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Skin immunology

Joachim W Fluhr, Torsten Zuberbier, Razvigor Darlenski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the current knowledge on the morphology, functionality and biochemical composition of the skin in allergic reactions. We address novel noninvasive techniques that promise to disclose intimate mechanisms of skin allergy in vivo. Epidermal barrier is not just a static wrap of the organism but rather a dynamic field for immunological, biophysical and biochemical processes and serves as a bio-sensor for exogenous danger signals. RECENT FINDINGS: Classical biophysical methods are amended by novel in-vivo techniques, such as Raman spectroscopy, analysing the skin microcomposition and develop epidermal profiles...
August 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jing Wu, Li Hong, Tong-Xin Chen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The hyper IgE syndromes (HIES) comprise a group of rare primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDDs), which are characterized by extremely high serum IgE levels, eczema, recurrent skin and pulmonary infections. Both autosomal dominant (AD) HIES due to STAT3 mutations and autosomal recessive (AR) HIES due to PGM3, SPINK5, DOCK8 and TKY2 mutations have been reported. Here, we aim to summarize and compare the major clinical manifestations of different subtypes of HIES. We will also discuss otitis media, which usually do not get enough attention in HIES...
August 15, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Andrew Blauvelt, Andrea Chiricozzi
Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disease that is pathogenically driven by proinflammatory cytokines. This article reviews the immunologic role of interleukin (IL)-17, the major effector cytokine in the pathogenesis of psoriatic disease, along with the rationale for targeting the IL-17 cytokine family (IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17 receptor A) in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Emerging evidence indicates that major sources of IL-17A in patients with psoriatic disease are mast cells, γδ T cells, αβ T cells, and innate lymphoid cells in lesional skin and synovial fluid...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Abd El Aziz I Eltaweel, Amany I Mustafa, Ola S El-Shimi, Fatma A Algaod
BACKGROUND: Sex hormones may play a major role in psoriasis pathogenesis due to their biological and immunological effects on skin. Psoriasis also has a significant impact on patients' sexual function and thus their quality of life. AIM: In the present study, we investigated serum sex hormones and erectile function in male psoriasis patients compared with healthy controls and correlated these findings with various disease parameters. METHODS: Serum total testosterone and estradiol were measured by an ELISA technique in 50 male patients with psoriasis and 30 healthy controls...
August 13, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Wandi Zhu, Song Li, Chao Wang, Guoying Yu, Mark R Prausnitz, Bao-Zhong Wang
Skin vaccination using biodegradable microneedle patch (MNP) technology in vaccine delivery is a promising strategy showing significant advantages over conventional flu shots. In this study, we developed an MNP encapsulating a 4M2e-tFliC fusion protein and two types of whole inactivated influenza virus vaccines (H1N1 and H3N2) as a universal vaccine candidate. We demonstrated that mice receiving this tri-component influenza vaccine via MNP acquired improved IgG1 antibody responses with more balanced IgG1/IgG2a antibody responses and enhanced cellular immune responses, including increased populations of IL-4 and IFN-γ producing cells and higher frequencies of antigen-specific plasma cells compared with intramuscular injection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jian Liu, Yan Wen, Yan Xing, Shuo Wang
INTRODUCTION: Leprosy is a chronic infectious granulomas disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that can manifest as a wide variety of immunological and clinical features. CASE SUMMARY: Here, we describe the case of a woman with clinical characteristics of borderline tuberculoid (BT) leprosy that manifested as 3 asymmetric skin lesions involving her hip and lower limbs. This unusual presentation was initially misdiagnosed as sarcoidosis because noncaseating granulomas are a histopathological feature of both diseases...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Christine M Anterasian, Bob Geng
BACKGROUND: Eight to ten percent of patients believe that they are allergic to penicillin, yet only 10% of those patients have evidence of an immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated allergy upon penicillin skin testing (PST). In the adult population, a negative PST result is associated with a low risk of immediate reaction on oral challenge, but further studies are needed in the pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: To calculate the negative predictive value (NPV) of the current skin testing regimen of penicillin, benzylpenicilloyl-polylysine (the major determinant), and ampicillin in a pediatric outpatient population to assess the utility of adding the minor determinant mixture to the skin testing regimen...
