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Skin immunology

Louise Correia Lima, Gerson de Almeida Queiroz, Ryan Dos Santos Costa, Neuza Maria Alcantara-Neves, Cíntia Rodrigues Marques, Gustavo Nunes de Oliveira Costa, Mauricio Lima Barreto, Camila Alexandrina Viana Figueiredo, Valdirene Leão Carneiro
Asthma and allergy affect hundreds of millions of people from childhood to old age. In most of them, the inflammatory process of respiratory allergies involves the participation of type 2 cytokines, derived from T helper-2 (Th2)-cell, and Group 2 Innate Lymphoid (ILC2) Cells. An efficient memory Th2 cell response is dependent on IL-13 produced by ILC2s, causing allergic lung inflammation and elevated serum levels of immunoglobulin E. ILC2 cells are derived from common lymphoid progenitors and their growing depends on the transcription factor RORA...
January 2019: Cytokine
L Kleinjans, D H Veening-Griffioen, T Wehkamp, J van Bergenhenegouwen, J Knol, J Garssen, L M J Knippels, C Belzer, P V Jeurink
Non-breastfed infants at-risk of allergy are recommended to use a hydrolysed formula before the age of 6 months. The addition of prebiotics to this formula may reduce the allergy development in these infants, but clinical evidence is still inconclusive. This study evaluates (1) whether the exposure duration to different prebiotics alongside a partially hydrolysed whey protein (pHP) influences its' effectiveness to prevent allergy development and (2) whether the gut microbiota plays a role in this process. Mice orally sensitised with whey and/or cholera toxin were orally treated for six days before sensitization with phosphate buffered saline, whey or pHP to potentially induce tolerance...
December 10, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
Brad W Porter, Thara K Venkatappa
Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is diagnosed immunologically using the Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). While widely used, immunodiagnostics can produce false negative or false positive results. Pathogen biomarkers provide an alternative, but direct detection in LTBI and extrapulmonary TB cases is challenging. Mycobacterium tuberculosis grows slowly, has limited hematogenous movement, is protected by a lipid rich cell wall, and produces low levels of secreted factors...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Hiroki Kiyohara, Tomohisa Sujino, Toshiaki Teratani, Kentaro Miyamoto, Mari Mochizuki Arai, Ena Nomura, Yosuke Harada, Ryo Aoki, Yuzo Koda, Yohei Mikami, Shinta Mizuno, Makoto Naganuma, Tadakazu Hisamatsu, Takanori Kanai
Background & Aims: Psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are both chronic inflammatory diseases occurring in the skin and gut, respectively. It is well established that psoriasis and IBD have high concordance rates, and similar changes in immune cells and microbiome composition have been reported in both conditions. To study this connection, we used a combination murine model of psoriatic dermatitis and colitis in which mice were treated topically with the Toll-like receptor 7 agonist imiquimod (IMQ) and fed dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)...
2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Abdulla Watad, Charlie Bridgewood, Tobias Russell, Helena Marzo-Ortega, Richard Cuthbert, Dennis McGonagle
In our paper, we discuss how the early phases of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are linked to peri-firbocartilagenous osteitis in the sacroiliac joint and entheseal bone related anchoring sites. This skeletal proclivity is linked to an abnormal immunological response to skeletal biomechanical stress and associated microdamage. A key event in the early stages of AS appears to be the association with subclinical Crohn's-like colitis with this gut inflammation being pivotal to the osteitis reaction. Whether this osteitis is consequent to non-specific intestinal innate immune activation or adaptive immune responses against specific microbiotal or self-antigens is unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hua Qian, Liyan Jiao, Zhixia Fan, Litao Wang, Baoguo Liu, Guoying Miao
BACKGROUND Lichen planus (LP) is a common chronic superficial skin lesion that causes chronic or sub-acute inflammatory disorders. LP can affect the oral cavity, skin, mucous membrane, and other body parts, and features include repeat attacks and long duration, leading to lower quality of life. This study aimed to analyze the changes of immunologic function before and after treatment of LP. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty cutaneous LP patients were selected. Peripheral blood was collected in the morning before and after treatment...
December 2, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Vladimir Lopez, Elisabeth van der Heijden, Margarita Villar, Anita Michel, Pilar Alberdi, Christian Gortázar, Victor Rutten, José de la Fuente
There is an imperative need for effective control of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) on a global scale and vaccination of cattle may prove to be pivotal in achieving this. The oral and parenteral use of a heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) vaccine has previously been found to confer partial protection against BTB in several species. A role for complement factor C3 has been suggested in wild boar, but the exact mechanism by which this vaccine provides protection remains unclear. In the present study, a quantitative proteomics approach was used to analyze the white blood cell proteome of vaccinated cattle in comparison to unvaccinated controls, prior (T0) and in response to vaccination, skin test and challenge (T9 and T12)...
