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Black seed

Jinfeng Ding, Yunhe Zhao, Zhengqun Zhang, Chunmei Xu, Wei Mu
The black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), has been considered a major insect pest in China that causes damage to corn at the seeding stage. The present study measured the lethal and sublethal effects of the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin on A. ipsilon. Clothianidin, incorporated using an artificial diet, exhibited signs of active toxicity on fourth-instar larvae of A. ipsilon, with a 50%-lethal concentration (LC50) of 27.77 µg/g. Clothianidin at the LC20 and LC40 levels impaired the normal development of A...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Mansoor Ahmed, Jung Hye Hwang, Mohammad Ashraful Hasan, Dongwoon Han
BACKGROUND: Herbal medicines in pregnancy are increasingly used worldwide with prevalence of up to 67%. Although this popularity is mainly because of the common belief that these medicines are safe, recent reports suggest that several herbal medicines are potentially harmful to mother and fetus if used in pregnancy. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in July and August of year 2017, at maternity wards of two public hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Postpartum women were interviewed via the structured questionnaire to collect information regarding socio-demographic and health characteristics, patterns of herbal medicines used in the previous pregnancy, and outcome of pregnancy...
December 13, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Aziz Ebrahimi, Shaneka S Lawson, Graham S Frank, Mark V Coggeshall, Keith E Woeste, James R McKenna
Artificial pollination of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is not practical and timber breeders have historically utilized only open-pollinated half-sib families. An alternate approach called "breeding without breeding," consists of genotyping open-pollinated progeny using DNA markers to identify paternal parents and then constructing full-sib families. In 2014, we used 12 SSR markers to genotype 884 open-pollinated half-sib progeny harvested from two clonal orchards containing 206 trees, comprised of 52 elite timber selections...
2018: PloS One
Lisa Spees, Paul L Martin, Joanne Kurtzberg, Andre Stokhuyzen, Lauren McGill, Vinod K Prasad, Timothy A Driscoll, Suhag H Parikh, Kristin M Page, Richard Vinesett, Christopher Severyn, Anthony D Sung, Alan D Proia, Kirsten Jenkins, Mehreen Arshad, William J Steinbach, Patrick C Seed, Matthew S Kelly
BACKGROUND: Infections and graft-versus-host disease have historically resulted in high mortality among children undergoing umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). However, recent advances in clinical practice have likely improved outcomes of these patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children (<18 years of age) undergoing UCBT at Duke University between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. We compared two-year all-cause and cause-specific mortality during three time periods based on year of transplantation (1995-2001, 2002-2007, 2008-2014)...
November 24, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Anika Haq, Bozena Michniak-Kohn
Thymoquinone (TQ) is a quinone-based phytochemical that was first identified in 1963 in Nigella sativa (black cumin seed) by El-Dakhakhany. Based on the ideal characteristics of transdermal delivery, TQ is potentially an attractive candidate for transdermal drug delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of transdermal delivery of TQ and to assess the effect of an ethanol and propylene glycol donor solvent system along with various compositions of receptor solvents. The effects of penetration enhancers on the in vitro skin permeation and TQ skin absorption were studied using human cadaver skin in Franz diffusion cells...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Bridgett M vonHoldt, Rebecca Y Kartzinel, Christian D Huber, Vinh Le Underwood, Ying Zhen, Kristen Ruegg, Kirk E Lohmueller, Thomas B Smith
Pyrenestes finches are unique among birds in showing a non-sex-determined polymorphism in bill size and are considered a textbook example of disruptive selection. Morphs breed randomly with respect to bill size, and differ in diet and feeding performance relative to seed hardness. Previous breeding experiments are consistent with the polymorphism being controlled by a single genetic factor. Here, we use genome-wide pooled sequencing to explore the underlying genetic basis of bill morphology and identify a single candidate region...
November 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Chin-San Wu, Shan-Shue Wang
We report on the antibacterial and cytocompatibility properties of a bio-based electrospun polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) nanofiber modified with Black Soldier Fly (BSF) pupa shell. A 5-50 μm chitosan powder (CSP) was made by grinding BSF pupa shell in water, acid, alkali. CSP was combined with PHA in an electrospinning machine using a biaxial feed method and manufactured into a 50-500 nm antibacterial nanofiber. We studied the morphology, mechanical properties, water absorption, and antibacterial properties of the electrospun PHA/CSP nanofiber...