July 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Florian Janker, Walter Weder, Jae-Hwi Jang, Wolfgang Jungraithmayr
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Animal models are key in analyzing cancer biology and therapy evaluation. We here compared relevant non-genetic lung cancer models with regard to tumor induction period, incidence, morbidity and mortality rate and the immunological composition of primary tumors and the occurrence of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO): (I) intraperitoneal Urethane injection (1g/kg), (II) Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell line model (intravenous or subcutaneous), and (III) ex vivo three-dimensional (3D) primary cell culture model established from subcutaneously developed LLC-induced tumors...
July 17, 2018: Oncotarget
Young-Je Kim, Mi Ji Choi, Dong-Ho Bak, Byung Chul Lee, Eun Jung Ko, Ga Ram Ahn, Seung Won Ahn, Moo Joong Kim, Jungtae Na, Beom Joon Kim
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease characterized by a complex, heterogeneous pathogenesis including skin barrier dysfunction, immunology, and pruritus. Although epidermal growth factor (EGF) is essential for epithelial homeostasis and wound healing, the effect of EGF on AD remains to be explored. To develop a new therapy for AD, the anti-AD potential of EGF was investigated by inducing AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). EGF was administrated to NC/Nga mice to evaluate its therapeutic effect on DNCB-induced AD...
August 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Adela García-Martín, Martín Garrido-Rodríguez, Carmen Navarrete, Carmen Del Río, María L Bellido, Giovanni Appendino, Marco A Calzado, Eduardo Muñoz
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) or scleroderma is a chronic multi-organ autoimmune disease characterized by vascular, immunological, and fibrotic abnormalities. The etiology of SSc is unknown, but there is growing evidence that dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays a critical role in its development. Since the semi-synthetic cannabinoquinoid VCE-004.8 could alleviate bleomycin (BLM)-induced skin fibrosis, we have investigated an oral lipid formulation (EHP-101) of this dual PPARγ/CB2 receptors activator for the prevention of skin- and lung fibrosis and of collagen accumulation in BLM challenged mice...
August 2, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Sima Bakht Azad, Iraj Nikokar, Sobhan Faezi, Soheila Rasooly, Mehdi Mahdavi
Considering the increased antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the evaluation of immune response against the antigens of this bacterium seems necessary. In this study, the protective efficacy and immunological properties of P. aeruginosa recombinant PilQ (r-PilQ) and type b-flagellin (FLB) proteins was evaluated in the burn mouse model of infection. The inbred BALB/c mice were immunized with r-PilQ and FLB antigens. To investigate the type of induced immune response, sera were analyzed by ELISA for total IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a isotypes...
July 31, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Göksel Güven, Aslıhan Güler, Nil Özyüncü, Leyla Talan, Aylin Heper, Tahsin Murat Turgay, Neriman Defne Altıntaş
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare and life-threatening syndrome that may be triggered by hereditary factors, autoimmune and immunologic disorders, infectious diseases, malignancies and medications. Suspicion of the disease and early treatment is of paramount importance. Since the presentation of HLH with only skin involvement is rare, early diagnosis may be difficult. A pathologically confirmed HLH case that presented with maculopapular skin lesions after certolizumab treatment is being reported in this presentation...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Rheumatology
Lei Deng, Timothy Z Chang, Ye Wang, Song Li, Shelly Wang, Shingo Matsuyama, Guoying Yu, Richard W Compans, Jian-Dong Li, Mark R Prausnitz, Julie A Champion, Bao-Zhong Wang
Influenza is a persistent threat to public health. Here we report that double-layered peptide nanoparticles induced robust specific immunity and protected mice against heterosubtypic influenza A virus challenges. We fabricated the nanoparticles by desolvating a composite peptide of tandem copies of nucleoprotein epitopes into nanoparticles as cores and cross-linking another composite peptide of four tandem copies of influenza matrix protein 2 ectodomain epitopes to the core surfaces as a coating. Delivering the nanoparticles via dissolvable microneedle patch-based skin vaccination further enhanced the induced immunity...
