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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386857/reconstructing-the-recent-visual-past-hierarchical-knowledge-based-effects-in-visual-working-memory
#1
Marie Poirier, Daniel Heussen, Silvio Aldrovandi, Lauren Daniel, Saiyara Tasnim, James A Hampton
This paper presents two experiments that examine the influence of multiple levels of knowledge on visual working memory (VWM). Experiment 1 focused on memory for faces. Faces were selected from continua that were constructed by morphing two face photographs in 100 steps; half of the continua morphed a famous face into an unfamiliar one, while the other half used two unfamiliar faces. Participants studied six sequentially presented faces each from a different continuum, and at test they had to locate one of these within its continuum...
April 6, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364341/the-role-of-stimulus-predictability-in-the-allocation-of-attentional-resources-an-eye-tracking-study
#2
Magdalena Król, Magdalena Kilan-Banach, Renata Strzelecka
By allocating less attention to predictable events we are able to focus on novel, unpredictable and unexpected events that require more extensive processing. This strategy should result in improved performance by optimizing the use of brain's limited resources. Participants' task was to look at two types of stimuli presented simultaneously at the opposite sides of a computer screen: "static" stimuli, i.e. emotionally neutral photographs; and "dynamic" stimuli, i.e. video clips presenting a moving dot. The dot moved along a predictable, semi-predictable or random trajectory...
March 31, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361561/positive-events-protect-children-from-causal-false-memories-for-scripted-events
#3
Annika Melinder, Enrico Toffalini, Eleonora Geccherle, Cesare Cornoldi
Adults produce fewer inferential false memories for scripted events when their conclusions are emotionally charged than when they are neutral, but it is not clear whether the same effect is also found in children. In the present study, we examined this issue in a sample of 132 children aged 6-12 years (mean 9 years, 3 months). Participants encoded photographs depicting six script-like events that had a positively, negatively, or a neutral valenced ending. Subsequently, true and false recognition memory of photographs related to the observed scripts was tested as a function of emotionality...
March 31, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282746/motor-expertise-interacts-with-physical-enactment-to-enhance-action-memory
#4
Jieyu Peng, Anmin Li, Qin Zhu
Previous research on action memory showed the advantage for performing the action in memorising the action phrases. We tested if performing the action would help participants with or without motor expertise to memorise the novel action poses. Thirty novel action poses performed by an expert were photographed to constitute memory and interference stimuli. Eighty college students observed to remember the randomly displayed stimuli; however, half were asked to perform the displayed stimuli. Both free-recall and recognition tests were administered immediately and 24 h after the memory task...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254205/a-family-intervention-to-reduce-delirium-in-hospitalised-icu-patients-a-feasibility-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Marion L Mitchell, Susanne Kean, Janice E Rattray, Alastair M Hull, Chelsea Davis, Jenny E Murfield, Leanne M Aitken
BACKGROUND: Family members could play an important role in preventing and reducing the development of delirium in Intensive Care Units (ICU) patients. This study sought to assess the feasibility of design and recruitment, and acceptability for family members and nurses of a family delivered intervention to reduce delirium in ICU patients. METHOD: A single centre randomised controlled trial in an Australian medical/surgical ICU was conducted. Sixty-one family members were randomised (29 in intervention and 32 in non-intervention group)...
February 26, 2017: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210488/systematic-distortions-in-vertical-placement-of-features-in-drawings-of-faces-and-houses
#6
Neil R Harrison, Julia Jones, Simon J Davies
A crucial part of accurately drawing portraits is the correct vertical positioning of the eyes. Non-experts typically place the eyes higher on the head than they are actually located; however, the explanation for this remains unclear. In Experiment 1, participants drew faces from memory and directly copied from a photograph, to confirm whether biases in observational drawings were related to biases in memory-based drawings. In Experiment 2, participants drew a cat's face, to test explanations by Carbon and Wirth for the positional bias: the 'view-from-below, the 'head-as-box', and the 'hair-as-hat' explanations...
January 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192008/the-brain-s-representations-may-be-compatible-with-convolution-based-memory-models
#7
Kenichi Kato, Jeremy B Caplan
Convolution is a mathematical operation used in vector-models of memory that have been successful in explaining a broad range of behaviour, including memory for associations between pairs of items, an important primitive of memory upon which a broad range of everyday memory behaviour depends. However, convolution models have trouble with naturalistic item representations, which are highly auto-correlated (as one finds, e.g., with photographs), and this has cast doubt on their neural plausibility. Consequently, modellers working with convolution have used item representations composed of randomly drawn values, but introducing so-called noise-like representation raises the question how those random-like values might relate to actual item properties...