November 28, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhengqun Zhang, Chunmei Xu, Jinfeng Ding, Yunhe Zhao, Jin Lin, Feng Liu, Wei Mu
BACKGROUND: The black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon is the most destructive early season insect pest of corn. In this study, the control efficiency of cyantraniliprole seed treatment against A. ipsilon was evaluated, and the residual concentrations of cyantraniliprole and its metabolite J9Z38 in the stalks of corn seedlings and soil were investigated. RESULTS: Plant pot experiments showed that A. ipsilon larval mortality was greater than 92% and that the percentage of corn seedlings damaged by A...
November 18, 2018: Pest Management Science
Tsutomu Hashidume, Taiken Sakano, Ayaka Mochizuki, Keisuke Ito, Sohei Ito, Yasuaki Kawarasaki, Noriyuki Miyoshi
We have recently reported that green soybean cultivar, echigomidori, and not the yellow cultivar, fukuyutaka, is a rich source of hormone-like peptide leginsulin consisting of 37 amino acids (Leg_1_37, PDB 1JU8A) and its C-terminal glycine deletant, Leg_1_36. Green soybean is mature, but the color of the seedcoat and cotyledon remains green. Therefore, in this study, we examined the leginsulin content in different varieties of 11 colored soybeans (including green, yellow, red, brown and black) and edamame (immature soybean)...
November 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mei Wang, Amar G Chittiboyina, Jon F Parcher, Zulfiqar Ali, Paul Ford, Jianping Zhao, Bharathi Avula, Yan-Hong Wang, Ikhlas A Khan
The growing demand and commercial value of black pepper ( Piper nigrum ) has resulted in considerable interest in developing suitable and cost-effective methods for chemical characterization and quality evaluation purposes. In the current study, an extensive set of oil samples (n = 23) that were extracted by steam distillation from black pepper seeds was investigated to compare the chemical profiles of samples originating from nine major producing countries, as well as to identify potential chemical markers for quality evaluation...
November 15, 2018: Planta Medica
Nurul Shahirah Aziz, Noor Soffalina Sofian Seng, Noorul Syuhada Mohd Razali, Seng Joe Lim, Wan Aida Wan Mustapha
White pepper is the dried seeds obtained from pepper berries (Piper nigrum L.) after the removal of the pericarp. It has been widely used as seasoning and condiments in food preparation. Globally, white pepper fetches a higher price compared to black pepper due to its lighter colour, preferable milder flavour and pungency. Increasing global demand of the spice outpaced the supply as the conventional production method used is laborious, lengthy and also less hygienic. The most common conventional method is water retting but can also include pit soil, chemical, boiling, steaming and mechanical methods...
November 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Okhee Choi, Yeyeong Lee, Byeongsam Kang, Juyoung Bae, Seunghoe Kim, Jinwoo Kim
This is the first report of bacterial center blackening in muskmelon fruit caused by Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, which is known as an opportunistic pathogen of humans and warm-blooded animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbiological characteristics of this infection. Bacterial center blackening, which can cause aversion in consumers, was observed in muskmelon fruit in South Korea in the fall of 2017. Symptoms included severe black pigmentation in the pulp surrounding the seeds inside muskmelon fruit...
November 6, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Anusha Jahagirdar, Dandamudi Usharani, Malathi Srinivasan, Ram Rajasekharan
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the site of non-shivering thermogenesis in mammals, wherein energy is dissipated as heat. We observed that aqueous extract of black sesame seed triggers an increase in the expression of Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipocytes from mice. The active component from the extract was purified and identified to be sesaminol diglucoside (SDG). SDG treatment decreased mass of white fat pads and serum glucose levels and increased UCP1 levels in BAT thereby protecting mice against high fat induced weight gain...
