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Keciany Alves de Oliveira, Maria Diana Moreira Gomes, Renata Prado Vasconcelos, Ewerton Sousa de Abreu, Rodrigo Soares Fortunato, Adriano César Carneiro Loureiro, Andrelina Noronha Coelho-de-Souza, Raquel Sombra Basílio de Oliveira, Cleverson Diniz Teixeira de Freitas, Márcio Viana Ramos, Ariclecio Cunha de Oliveira
Phytomodulatory proteins from the latex of the medicinal plant Calotropis procera has been shown to be implicated in many pharmacological properties. However there is no current information about their activity on glucose metabolism, although the latex is used in folk medicine for treating diabetes. In this study the phytomodulatory proteins (LP) from C. procera latex were assessed on glycemic homeostasis. Control animals received a single intravenous dose (5 mg/kg) of LP or saline solution (CTL). Four hours after treatment, the animals were euthanized and their livers were excised for analysis by western blot and RT-PCR AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Masami Mizuno, Katsumi Iizuka, Takuma Ishihara, Shusaku Fukaya, Shunji Yoshida, Jun Takeda
INTRODUCTION: Glycated hemoglobin (A1c) and glycated albumin (GA) are often used as indicators of glycemic control. In this study, we determined whether prednisolone (PSL) administration lowers plasma GA. METHODS: We investigated the factors affecting GA using multivariate analysis in 48 subjects with connective tissue diseases (CTDs). RESULTS: Multiple regression analysis of GA showed that the dose of PSL [β = - 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) - 2...
December 13, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
James Heath Pelham, Lynae Hanks, Stella Aslibekyan, Shima Dowla, Ambika P Ashraf
Aim: Significant knowledge gaps exist regarding lipoprotein profiles in children with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The primary objective was to analyze the type and nature of lipoprotein abnormalities present in children with T2DM and to identify determinants of adverse lipoprotein profiles. The secondary objective was to assess associations with elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), i.e., <8% vs. ≥8.0% and pediatric dyslipidemias in the setting of T2DM. Methods: This retrospective chart review included children with T2DM who had undergone lipoprotein analysis and were not on lipid lowering medications (n = 93)...
March 2019: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
María Belén Acevedo, Ramiro Ferrando, Bruce W Patterson, J Christopher Eagon, Samuel Klein, Marta Yanina Pepino
BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) increases the rate of alcohol absorption so that peak blood alcohol concentration is 2-fold higher after surgery compared with concentrations reached after consuming the same amount presurgery. Because high doses of alcohol can lead to hypoglycemia, patients may be at increased risk of developing hypoglycemia after alcohol ingestion. OBJECTIVES: We conducted 2 studies to test the hypothesis that the consumption of approximately 2 standard drinks of alcohol would decrease glycemia more after RYGB than before surgery...
November 2, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Zhenxian Qin, Wei Wang, Dengqun Liao, Xiaoying Wu, Xian'en Li
Diabetes is a worldwide severe health issue which causes various complications. This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effects of Rehmannia glutinosa (RG), Coptis chinensis (CC) alone and their combination on high-fat-diet-induced diabetes in mice via biochemical assays and UPLC-Q/TOF-MS-based serum metabolomic analysis. Diabetic KK-Ay mice were induced by high-fat diet and treated for eight weeks, separately with RG, CC and their combination and the positive control drug metformin. Administration of RG and CC alone, and their combination could decrease the fasting blood glucose level, ameliorate the tolerance of glucose, and recover the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in sera of diabetic mice...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Therese Ohlsson, Peter M Nilsson, Margaretha Persson, Olle Melander
OBJECTIVES: Elevated plasma levels of the vasodilating hormone adrenomedullin (ADM) predict cardiovascular disease and have been associated with hypertension and obesity. We aimed to examine the independent relationship between ADM and the progression of major cardiometabolic risk factors during long-term follow-up. METHODS: We studied midregional pro-ADM (MR-proADM) in fasting plasma in 3298 participants from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study - Cardiovascular Cohort, re-examined after 17 years of follow-up and related baseline MR-proADM to cardiometabolic risk factors cross-sectionally and longitudinally...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
A Seck, A Hichami, S Doucouré, F Diallo Agne, H Bassène, A Ba, C Sokhna, N A Khan, A Samb
The aim of the study was to assess T cell differentiation and the modulation of inflammatory cytokines in obese and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) women and their macrosomic newborns. Hence, immediately after delivery, blood samples were collected through the mother's arm vein and the umbilical cordon vein. Biochemical parameters measured were HbA1C, glucose, insulin, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (Tchol), HDL cholesterol (HDLchol), and LDL cholesterol (LDLchol). T lymphocytes were purified from the total blood with Ficoll-Paque...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Emilia Hagman, Anna E Ek, Claude Marcus
BACKGROUND: Impaired fasting glycemia (IFG) reflects an intermediate hyperglycemia in the fasting state. Which fasting glucose level that actually is associated with impaired insulin-glucose homeostasis in children and adolescents with obesity is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate how insulin and glucose homeostasis in children and adolescents with obesity in Sweden varies within different fasting glucose levels in the non-diabetic range...