February 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184209/theory-of-mind-is-impaired-in-mild-to-moderate-huntington-s-disease-independently-from-global-cognitive-functioning
#8
Giovanna Lagravinese, Laura Avanzino, Alessia Raffo De Ferrari, Roberta Marchese, Carlo Serrati, Paola Mandich, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Elisa Pelosin
Affective "Theory of Mind" (ToM) is the specific ability to represent own and others' emotional states and feelings. Previous studies examined affective ToM ability in patients with Huntington's disease (HD), using the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes test" (RMET). Results were consistent in showing difficulties in inferring complex mental states from photographs of people even in the early stage of HD. However, there has been no agreement as to whether or not cognitive impairments in HD population might have contributed to poor performance on the RMET test...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161989/-it-brings-it-all-back-all-those-good-times-it-makes-me-go-close-to-tears-creating-digital-personalised-stories-with-people-who-have-dementia
#9
Valerie Critten, Natalia Kucirkova
The purpose of these three case studies was to analyse and theoretically explain the contribution of digital multimedia personalisation to stimulate and share long-term memories of people who live with mild to moderate dementia. We investigated how the use of a freely available iPad app can, in a supporting context, facilitate the creation of personalised multimedia stories, including the participants' audio recordings, texts and photos of items, places or people important to them. Three people who were recruited from a club for people living with dementia created personalised multimedia stories using their own photographs and/or pictures downloaded from the internet, with written captions and audio-recorded voiceovers...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152153/aspects-of-self-and-identity-in-narrations-about-recent-events-communication-with-individuals-with-alzheimer-s-disease-enabled-by-a-digital-photograph-diary
#10
Eva Karlsson, Karin Zingmark, Karin Axelsson, Stefan Sävenstedt
HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS XX contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029057/robust-memory-of-where-from-way-back-when-evidence-from-behaviour-and-visual-attention
#11
Patricia J Bauer, Rebekah Stewart, Ruth E Sirkin, Marina Larkina
Retention of events typically exhibits a sharp initial decrease followed by levelling off of forgetting. In an apparent exception to this general rule, college students have robust memory for their own locations in obscured versions of photographs of their entering classes taken during orientation-related activities, whether tested 2 months or 42 months after the event. Experiment 1 of the present research was a test for conceptual replication of this finding in photographs depicting more than twice the number of students (and thus potential distracters)...
December 28, 2016: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965600/false-memories-for-affective-information-in-schizophrenia
#12
Beth Fairfield, Mario Altamura, Flavia A Padalino, Angela Balzotti, Alberto Di Domenico, Nicola Mammarella
Studies have shown a direct link between memory for emotionally salient experiences and false memories. In particular, emotionally arousing material of negative and positive valence enhanced reality monitoring compared to neutral material since emotional stimuli can be encoded with more contextual details and thereby facilitate the distinction between presented and imagined stimuli. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in both reality monitoring and memory for emotional experiences. However, the relationship between the emotionality of the to-be-remembered material and false memory occurrence has not yet been studied...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933007/what-is-the-correct-answer-about-the-dress-colors-investigating-the-relation-between-optimism-previous-experience-and-answerability
#13
Bodil S A Karlsson, Carl Martin Allwood
The Dress photograph, first displayed on the internet in 2015, revealed stunning individual differences in color perception. The aim of this study was to investigate if lay-persons believed that the question about The Dress colors was answerable. Past research has found that optimism is related to judgments of how answerable knowledge questions with controversial answers are (Karlsson et al., 2016). Furthermore, familiarity with a question can create a feeling of knowing the answer (Reder and Ritter, 1992)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858379/effects-of-varying-presentation-time-on-long-term-recognition-memory-for-scenes-verbatim-and-gist-representations
#14
Fahad N Ahmad, Morris Moscovitch, William E Hockley
Konkle, Brady, Alvarez and Oliva (Psychological Science, 21, 1551-1556, 2010) showed that participants have an exceptional long-term memory (LTM) for photographs of scenes. We examined to what extent participants' exceptional LTM for scenes is determined by presentation time during encoding. In addition, at retrieval, we varied the nature of the lures in a forced-choice recognition task so that they resembled the target in gist (i.e., global or categorical) information, but were distinct in verbatim information (e...