December 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Giulia Merlo, Emanuele Cozzani, Filippo Canale, Maurizio Miglino, Massimiliano Gambella, Martina Burlando, Aurora Parodi
In recent years, dermatologic manifestations in oncohematologic patients have become more common. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence and heterogeneity of skin manifestations in patients followed at our Hematology Department. This observational monocentrical study was conducted on 60 patients. We divided the observed conditions in exanthematous, purpuric, vesicular-bullous, papulo-nodular, urticarial and eczematous manifestations. Moreover, all lesions were classified according to pathogenesis, in: (1) specific skin manifestations, caused by neoplastic skin infiltration; (2) immune-mediated manifestations, based on immunological mechanisms; (3) skin lesions due to immunodeficiency...
November 28, 2018: Hematological Oncology
Min Hye Kim, Sang Heon Kim, So Young Park, Ga Young Ban, Joo Hee Kim, Jae Woo Jung, Ji Yong Moon, Woo Jung Song, Hyouk Soo Kwon, Jae Woo Kwon, Jae Hyun Lee, Hye Ryun Kang, Jong Sook Park, Tae Bum Kim, Heung Woo Park, Kwang Ha Yoo, Yeon Mok Oh, Young Il Koh, An Soo Jang, Byung Jae Lee, Young Joo Cho, Sang Heon Cho, Hae Sim Park, Choon Sik Park, Ho Joo Yoon, You Sook Cho
PURPOSE: Although mild to moderate asthma is much more common, the morbidity and mortality of severe asthma are much higher. This study was performed to identify and analyze the clinical characteristics of severe asthma in Korea. METHODS: We registered patients with severe refractory asthma into the Severe Asthma Registry supported by the Severe Asthma Work Group of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Patients were enrolled since 2010 from the 15 university hospitals nationwide in Korea...
January 2019: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Laura F Grogan, Jacques Robert, Lee Berger, Lee F Skerratt, Benjamin C Scheele, J Guy Castley, David A Newell, Hamish I McCallum
The fungal skin disease, chytridiomycosis (caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and B. salamandrivorans ), has caused amphibian declines and extinctions globally since its emergence. Characterizing the host immune response to chytridiomycosis has been a focus of study with the aim of disease mitigation. However, many aspects of the innate and adaptive arms of this response are still poorly understood, likely due to the wide range of species' responses to infection. In this paper we provide an overview of expected immunological responses (with inference based on amphibian and mammalian immunology), together with a synthesis of current knowledge about these responses for the amphibian-chytridiomycosis system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Madison R Mack, Brian S Kim
Relentless, repetitive itching and scratching is a debilitating feature of many chronic inflammatory skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis. While well known clinically, this itch-scratch cycle has historically lacked in-depth mechanistic understanding. However, recent advances at the interface of itch neurobiology and skin immunology have shed new light on this phenomenon. In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the neuroimmunology of chronic itch centered around three key points of entry into the itch-scratch cycle: the epithelial barrier, the immune system, and the peripheral nervous system...
October 27, 2018: Trends in Immunology
T Sandulescu, H Büchner, D Rauscher, E A Naumova, W-H Arnold
INTRODUCTION: The superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) of the midface has a complex morphological architecture, and a multitude of controversial opinions exist regarding its in vitro appearance and clinical relevance. The aim of this study was to investigate the three-dimensional architecture of the midfacial SMAS. METHOD: Histological and SEM analyses were performed on tissue blocks of the skin, subcutaneous tissue and mimic musculature of the midfacial region between the anterior parotid gland pole and lateral to the nasolabial fold and tissue blocks of the skin, subcutaneous tissue and parotid fascia...
November 20, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Guilherme De Caro Martins, Otoni Alves de Oliveira Melo Júnior, Larissa Silveira Botoni, Marina Moller Nogueira, Adriane Pimenta da Costa Val, Benito Soto Blanco, Walderez Ornelas Dutra, Rodolfo Cordeiro Giunchetti, Marília Martins Melo, Denise da Silveira Lemos
Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is a chronic, pruritic, genetic, and inflammatory disease. Its pathogenesis is very complex and involves skin barrier defects and immune system dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate hematological, biochemical, clinical, and immunological parameters to contribute to the identification of biomarkers applied to CAD. The results of the analysis on hematologic and clinical parameters showed increased neutrophil numbers and decreased lymphocyte counts. The ex vivo immunophenotyping of leukocytes demonstrated increased counts of circulating neutrophils, in addition to a high frequency of CD4+ T-cells and elevated CD4+ /CD8+ T-cell ratio, which were the hallmark of atopic animals...
November 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Nilhan Rajiva de Silva, W M D K Dasanayake, Chandima Karunatilake, Geethani Devika Wickramasingha, B D De Silva, Gathsauri Neelika Malavige
Background: The aetiology of anaphylaxis differs according to types of foods consumed, fauna and foliage and cultural practices. Although the aetiology of anaphylaxis in Western countries are well known, the causes in South Asian countries have not been reported. We sought to determine the causes of anaphylaxis in patients referred to an immunology clinic in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Methods: 238 episodes of anaphylaxis were reviewed in 188 patients who were referred and skin prick tests and in vitro tests (ImmunoCap) were carried out to assess the presence of allergen specific IgE...
