018: Spinal Cord
Yongxiong He, Mingdong Li, Bokang Lv, Yanqiang Huan, Bin Liu, Dongsheng Wang, Hai Yu, Liansheng Zhang, Zhiqiang Shi
BACKGROUND: Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the weakest pathologies that seriously affect the quality of life of patients. OBJECTIVE: To study the mechanism of how Zhenbao Pill reduces Treg cell proportion and improves acute spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: A rat SCI model was established. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to determine the Treg cell proportion. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) and RNA pull down were applied in confirming TUG1 and miR-214 binding...
October 4, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Elise Tabet, Moana Gelu-Simeon, Valentine Genet, Lucie Lamontagne, Claire Piquet-Pellorce, Michel Samson
Chlordecone is an organochlorine used in the 1970's as a pesticide in banana plantations. It has a long half-life in the soil and can potentially contaminate humans and animals through food. Chlordecone targets, and mainly accumulates in, the liver, leading to hepatomegaly and neurological signs in mammals. Chlordecone does not cause liver injuries or any inflammation by itself at low doses, but it can potentiate the hepatotoxic effects of other chemicals and drugs. We studied the impact of chlordecone on the progression of acute hepatitis in mouse models of co-exposure to chlordecone with Concanavalin A or murine hepatitis virus type 3...
October 1, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Kyle H Cichos, Eva J Lehtonen, Gerald McGwin, Brent A Ponce, Elie S Ghanem
INTRODUCTION: Orthopaedic surgeons are wary of patients with neuromuscular (NM) diseases as a result of perceived poor outcomes and lack of data regarding complication risks. We determined the prevalence of patients with NM disease undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA) and characterized its relationship with in-hospital complications, prolonged length of stay, and total charges. METHODS: Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2005 to 2014 was used for this retrospective cohort study to identify 8,028,435 discharges with total joint arthroplasty...
October 2, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Andrea Jimena Santamaria, Francisco D Benavides, Kyle Padgett, Luis Guada, Yohjan Nunez-Gomez, Juan Solano, James Guest
Neuroimaging facilitates the translation of animal preclinical research to human application. The large porcine spinal cord is useful for testing invasive interventions. Ideally, the safety and efficacy of a delayed intervention is tested in pigs that have recovered sufficiently after SCI to allow either deterioration or improvement of function to be detected. We set out to create moderate severity T9 injuries in Yucatan minipigs by conducting a bridging study adapting methods previously developed in infant piglets...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Argyrios Stampas, Radha Korupolu, Liang Zhu, Christopher P Smith, Kenneth Gustafson
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (TTNS) in acute spinal cord injury was safe and feasible, and could achieve neuromodulation and improve cystometrogram parameters during acute inpatient rehabilitation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were consecutive acute traumatic spinal cord injury patients admitted for acute inpatient rehabilitation, randomized to a 2-week trial of TTNS v sham stimulation. Primary outcomes were safety and feasibility of TTNS and secondary outcomes were bladder measures based on pre- and post-TTNS cystometrogram by group and within groups, including bladder capacity, detrusor hyperreflexia, pressures, and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia, as well as filling sensations and desire to void...
October 3, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Ali Meshkini, Firooz Salehpour, Javad Aghazadeh, Farhad Mirzaei, Seyed Ahmad Naseri Alavi
Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes sensory, motor function and consists of a large proportion of patients that referred to trauma centers. Riluzole blocks the sodium channels and has possible supportive effects on the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of riluzole on sensory and motor improvement and pain level in patients with acute SCI. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, sixty patients with acute SCI with A to C Frankel grade selected and randomly divided into two groups (each group included thirty patients)...
July 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Melanie D Sweeney, Zhen Zhao, Axel Montagne, Amy R Nelson, Berislav V Zlokovic
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents neurotoxic plasma components, blood cells, and pathogens from entering the brain. At the same time, the BBB regulates transport of molecules into and out of the central nervous system (CNS), which maintains tightly controlled chemical composition of the neuronal milieu that is required for proper neuronal functioning. In this review, we first examine molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the establishment of the BBB. Then, we focus on BBB transport physiology, endothelial and pericyte transporters, and perivascular and paravascular transport...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Seema Sikka, Librada Callender, Simon Driver, Monica Bennett, Megan Reynolds, Rita Hamilton, Ann Marie Warren, Laura Petrey
OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of healthcare utilization among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) from a Level I trauma center. DESIGN: Retrospective data analysis utilizing a local acute trauma registry for initial hospitalization and merged with the Dallas-Fort Worth Hospital Council registry to obtain subsequent health care utilization in the first post-injury year. SETTING: Dallas, TX, USA...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski
Background: The objective of this study was to analyze readmission rates after outpatient transforaminal endoscopic decompression surgery for lumbar foraminal and lateral recess stenosis done in an ambulatory surgery center. Endoscopic lumbar spinal surgery is gaining popularity for the treatment of lumbar disc herniations. Recent advances in surgical techniques allow for percutaneous endoscopically assisted bony decompression for neurogenic claudication symptoms due to spinal stenosis...
June 2018: International Journal of Spine Surgery
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