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Skin immunology

Petra Zimmermann, Nigel Curtis
Chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) and SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis) syndrome are auto-inflammatory disorders manifesting as chronic inflammation of bones and joints, which in SAPHO is often accompanying by skin changes. The aetiology of these diseases is unknown, but includes genetic, infectious and immunological components. It has been proposed that Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes plays a role in the pathogenesis. In this review, we summarise reported cases of CNO or SAPHO syndrome in which C...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Lucy A Brunton, Alison Prosser, Dirk U Pfeiffer, Sara H Downs
Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is an important animal health issue in many parts of the world. In England and Wales, the primary test to detect infected animals is the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin test, which compares immunological responses to bovine and avian tuberculins. Inconclusive test reactors (IRs) are animals that demonstrate a positive reaction to the bovine tuberculin only marginally greater than the avian reaction, so are not classified as reactors and immediately removed. In the absence of reactors in the herd, IRs are isolated, placed under movement restrictions and re-tested after 60 days...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Chaman Saini, Praveen Kumar, Mohd Tarique, Alpana Sharma, Venkatesh Ramesh
Background: The clinical forms of cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) consist of a spectrum that reflects the host's immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis ; it provides an ideal model to study the immunological dysregulation in humans. IL-17 plays an important role in initial immune response and is involved in both immune-mediated protection and pathology during M. tuberculosis infection. TGF-β producing regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are high in leprosy patients and responsible for immune suppression...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Amy Sharma, Yoshiro Saito, Shuen-Iu Hung, Dean Naisbitt, Jack Uetrecht, Jeanine Bussiere
Current advances in the study of cutaneous adverse drug reactions can be attributed to the recent understanding that the skin is both a metabolically and immunologically competent organ. The ability of the skin to serve as a protective barrier with limited drug biotransformation ability, yet highly active immune function, has provided insights into its biological capability. While the immune response of the skin to drugs is vastly different from that of the liver due to evolutionary conditioning, it frequently occurs in response to various drug classes and manifests as a spectrum of hypersensitivity reactions...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Divya Seth, Deepak Kamat
Drug allergy is commonly encountered in clinical practice. It is an immunological response to a pharmaceutical agent. The clinical presentation can vary from mild cutaneous reactions to life-threatening conditions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Diagnosis is most often clinical, but investigations such as measurement of immunoglobulin E, patch testing, and skin biopsy may be required. In patients with a known drug allergy, the offending drug should be avoided. [Pediatr Ann. 2018;47(10):e419-e425...
October 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Ji Hye Kim, Ji Ho Lee, Young Min Ye, Jae Hyun Lee, Jung Won Park, Gyu Young Hur, Joo Hee Kim, Hyn Young Lee, Yoo Seob Shin, Eun Mi Yang, Hae Sim Park
PURPOSE: This study aims to determine the efficacy and safety of house dust mite (HDM)-sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in elderly patients with AR. METHODS: A total of 45 patients aged ≥ 60 years with HDM-induced AR who had ≥ 3 A/H ratio on skin prick test and/or ≥ 0.35 IU/L to both Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus by ImmunoCAP were enrolled in 4 university hospitals. To evaluate additional effects of HDM-SLIT, they were randomized to the SLIT-treated group (n = 30) or control group (n = 15)...
November 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Mi Ae Kim, Dong Kyu Kim, Hyeon Jong Yang, Young Yoo, Youngmin Ahn, Hae Sim Park, Hyun Jong Lee, Yi Yeong Jeong, Bong Seong Kim, Woo Yong Bae, An Soo Jang, Yang Park, Young Il Koh, Jaechun Lee, Dae Hyun Lim, Jeong Hee Kim, Sang Min Lee, Yong Min Kim, Young Joon Jun, Hyo Yeol Kim, Yunsun Kim, Jeong Hee Choi
PURPOSE: Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) is an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy in pollinosis patients caused by raw fruits and vegetables and is the most common food allergy in adults. However, there has been no nationwide study on PFAS in Korea. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and clinical characteristics of PFAS in Korea. METHODS: Twenty-two investigators participated in this study, in which patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and/or bronchial asthma with pollen allergy were enrolled...