December 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Saeed Samarghandian, Mohsen Azimi-Nezhad, Tahereh Farkhondeh
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer has been associated with the highest cancer-associated mortality rate in the world. Chemotherapeutic management of cancer necessitates introducing new promising agents. Plants represent a rich source of new antineoplastic and chemotherapeutic agents. Thymoquinone (TQ), the main constituent of Nigella sativa (black seed or black cumin), has shown potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities so far. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the antineoplastic potential of TQ and their underlying mechanisms in A549 cells (human lung cancer cell line)...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Yeganeh Mazaheri, Mohammadali Torbati, Sodeif Azadmard-Damirchi, Geoffrey P Savage
The present research studied the thermal pre-treatment of non-soaked and soaked black seed (BS) by microwave radiation (1-3.5 min) in comparison with conventional roasting (2-8 min, 180 °C). As BS was treated for a longer time, a significant increase (p < 0.05) was observed in total chlorophylls, carotenoids and phenolic contents in the extracted oils. The oils obtained from the soaked seeds (to 8%) had significantly higher oil quality properties. The optimum extraction conditions were: irradiation time of 3...
February 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Yanhong Bi, Chun Zhu, Zhaoyu Wang, Hongzhen Luo, Ruiping Fu, Xiaojuan Zhao, Xiangjie Zhao, Ling Jiang
The objective of this study was to characterize a plant origin β-glucosidase from black plum seeds and identify its conformational changes in twenty-six imidazolium- and amino acid-based ionic liquids (ILs). The results revealed that the purified 60 kDa enzyme was monomeric in nature, maximally active at 55 °C and pH 5.0, and nearly completely inhibited by Hg2+ and Ag+ . Attractive peculiarities of the relative low kinetic and higher glucose inhibition constants (Km  = 0.58 mM [pNPG]; Ki  = 193...
February 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Abigail S Caudle, Henry M Kuerer, Savitri Krishnamurthy, Kyungmin Shin, Brian P Hobbs, Junsheng Ma, Elizabeth A Mittendorf, Ashley C Washington, Sarah M DeSnyder, Dalliah M Black, Kelly K Hunt, Wei T Yang
BACKGROUND: Clips are often placed to mark axillary nodes with biopsy-confirmed metastases in patients with breast cancer. The evaluation of clipped nodes after chemotherapy can identify patients who have eradication of nodal disease. The goal of this study was to determine whether preoperative fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of clipped nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) could predict the presence of residual disease. METHODS: This prospective registry study enrolled 50 patients with a clip placed to mark nodes with biopsy-confirmed metastases who had completed NAC...
October 25, 2018: Cancer
Lucas R Parent, David Onofrei, Dian Xu, Dillan Stengel, John D Roehling, J Bennett Addison, Christopher Forman, Samrat A Amin, Brian R Cherry, Jeffery L Yarger, Nathan C Gianneschi, Gregory P Holland
Many natural silks produced by spiders and insects are unique materials in their exceptional toughness and tensile strength, while being lightweight and biodegradable-properties that are currently unparalleled in synthetic materials. Myriad approaches have been attempted to prepare artificial silks from recombinant spider silk spidroins but have each failed to achieve the advantageous properties of the natural material. This is because of an incomplete understanding of the in vivo spidroin-to-fiber spinning process and, particularly, because of a lack of knowledge of the true morphological nature of spidroin nanostructures in the precursor dope solution and the mechanisms by which these nanostructures transform into micrometer-scale silk fibers...
November 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Juliet Mubaiwa, Vincenzo Fogliano, Cathrine Chidewe, Anita R Linnemann
Variability in dehulling efficiency, colour, chemical composition and selected functional properties of raw and pre-treated bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) (BG) flour from red and black-eye varieties were studied. Functional properties were water and oil absorption, gelation, pasting, emulsification and foaming capacity. Pre-treatment of seeds (i.e. soaking, roasting and combined soaking and roasting) improved dehulling efficiency of BG varieties. Protein content of flour ranged from 15.6-19...
2018: PloS One
Louise M Webster, Kate Bramham, Paul T Seed, Michele Homsy, Kate Widdows, Andrew J Webb, Catherine Nelson-Piercy, Laura Magee, Baskaran Thilaganathan, Jenny E Myers, Lucy C Chappell
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the impact of maternal ethnicity on the risk of adverse perinatal outcome in pregnant women with chronic hypertension. METHODS: Demographic and delivery data of women with chronic hypertension and singleton pregnancies from three obstetric units (2000 to 2014) were collated. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate risk ratios (RR) by ethnic group for adverse perinatal outcome in women with chronic hypertension adjusted for other maternal characteristics...
October 14, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
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