August 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tatiana Ţăranu, Mirela Grigorovici, Magda Constantin, Mihaela Paula Toader
Dear Editor, Subcutaneous granuloma annulare (SGA) is considered a rare clinical variant of granuloma annulare, a common self-healing chronic inflammatory disorder that may appear in childhood as well as in adult age (1-3). A 29-year-old female patient reported the onset of several small subcutaneous nodules on the dorsal aspect of the second interphalangeal joint of the left medius finger and the left elbow, accompanied by vague joint pain, had occurred 13 years ago. Specific markers for rheumatoid arthritis were negative, leading to a diagnosis of sero-negative rheumatoid arthritis, for which treatment with methotrexate was initiated...
December 2017: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Aradhana Bhargava, V Ramesh, Sandeep Verma, Poonam Salotra, Manju Bala
Background: Post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a neglected dermatosis that develops as a sequel to kala azar after apparent complete treatment. Being a non life threatening condition, patients often delay treatment thereby maintaining a reservoir of infection. The diagnosis of PKDL rests on the demonstration of the parasite in tissue smears, immune diagnosis by detection of parasite antigen or antibody in blood, or detection and quantitation of parasite DNA in tissue specimens...
July 23, 2018: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
Peter L M Kerkhof, Irina Khamaganova
Cardiology, dermatology, and rheumatology form a fascinating triad. Many skin and joint disorders are associated with cardiovascular comorbidities because they share etiologic elements. Female predominance is often remarkable and likely related to autoimmune pathology. Although studies have shown that X-encoded genes may be involved in the differences in immunity between males and females, other studies have also shown that sex chromosomes are irrelevant and that estrogens and androgens are responsible for the differences...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
S Dash, S K Das, J Samal, H N Thatoi
Fish epidermal mucus contains innate immune components, secreted by globlet cells that provide the primary defence against different pathogenic microbes and act as a barrier between fish and its immediate niche. The major function of mucus includes entrapment and sloughing of microbes. The mucus also contains many factors such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), lysozymes, lectins, proteases, etc that provide innate immunity. The AMPs secreted by epidermal mucus cells displayed antimicrobial activity against a variety of pathogens...
2018: Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research
Guy Caljon, Dorien Mabille, Benoît Stijlemans, Carl De Trez, Massimiliano Mazzone, Fabienne Tacchini-Cottier, Marie Malissen, Jo A Van Ginderachter, Stefan Magez, Patrick De Baetselier, Jan Van Den Abbeele
In this study, Trypanosoma brucei was naturally transmitted to mice through the bites of infected Glossina morsitans tsetse flies. Neutrophils were recruited rapidly to the bite site, whereas monocytes were attracted more gradually. Expression of inflammatory cytokines (il1b, il6), il10 and neutrophil chemokines (cxcl1, cxcl5) was transiently up-regulated at the site of parasite inoculation. Then, a second influx of neutrophils occurred that coincided with the previously described parasite retention and expansion in the ear dermis...
July 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jasmine Saleh
Melanoma is an aggressive and highly metastatic skin cancer, carrying a poor prognosis with a median survival time of 5.3-10 months depending on the stage of disease. Research has advanced our understanding of the underlying pathology of melanoma and strategies to prevent and treat melanoma. Mouse models have been developed to elucidate the molecular, immunological, and cellular mechanisms contributing to proliferation and metastasis of melanoma. This review article aims to provide an overview of various types of murine melanoma models, including xenograft and syngeneic transplantation models, genetically modified models, ultraviolent radiation models, and chemically induced models, and discuss the advantages and limitations of each model...
July 11, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Richard D Sontheimer
James Neil Gilliam, MD, was an American academic physician who was trained in internal medicine, dermatology, dermatopathology and rheumatology. This "quadruple-threat" profile of postgraduate medical training provided him with a rather unique perspective on genetically-complex, environmentally-impacted human autoimmune disorders such as lupus erythematosus (LE). Both the skin and vital internal organs can be damaged by LE autoimmunity. And, LE is clinically-expressed quite variably from one individual to another making prognosis difficult...
June 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
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