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Photographic memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278247/the-second-life-of-kowloon-walled-city-crime-media-and-cultural-memory
#1
Alistair Fraser, Eva Cheuk-Yin Li
Kowloon Walled City (hereafter KWC or Walled City), Hong Kong has been described as 'one of history's great anomalies'. The territory remained under Chinese rule throughout the period of British colonialism, with neither jurisdiction wishing to take active responsibility for its administration. In the postwar period, the area became notorious for vice, drugs and unsanitary living conditions, yet also attracted the attention of artists, photographers and writers, who viewed it as an instance of anarchic urbanism...
August 2017: Crime Media Cult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214552/decomposing-item-method-directed-forgetting-of-emotional-pictures-equivalent-costs-and-no-benefits
#2
Tracy L Taylor, Chelsea K Quinlan, Kelly C H Vullings
Using an item-method directed forgetting task, we presented negative, neutral, and positive photographic pictures, one at a time, each followed by an instruction to remember or forget. We determined that the directed forgetting effect, defined as better subsequent recognition of to-be-remembered (TBR) items than to-be-forgotten (TBF) items, was equivalent across negative, neutral, and positive pictures. To disentangle the underlying costs (i.e., decrease in memory for TBF items) and benefits (i.e., increase in memory for TBR items), we compared recognition memory performance in the directed forgetting task to that of a novel within-subjects remember-all control condition (Experiment 1) and to a between-subjects remember-all control group (Experiment 2)...
December 6, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137530/neuroanatomical-substrates-involved-in-unrelated-false-facial-recognition
#3
Eliane Ronzon-Gonzalez, Carlos R Hernandez-Castillo, Erick H Pasaye, Israel Vaca-Palomares, Juan Fernandez-Ruiz
Identifying faces is a process central for social interaction and a relevant factor in eyewitness theory. False recognition is a critical mistake during an eyewitness's identification scenario because it can lead to a wrongful conviction. Previous studies have described neural areas related to false facial recognition using the standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (morphed faces, looking similar to each other), triggering false memories (related false recognition). Nonetheless, misidentification of faces without trying to elicit false memories (unrelated false recognition) in a police lineup could involve different cognitive processes, and therefore, distinct neural areas...
November 15, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067859/enhanced-recall-of-disgusting-relative-to-frightening-photographs-is-not-due-to-organisation
#4
Hanah A Chapman
Previous research has shown that disgusting photographs are better remembered than frightening photographs, even when the two image types have equivalent valence and arousal. However, this work did not control for potential differences in organisation between the disgusting and frightening stimuli that could account for enhanced memory for disgusting photographs. The current research therefore tested whether differences in recall between disgusting and frightening photographs persist when differences in organisation are eliminated...
October 25, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045587/differential-contributions-of-default-and-dorsal-attention-networks-to-remembering-thoughts-and-external-stimuli-from-real-life-events
#5
David Stawarczyk, Olivier Jeunehomme, Arnaud D'Argembeau
Episodic memories are typically composed of perceptual information derived from the external environment and representations of internal states (e.g., one's thoughts during prior episodes). To date, however, research has mostly focused on the remembrance of external stimuli, such that little is known about how internal mentation is represented within episodic memory. In the present fMRI study, we examined the neural correlates of these 2 components of episodic memories using a novel method of cuing memories from photographs taken during real-life events...
October 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969117/effects-of-sleep-deprivation-on-the-cognitive-performance-of-nurses-working-in-shift
#6
Deepalakshmi Kaliyaperumal, Yaal Elango, Murali Alagesan, Iswarya Santhanakrishanan
INTRODUCTION: Sleep deprivation and altered circadian rhythm affects the cognitive performance of an individual. Quality of sleep is compromised in those who are frequently involved in extended working hours and shift work which is found to be more common among nurses. Cognitive impairment leads to fatigability, decline in attention and efficiency in their workplace which puts their health and patients' health at risk. AIM: To find out the prevalence of sleep deprivation and its impact on cognition among shift working nurses...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932380/effect-of-expertise-on-boundary-extension-in-approach-sequences
#7
Emmanuelle Ménétrier, André Didierjean, Frédérique Robin
In a constantly changing environment, one of the conditions for adaptation is based on the visual system's ability to realize predictions. In this context, a question that arises is the evolution of the processes allowing anticipation with regard to the acquisition of knowledge relative to specific situations. We sought to study this question by focusing on boundary extension, the tendency to overestimate the scope of a previously perceived scene. We presented to novice, beginner, and expert car drivers road scenes in the form of approach sequences constituting very briefly displayed photographs (i...