November 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Chiara Angiolilli, Wioleta Marut, Maarten van der Kroef, Eleni Chouri, Kris A Reedquist, Timothy R D J Radstake
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a severe autoimmune disease that is characterized by vascular abnormalities, immunological alterations and fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. The results of genetic studies in patients with SSc have revealed statistically significant genetic associations with disease manifestations and progression. Nevertheless, genetic susceptibility to SSc is moderate, and the functional consequences of genetic associations remain only partially characterized. A current hypothesis is that, in genetically susceptible individuals, epigenetic modifications constitute the driving force for disease initiation...
October 10, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
Jolanta Klonowska, Jolanta Gleń, Roman J Nowicki, Magdalena Trzeciak
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a recurrent, chronic, and inflammatory skin disease, which processes with severe itchiness. It often coexists with different atopic diseases. The number of people suffering from AD is relatively high. Epidemiological research demonstrates that 15⁻30% of children and 2⁻10% adults suffer from AD. The disease has significant negative social and economic impacts, substantially decreasing the quality of life of the patients and their families. Thanks to enormous progress in science and technology, it becomes possible to recognise complex genetic, immunological, and environmental factors and epidermal barrier defects that play a role in the pathogenesis of AD...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xiao-Fang Hou, Hai-Long Xia
OBJECTIVE: To explore the immunopathogenesis of Henoch-Schonlein purpara (HSP) by detecting the levels of Th17 cells, IL-17 and matrix metallo proteinase-13 (MMP-13) in peripheral blood and the expression of IL-17 in skin lesions at acate phase of HSP. METHODS: Th17 cell ratio in peripheral blood of HSP group and healthy control group was defected by flow cytometry, the plasma levels of IL-17 and MMP-13 in HSP group and healthy control group were defected by ELISA, and expression level of IL-17 in skin lesion of HSP group and skin tissue of healthy control group was deternined by: immunohistochemistry method...
October 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Rei Kuwabara, Masahide Hamaguchi, Takuya Fukuda, Shimon Sakaguchi, Hiroo Iwata
A method which realizes allogeneic islets transplantation into a subcutaneous site under no immunosuppressive treatment has been desired for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. In this study, two donor-recipient combinations were employed: F344 rat donors (RT-1<sup>lv1</sup>) and ACI rat recipients (RT-1<sup>a</sup>); and Wistar rat donors (closed colony) and Lewis rat recipients (RT-1<sup>l</sup>). An agarose rod , which carried basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; 50 μg/rod, agarose-bFGF rod), was implanted into each of two dorsal subcutaneous sites of a streptozotocin induced diabetic rat for 7 days, and the space was formed by removal of the rod...
October 3, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
J S Lehman, S Dasari, S S Damodaran, R A El-Azhary, L E Gibson, S K Hashmi, W J Hogan, S J Kenderian, M S Patnaik, M R Litzow, H M Lazarus, A Meves
BACKGROUND: In both acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and lupus erythematosus (LE), the patient's own tissues are subjected to immunological assault via complex mechanisms influenced by interferon (IFN) and other cytokines. Although not typically confused clinically, these entities have overlapping histopathological findings in the skin. AIM: To assess whether GVHD can be differentiated from LE using molecular methods on skin specimens. METHODS: We developed a quantitative reverse transcription PCR assay based on previously identified tissue-based biomarkers of cutaneous GVHD, and compared gene expression in GVHD with that in LE...
October 2, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Sandra Woelke, Eva Valesky, Shahrzad Bakhtiar, Helena Pommerening, L M Pfeffermann, Ralf Schubert, Stefan Zielen
Background: Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a devastating multi-system disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, growth retardation, immunodeficiency, chronic pulmonary disease and chromosomal instability. Cutaneous granulomas are a known phenomenon in A-T but extra-dermal manifestation of granulomas at bone and synovia has not been reported so far. The clinical presentation, immunological findings, the long-term course and treatment options of eight patients with severe granulomas will be reported...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
S Alyasin, H Esmaeilzadeh, N Ebrahimi, S H Nabavizadeh, S Kashef, E Esmaeilzadeh, M Babaei, R Amin
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Long-term follow up of patients with hyper IgE syndrome (HIES), as a primary immunodeficiency disorder, has been poorly investigated. This study describes common clinical and immunological features of patients with HIES in the last 10 years in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. METHODS AND PATIENTS: In this cross-sectional study, the symptoms and medical records of 18 patients, who were diagnosed with HIES, were observed...