December 10, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Mengyi Li, Yang Liu, Lan Jin, Wei Wang, Na Zeng, Lixue Wang, Kaixin Zhao, Wei Xu, Zhongtao Zhang, Jigang Yang
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has become an increasingly popular metabolic surgical procedure. Alteration in motor gastric function is a fundamental feature following LSG but still remains controversial. PURPOSE: To determine the gastric emptying time 3 month after LSG, correlations between gastric emptying time and body weight, weight loss, and glycemia levels, alongside determining predictive factors of weight loss at the 3-month follow-up...
December 8, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Gabriel Nasri Marzuca-Nassr, Kaio Fernando Vitzel, Gilson Masahiro Murata, José Luis Márquez, Rui Curi
Due to the difficulty of performing research protocols that reproduce human skeletal muscle disuse conditions, an experimental animal model of "hindlimb suspension" (or hindlimb unloading) was developed. This method was created in the 1970s and utilizes rats and mice to mimic space flight and bed rest in humans. It provides an alternative to investigate mechanisms associated with skeletal muscle mass loss and interventions designed to attenuate atrophy induced by hindlimb unloading. The mentioned protocol also allows investigating quality of bones and changes in several physiological parameters such as blood pressure, heart rate, plasma or tissue lipid composition, and glycemia...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Janet Alejandra Espejel-Nava, Elisa Vega-Avila, Francisco Alarcon-Aguilar, Alejandra Contreras-Ramos, Guadalupe Díaz-Rosas, Gloria Trejo-Aguilar, Clara Ortega-Camarillo
Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. ( C. roseus ) is a medicinal plant used traditionally for diabetes mellitus control. Several compounds of an alkaloidal nature have been proposed as hypoglycemic principles. However, little attention has been paid to other compounds in this plant that could also participate in this hypoglycemic activity. This study aimed to analyze the hypoglycemic effect of a polyphenolic fraction from C. roseus , as well as its action on insulin secretion and expression in RINm5F cells. Methods ...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Roger Mariné-Casadó, Cristina Domenech-Coca, Josep Maria Del Bas, Cinta Bladé, Lluís Arola, Antoni Caimari
We previously demonstrated that chronic exposure to different photoperiods induced marked variations in several glucose and lipid metabolism-related parameters in normoweight Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Here, we examined the effects of the combination of an obesogenic cafeteria diet (CAF) and the chronic exposure to three different day lengths (L12, 12 h light/day; L18, 18 h light/day; and L6, 6 h light/day) in this rat strain. Although no changes were observed during the first 4 weeks of adaptation to the different photoperiods in which animals were fed a standard diet, the addition of the CAF for the subsequent 7 weeks triggered profound physiologic and metabolic alterations in a photoperiod-dependent manner...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Maiara Destro Inácio, Alex Rafacho, Nathália Aparecida de Paula Camaforte, Poliana Teixeira, Priscilla Maria Ponce Vareda, Natália Moretti Violato, José Roberto Bosqueiro
Objective: Fibrates are used as lipid-lowering drugs and are well tolerated as cotreatments when glucose metabolism disturbances are also present. Synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) are diabetogenic drugs that cause dyslipidemia, dysglycemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance when in excess. Thus, we aimed to describe the potential of bezafibrate in preventing or attenuating the adverse effects of GCs on glucose and lipid homeostasis. Methods: Male Wistar rats were treated with high-dose bezafibrate (300 mg/kg, body mass (b...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
Effie Viguiliouk, Alexandra L Jenkins, Sonia Blanco Mejia, John L Sievenpiper, Cyril W C Kendall
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of dried fruit in modifying postprandial glycemia, we assessed the ability of 4 dried fruits (dates, apricots, raisins, sultanas) to decrease postprandial glycemia through three mechanisms: a glycemic index (GI) effect, displacement effect, or 'catalytic' fructose effect. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We conducted an acute randomized, multiple-crossover trial in an outpatient setting in 10 healthy adults. Participants received 3 white bread control meals and 12 dried fruit test meals in random order...