September 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899236/looking-forward-the-effects-of-photographs-on-the-qualities-of-future-thinking
#8
Rebecca B Bays, Brianna C M Wellen, Katherine S Greenberg
Future episodic thinking relies on the reconstruction of remembered experiences. Photographs provide one means of remembering, acting as a "cognitive springboard" for generating related memory qualities. We wondered whether photographs would also invite embellishment of future thought qualities, particularly in the presence (or absence) of associated memories. In two studies participants generated future events in familiar (associated memories) and novel (no associated memories) locations. Half of the participants viewed scene location photographs during event generation...
September 12, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889043/photovoicing-the-neighbourhood-understanding-the-situated-meaning-of-intangible-places-for-ageing-in-place
#9
Susan van Hees, Klasien Horstman, Maria Jansen, Dirk Ruwaard
Ageing-in-place is considered important for the health of older adults. In this paper, inspired by a constructivist approach to ageing-in-place, we unravel professionals' and older adults' constructions of ageing-in-place. Their perspectives are studied in relation to a policy that aims to develop so-called 'lifecycle-robust neighbourhoods' in the southern part of the Netherlands. We conducted a photovoice study in which 18 older adults (70-85 years) living independently and 14 professionals (social workers, housing consultants, neighbourhood managers and community workers) were asked to photograph and discuss the places they consider important for ageing-in-place...
September 7, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872661/the-kent-face-matching-test
#10
Matthew C Fysh, Markus Bindemann
This study presents the Kent Face Matching Test (KFMT), which comprises 200 same-identity and 20 different-identity pairs of unfamiliar faces. Each face pair consists of a photograph from a student ID card and a high-quality portrait that was taken at least three months later. The test is designed to complement existing resources for face-matching research, by providing a more ecologically valid stimulus set that captures the natural variability that can arise in a person's appearance over time. Two experiments are presented to demonstrate that the KFMT provides a challenging measure of face matching but correlates with established tests...
September 5, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729161/the-neural-basis-of-precise-visual-short-term-memory-for-complex-recognisable-objects
#11
Michele Veldsman, Daniel J Mitchell, Rhodri Cusack
Recent evidence suggests that visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity estimated using simple objects, such as colours and oriented bars, may not generalise well to more naturalistic stimuli. More visual detail can be stored in VSTM when complex, recognisable objects are maintained compared to simple objects. It is not yet known if it is recognisability that enhances memory precision, nor whether maintenance of recognisable objects is achieved with the same network of brain regions supporting maintenance of simple objects...
July 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700673/the-trickle-down-effect-of-predictability-secondary-task-performance-benefits-from-predictability-in-the-primary-task
#12
Magdalena Ewa Król, Michał Król
Predictions optimize processing by reducing attentional resources allocation to expected or predictable sensory data. Our study demonstrates that these saved processing resources can be then used on concurrent stimuli, and in consequence improve their processing and encoding. We illustrate this "trickle-down" effect with a dual task, where the primary task varied in terms of predictability. The primary task involved detection of a pre-specified symbol that appeared at some point of a short video of a dot moving along a random, semi-predictable or predictable trajectory...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650721/photographic-memory-the-effects-of-volitional-photo-taking-on-memory-for-visual-and-auditory-aspects-of-an-experience
#13
Alixandra Barasch, Kristin Diehl, Jackie Silverman, Gal Zauberman
How does volitional photo taking affect unaided memory for visual and auditory aspects of experiences? Across one field and three lab studies, we found that, even without revisiting any photos, participants who could freely take photographs during an experience recognized more of what they saw and less of what they heard, compared with those who could not take any photographs. Further, merely taking mental photos had similar effects on memory. These results provide support for the idea that photo taking induces a shift in attention toward visual aspects and away from auditory aspects of an experience...