September 29, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Richard Warrington, Fanny Silviu-Dan, Tiffany Wong
Drug allergy encompasses a spectrum of immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with varying mechanisms and clinical presentations. This type of adverse drug reaction not only affects patient quality of life, but may also lead to delayed treatment, unnecessary investigations, and even mortality. Given the myriad of symptoms associated with the condition, diagnosis is often challenging. Therefore, referral to an allergist experienced in the identification, diagnosis and management of drug allergy is recommended if a drug-induced allergic reaction is suspected...
2018: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Maxime Fournet, Frédéric Bonté, Alexis Desmoulière
Glycation is both a physiological and pathological process which mainly affects proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Exogenous and endogenous glycation produces deleterious reactions that take place principally in the extracellular matrix environment or within the cell cytosol and organelles. Advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation begins by the non-enzymatic glycation of free amino groups by sugars and aldehydes which leads to a succession of rearrangements of intermediate compounds and ultimately to irreversibly bound products known as AGEs...
October 2018: Aging and Disease
Simone Merkel, Daiane Heidrich, Chris Krebs Danilevicz, Maria Lúcia Scroferneker, Régis A Zanette
Malassezia pachydermatis is a yeast that is commonly found in the skin of most animals. Changes in the physical, chemical or immunological processes of the skin may render the host more susceptible to the yeast, which then may cause otitis, dermatitis or, less often, systemic infection. We tested the pathogenicity of M. pachydermatis in wild-type (WT) and Toll-deficient Drosophila melanogaster. Flies were inoculated in the thorax with a needle previously dipped in inoculum concentrations ranging from 103 and 107 yeast cells/mL...
October 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Claudia Terraza, Ricardo Fuentes, Karina Pino-Lagos
The immune regulatory properties of IL-33 have indicated that this cytokine has the capacity to target several immune cells under a variety of immunological responses, including overt inflammation and tolerance. Due to its versatile mechanistics, we sought to investigate the role of IL-33 on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), a population of cells with recognizable modulatory functions. Our data indicates that IL-33 does not affect the expression of classical MSC markers such as CD29, CD44 and CD73, or the lack of CD45, CD11b and CD117...
September 27, 2018: Cytokine
Karolin Kern, Heide Havenith, Nicolas Delaroque, Paul Rautenberger, Jörg Lehmann, Markus Fischer, Holger Spiegel, Stefan Schillberg, Eva Ehrentreich-Foerster, Stefanie Aurich, Regina Treudler, Michael Szardenings
BACKGROUND: The precise mapping of multiple antibody epitopes recognized by patients' sera allows a more detailed and differentiated understanding of immunologic diseases. It may lead to the development of novel therapies and diagnostic tools. OBJECTIVE: Mapping soybean specific epitopes relevant for soybean allergy patients and persons sensitized to soybean, and analysis of their IgE/IgG binding spectrum. METHODS: Identification of epitopes using sera, applying an optimized peptide-phage display library followed by next-generation sequencing, specially designed in silico data analysis and subsequent peptide microarray analysis...
September 29, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Sohail Saqib Chatha, Razia Bano, Maham Farooq, Mahwish Farooq, Umar Farooq, Abdullah Zakaullah
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the epidemiological characteristics, clinical presentations, and histopathological as well as immunological characteristics of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of breast. STUDY DESIGN: A descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from January 1997 to January 2017. METHODOLOGY: Data of all patients, diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma of breast over defined period of time, were collected and analysed with respect to their clinical presentation, histopathology and receptor status...
October 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
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