2018: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Marek Ussowicz, Elżbieta Wawrzyniak-Dzierżek, Monika Mielcarek-Siedziuk, Małgorzata Salamonowicz, Jowita Frączkiewicz, Blanka Rybka, Renata Ryczan-Krawczyk, Krzysztof Kałwak
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) syndrome is an autosomal recessive chromosomal breakage syndrome caused by mutation of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene manifested by progressive neurodegeneration, telangiectasias of sclera and skin, immune deficiency with sinopulmonary infections, and increased incidence of lymphoid malignancies and solid tumors. Three children with A-T underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) using protocols for Fanconi anemia. All 3 patients were engrafted with a mixed donor-recipient chimerism, but the full donor engraftment was observed in the T lymphocyte compartment...
November 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Xianwei Wang, Hui Peng, Jingjing Cong, Xuefu Wang, Zhexiong Lian, Haiming Wei, Rui Sun, Zhigang Tian
Natural killer (NK) cells are reported to have immunological memory, with CD49a+ liver-resident NK cells shown to confer hapten-specific memory responses, but how this memory is induced or maintained is unclear. Here we show that memory type I innate lymphoid cells (ILC1s), which express IL-7Rα, are generated in the lymph nodes (LNs) and require IL-7R signaling to maintain their longevity in the liver. Hapten sensitization initiates CXCR3-dependent recruitment of IL-7Rα+ ILC1s into skin-draining LNs, where they are primed and acquire hapten-specific memory potential...
November 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Teruki Dainichi, Akihiko Kitoh, Atsushi Otsuka, Saeko Nakajima, Takashi Nomura, Daniel H Kaplan, Kenji Kabashima
The skin provides both a physical barrier and an immunologic barrier to external threats. The protective machinery of the skin has evolved to provide situation-specific responses to eliminate pathogens and to provide protection against physical dangers. Dysregulation of this machinery can give rise to the initiation and propagation of inflammatory loops in the epithelial microenvironment that result in inflammatory skin diseases in susceptible people. A defective barrier and microbial dysbiosis drive an interleukin 4 (IL-4) loop that underlies atopic dermatitis, while in psoriasis, disordered keratinocyte signaling and predisposition to type 17 responses drive a pathogenic IL-17 loop...
December 2018: Nature Immunology
Šárka Fingerhutová, Eva Jančová, Markéta Tesařová, Lenka Dvořáková, Pavla Doležalová
Autoinflammatory diseases represent a relatively new and rapidly evolving group of rare disorders associated with mutations of genes encoding proteins with a key regulatory role in inflammatory response. Gradual discovery of mechanisms that link genetic disorder with its biochemical and immunological consequences leading to continuous or episodic inflammatory stimulation has enabled introduction of directed immunotherapies. Periodic fever syndromes belong to the so far best-known entities: familial Mediterranean fever, mevalonate kinase deficiency, cryopyrinopathies and TNF-receptor associated periodic syndrome...
2018: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
Akihiro Tsuboi, Naoya Hashimoto, Fumihiro Fujiki, Soyoko Morimoto, Naoki Kagawa, Hiroko Nakajima, Naoki Hosen, Sumiyuki Nishida, Jun Nakata, Satoshi Morita, Junichi Sakamoto, Yusuke Oji, Yoshihiro Oka, Haruo Sugiyama
PURPOSE: The safety and clinical efficacy of WT1 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I peptide vaccine have been established, but the safety of a cocktail vaccine of WT1 HLA class I and II peptides has not. To verify its safety, we performed a phase I clinical trial for patients with recurrent malignant gliomas and assessed the immunological responses and survival data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fourteen HLA-A*24:02-positive patients with recurrent malignant glioma (2 with grade 3, 12 with grade 4) were enrolled...
November 14, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Béatrice M F Winkel, Mirjam R Dalenberg, Clarize M de Korne, Carola Feijt, Marijke C C Langenberg, Leonard Pelgrom, Munisha S Ganesh, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Hermelijn Helene Smits, Esther C de Jong, Bart Everts, Fijs W B van Leeuwen, Cornelis H Hokke, Meta Roestenberg
Following initial invasion of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, schistosomula reside in the skin for several days during which they can interact with the dermal immune system. While murine experiments have indicated that exposure to radiation-attenuated (RA) cercariae can generate protective immunity which is initiated in the skin stage, contrasting non-attenuated cercariae, such data is missing for the human model. Since murine skin does not form a reliable marker for immune responses in human skin, we used human skin explants to study the interaction with non-attenuated and RA cercariae with dermal innate antigen presenting cells (APCs) and the subsequent immunological responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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