August 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386857/reconstructing-the-recent-visual-past-hierarchical-knowledge-based-effects-in-visual-working-memory
#14
Marie Poirier, Daniel Heussen, Silvio Aldrovandi, Lauren Daniel, Saiyara Tasnim, James A Hampton
This paper presents two experiments that examine the influence of multiple levels of knowledge on visual working memory (VWM). Experiment 1 focused on memory for faces. Faces were selected from continua that were constructed by morphing two face photographs in 100 steps; half of the continua morphed a famous face into an unfamiliar one, while the other half used two unfamiliar faces. Participants studied six sequentially presented faces each from a different continuum, and at test they had to locate one of these within its continuum...
April 6, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364341/the-role-of-stimulus-predictability-in-the-allocation-of-attentional-resources-an-eye-tracking-study
#15
Magdalena Król, Magdalena Kilan-Banach, Renata Strzelecka
By allocating less attention to predictable events we are able to focus on novel, unpredictable and unexpected events that require more extensive processing. This strategy should result in improved performance by optimizing the use of brain's limited resources. Participants' task was to look at two types of stimuli presented simultaneously at the opposite sides of a computer screen: "static" stimuli, i.e. emotionally neutral photographs; and "dynamic" stimuli, i.e. video clips presenting a moving dot. The dot moved along a predictable, semi-predictable or random trajectory...
August 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361561/positive-events-protect-children-from-causal-false-memories-for-scripted-events
#16
Annika Melinder, Enrico Toffalini, Eleonora Geccherle, Cesare Cornoldi
Adults produce fewer inferential false memories for scripted events when their conclusions are emotionally charged than when they are neutral, but it is not clear whether the same effect is also found in children. In the present study, we examined this issue in a sample of 132 children aged 6-12 years (mean 9 years, 3 months). Participants encoded photographs depicting six script-like events that had a positively, negatively, or a neutral valenced ending. Subsequently, true and false recognition memory of photographs related to the observed scripts was tested as a function of emotionality...
March 31, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282746/motor-expertise-interacts-with-physical-enactment-to-enhance-action-memory
#17
Jieyu Peng, Anmin Li, Qin Zhu
Previous research on action memory showed the advantage for performing the action in memorising the action phrases. We tested if performing the action would help participants with or without motor expertise to memorise the novel action poses. Thirty novel action poses performed by an expert were photographed to constitute memory and interference stimuli. Eighty college students observed to remember the randomly displayed stimuli; however, half were asked to perform the displayed stimuli. Both free-recall and recognition tests were administered immediately and 24 h after the memory task...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254205/a-family-intervention-to-reduce-delirium-in-hospitalised-icu-patients-a-feasibility-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Marion L Mitchell, Susanne Kean, Janice E Rattray, Alastair M Hull, Chelsea Davis, Jenny E Murfield, Leanne M Aitken
BACKGROUND: Family members could play an important role in preventing and reducing the development of delirium in Intensive Care Units (ICU) patients. This study sought to assess the feasibility of design and recruitment, and acceptability for family members and nurses of a family delivered intervention to reduce delirium in ICU patients. METHOD: A single centre randomised controlled trial in an Australian medical/surgical ICU was conducted. Sixty-one family members were randomised (29 in intervention and 32 in non-intervention group)...
June 2017: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210488/systematic-distortions-in-vertical-placement-of-features-in-drawings-of-faces-and-houses
#19
Neil R Harrison, Julia Jones, Simon J Davies
A crucial part of accurately drawing portraits is the correct vertical positioning of the eyes. Non-experts typically place the eyes higher on the head than they are actually located; however, the explanation for this remains unclear. In Experiment 1, participants drew faces from memory and directly copied from a photograph, to confirm whether biases in observational drawings were related to biases in memory-based drawings. In Experiment 2, participants drew a cat's face, to test explanations by Carbon and Wirth for the positional bias: the 'view-from-below, the 'head-as-box', and the 'hair-as-hat' explanations...
January 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192008/the-brain-s-representations-may-be-compatible-with-convolution-based-memory-models
#20
Kenichi Kato, Jeremy B Caplan
Convolution is a mathematical operation used in vector-models of memory that have been successful in explaining a broad range of behaviour, including memory for associations between pairs of items, an important primitive of memory upon which a broad range of everyday memory behaviour depends. However, convolution models have trouble with naturalistic item representations, which are highly auto-correlated (as one finds, e.g., with photographs), and this has cast doubt on their neural plausibility. Consequently, modellers working with convolution have used item representations composed of randomly drawn values, but introducing so-called noise-like representation raises the question how those random-like values might relate to actual item properties...
February 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
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