November 17, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784206/perceptual-enhancement-as-a-result-of-a-top-down-attentional-influence-in-a-scene-viewing-task-evidence-from-saccadic-inhibition
#15
Mackenzie G Glaholt, Eyal M Reingold
Prior research has shown that task instructions influence the locations and durations of eye fixations during scene viewing. These task-related changes in gaze patterns are likely to be associated with a top-down influence of attention. Presently we applied a saccadic-inhibition manipulation in order to detect another expected manifestation of top-down attention: perceptual enhancement. Participants viewed eight-item arrays containing photographs from two categories of scenes. Four of the photos depicted natural landscapes ("nature") and the other four depicted urban environments ("buildings")...
November 2, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757984/the-un-reliability-of-alibi-corroborators-failure-to-recognize-faces-of-briefly-encountered-strangers-puts-innocent-suspects-at-risk
#16
Steve D Charman, Andrea Reyes, Daniella K Villalba, Jacqueline R Evans
Some innocent suspects rely on the memory of strangers to corroborate their alibis. However, no research has examined whether such potential alibi corroborators can accurately recognize an innocent suspect with whom they previously interacted. We developed a novel alibi corroboration paradigm in which undergraduate students (representing innocent suspects who would later provide an alibi) interacted with naïve university employees (representing potential alibi corroborators). Each student briefly interacted with a different naïve university employee (n = 60), and were also each yoked to a different employee with whom they did not interact (n = 60)...
October 19, 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754410/learned-use-of-picture-cues-by-bumblebees-bombus-impatiens-in-a-delayed-matching-task
#17
Emma Thompson, Catherine Plowright
Picture-object correspondence provides an alternate method of investigating delayed matching by providing a cue (picture) which may be spontaneously perceived as similar but different from a corresponding target. Memory for, and corresponding choice of, a target corresponding to a cue could be facilitated by the use of a picture. Bumblebees have been found to both easily differentiate images from corresponding objects but also spontaneously perceive a similarity between the two. Herein, an approach was designed to test the possible use of picture cues to signal reward in a delayed matching task...
October 14, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667681/towards-a-new-orientation-a-qualitative-longitudinal-study-of-an-intensive-care-recovery-programme
#18
Janet F Jensen, Dorthe Overgaard, Morten H Bestle, Doris F Christensen, Ingrid Egerod
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe the patient experience of ICU recovery from a longitudinal perspective by analysing follow-up consultations at three time-points. BACKGROUND: After a stay in the intensive care unit, patients risk physical and psychological problems during recovery. Follow-up after intensive care has emerged to aid psychological recovery, and improve health-related quality of life. More insight is needed into the mechanisms of intensive care recovery...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651170/lexical-semantic-deficits-in-processing-food-and-non-food-items
#19
Raffaella I Rumiati, Francesco Foroni, Giulio Pergola, Paola Rossi, Maria Caterina Silveri
The study of category specific deficits in brain-damaged patients has been instrumental in explaining how knowledge about different types of objects is organized in the brain. Much of this research focused on testing putative semantic sensory/functional subsystems that could explain the observed dissociations in performance between living things (e.g., animals and fruits/vegetables) and non-living things (e.g., tools). As neuropsychological patterns that did not fit the original living/non-living distinction were observed, an alternative organization of semantic memory in domains constrained by evolutionary pressure was hypothesized...
September 17, 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645215/stuck-on-semantics-processing-of-irrelevant-object-scene-inconsistencies-modulates-ongoing-gaze-behavior
#20
Tim H W Cornelissen, Melissa L-H Võ
People have an amazing ability to identify objects and scenes with only a glimpse. How automatic is this scene and object identification? Are scene and object semantics-let alone their semantic congruity-processed to a degree that modulates ongoing gaze behavior even if they are irrelevant to the task at hand? Objects that do not fit the semantics of the scene (e.g., a toothbrush in an office) are typically fixated longer and more often than objects that are congruent with the scene context. In this study, we overlaid a letter T onto photographs of indoor scenes and instructed participants to search for it...
January 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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