December 11, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Klaudia Nadolnik, Damian Skrypnik, Katarzyna Skrypnik, Pawe Bogdański
Common health problems of the elderly in the near future will become even more common with aging of the population and longer average life expectancy. The elderly tend to have multiple disorders at one time, some of which may aggravate the course of others. One of the most common diseases, diabetes – “the epidemics of XXI century”, treatment of which costs approximately 11% of world health care budget – is the leading reason of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Diabetic nephropathy can be a complication of both diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Martina Rudnicki, Ghoncheh Abdifarkosh, Emmanuel Nwadozi, Sofhia V Ramos, Armin Makki, Diane M Sepa-Kishi, Rolando B Ceddia, Christopher Gr Perry, Emilie Roudier, Tara L Haas
Impaired angiogenesis is a hallmark of metabolically dysfunctional adipose tissue in obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms restricting angiogenesis within this context remain ill-defined. Here, we demonstrate that induced endothelial-specific depletion of the transcription factor Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1) in male mice led to increased vascular density in adipose tissue. Upon high-fat diet feeding, endothelial cell FoxO1-deficient mice exhibited even greater vascular remodeling in the visceral adipose depot, which was paralleled with a healthier adipose tissue expansion, higher glucose tolerance and lower fasting glycemia concomitant with enhanced lactate levels...
December 4, 2018: ELife
Benjamin P Tooke, Hui Yu, Jessica M Adams, Graham L Jones, Talisha Sutton-Kennedy, Lakshmi Mundada, Nathan R Qi, Malcolm J Low, Kavaljit H Chhabra
OBJECTIVE: Life-threatening hypoglycemia is a major limiting factor in the management of diabetes. While it is known that counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia are impaired in diabetes, molecular mechanisms underlying the reduced responses remain unclear. Given the established roles of the hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC)/melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) circuit in regulating sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and the SNS in stimulating counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia, we hypothesized that hypothalamic POMC as well as MC4R, a receptor for POMC derived melanocyte stimulating hormones, is required for normal hypoglycemia counterregulation...
November 20, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Catalina Figueroa-Benavides, Maria João Matos, Montserrat Peñaloza-Amion, Rubén Veas, Gabriela Valenzuela-Barra, Gerald Zapata, Giovanna Delogu, Eugenio Uriarte, Lourdes Santana, Claudio Olea-Azar, Carla Delporte
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) is a metabolic disease characterized by a chronic increase in glycemia that promotes several long-term complications and high mortality. Some enzymes involved in glycaemic control, such as α-(1,4)-glucosidase, have now been established as novel pharmacological targets. Coumarins have shown benefits in attenuating signs and complications of DMT2, including inhibition of this enzyme. In this work, new synthetic coumarins (bearing different amide and aryl substituents) were studied in vitro as inhibitors of α-(1,4)-glucosidase...
November 29, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Sladjana Pavlovic, Ivica Petrovic, Nemanja Jovicic, Biljana Ljujic, Marina Miletic Kovacevic, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Miodrag L Lukic
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease caused by the immune-mediated destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Prevention of type 1 diabetes requires early intervention in the autoimmune process against beta-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, which is believed to result from disordered immunoregulation. CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) participate as one of the most important cell types in limiting the autoimmune process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exogenous IL-33 in multiple low dose streptozotocin (MLD-STZ) induced diabetes and to delineate its role in the induction of protective Tregs in an autoimmune attack...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mohamed A Haidara, Mohammad Dallak, Abbas O El Karib, Mohamed Abd Ellatif, Refaat A Eid, El Hassan A Heidar, Bahjat Al-Ani
Diabetic complications that affect vital organs such as the heart and liver represent a major public health concern. The potential protective effects of the hormone insulin against hepatocyte ultrastructural alterations induced secondary to type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in a rat model of the disease have not been investigated before. Therefore, rats were injected once with 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (T1DM group) and the protection group (T1DM+Ins) received a daily injection of insulin 48 h post diabetic induction by streptozotocin and continued until being sacrificed at week 8...
November 29, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
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