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Rim Cherif, Feten Mahjoub, Hela Sahli, Elhem Cheour, Mohsen Sakly, Nebil Attia
The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone turnover markers in obese postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, 81 postmenopausal women aged 58.40 ± 6.08 years were analyzed. Anthropometric parameters were recorded. Serum glucose parameters, serum lipid profiles, adipokines, renal, hepatic parameters, and bone markers concentrations were determined by well-validated laboratory routine methods. BMD, BMC, and body composition were measured by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry...
October 19, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Lise Bankir, Nadine Bouby, Robert C Speth, Gilberto Velho, Gilles Crambert
Glucagon secretion is stimulated by a low plasma glucose concentration. By activating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in the liver, glucagon contributes to maintain a normal glycemia. Glucagon secretion is also stimulated by the intake of proteins, and glucagon contributes to amino acid metabolism and nitrogen excretion. Amino acids are used for gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis, two metabolic pathways that are closely associated. Intriguingly, cyclic AMP, the second messenger of glucagon action in the liver, is released into the bloodstream becoming an extracellular messenger...
October 16, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Islendy Noreña, Myriam Patricia Pardo, Ismena Mockus
Introduction: The approach to the physiology of pregnancy based on adipokine behavior and the homeostasis-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) model, along with their relationship to neonatal weight, has been poorly studied in adolescent pregnant women. Objective: To determine possible correlations between adipokines –leptin and adiponectin– and HOMA-IR in pregnant women aged 14 to 17 years, and first-trimester body mass index (BMI) and neonatal weight. Materials and methods: In the weeks 11 to 14 of gestation, the biochemical variables leptin, adiponectin, glycemia and insulin were measured and HOMA-IR was calculated...
September 1, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Juan Wu, Haixia Zeng, Rui Xuan, Shuihong Lei, Jing Li, Xiaoyang Lai, Jianping Liu
RATIONALE: Cataracts can occur in children and adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus who have poorly controlled glycemia. Here, we report a case of a 16-year-old female, who was diagnosed with bilateral cataracts, and genetic screening identified a mutation in the PRRC2A gene which is rarely reported. After surgery, retinopathy was found in this patient, combined with the published literature, we encourage that postoperative monitoring for retinal lesions during the follow-up visits should be conducted...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Timothy D Heden, Jill A Kanaley
Circadian rhythms, meals, and exercise modulate energy metabolism. This review will explore the novel hypothesis that there is an optimal time of day to exercise to improve 24 h glycemia and lipemia in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
October 16, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
Pedro Henrique de A Miranda, Kissyla Christine Duarte Lacerda, Carolina Morais Araújo, José Mario Barichello, Wanderson Geraldo Lima, Daniela Caldeira Costa
This study aimed to investigate the potential of an oral formulation (QV formulation) containing Quercetin and a Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor (DPP-4 inhibitor), Vildagliptin, in improving metabolic homeostasis in type 1 diabetes model. Female albino Fischer rats were divided into four groups: untreated control animals (C), untreated diabetic animals (D), diabetic animals treated with QV formulation (DQV), and diabetic animals treated with insulin (DI). Diabetes was induced by injection of alloxan (135 mg kg body mass)-1 and confirmed by glycemic test...
October 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Josimare Aparecida Otoni Spira, Eline Lima Borges, Patrícia Aparecida Barbosa Silva, Mery Natali Silva Abreu, Antônio Carlos Martins Guedes, José Ferreira Pires-Júnior
OBJECTIVE: to identify factors associated with complex surgical wounds in the breasts and abdomen in outpatients. METHOD: observational case-control study involving 327 patients, distributed into 160 cases (complex surgical wound) and 167 controls (simple surgical wound). Data were extracted from the medical records and a binary logistic regression model was used for analysis, considering a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: the factors associated with greater chance of occurrence of complex surgical wound were 18 to 59 years of age (p = 0...
October 11, 2018: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
Ítalo Medeiros Azevedo, Irami Araújo-Filho, Marianny Maiara Antas Teixeira, Marília Daniela Ferreira de Carvalho Moreira, Aldo Cunha Medeiros
PURPOSE: To evaluate if Moringa oleifera leaf aqueous extract (ME) influences the healing of skin wounds of diabetic rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were used (6 rats/group). Group 1 received normal saline (NS) v.o. Group 2 received moringa extract (100mg/kg v.o) for 3 weeks. Groups 3 and 4: Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes. Group 3 received NS; Group 4 received aqueous ME (100mg/kg) v.o.The wounds of groups 1 and 3 rats were topically treated with NS; wounds of groups 2 and 4 treated with 200µL of 10% ME...
September 2018: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
Laura Mañé, Juana Antonia Flores-Le Roux, David Benaiges, Juan José Chillarón, Montse Prados, Juan Pedro-Botet, Gemma Llauradó, Lucía Gortazar, Antonio Payà
Overt diabetes (ODM) is defined as women without diabetes meeting the criteria for diabetes at the first antenatal visit. The risk of obstetric complications increases linearly with maternal glycemia and poorer maternal-fetal outcomes than in gestational diabetes (GDM) may be expected. Studies focusing on ODM pregnancy outcomes are lacking. We aimed to analyze maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes in ODM women compared with those with GDM. A retrospective cohort study of women giving birth between January 2010 and April 2013 was conducted...
October 17, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Luciana Satiko Sawamura, Gabrielle Gomes de Souza, Juliana Dias Gonçalves Dos Santos, Fabíola Isabel Suano-Souza, Anelise Del Vecchio Gessullo, Roseli Oselka Saccardo Sarni
OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of albuminuria in overweight and obese children and adolescents and to relate it to the severity of obesity, pubertal staging, associated morbidities and the glomerular filtration rate. METHOD: Cross-sectional study including 64 overweight and obese children and adolescents between 5 and 19 years of age. DATA COLLECTED: weight, height, waist circumference and systemic arterial pressure. Laboratory tests: lipid profile; glycemia and insulin, used to calculate the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR); C-reactive protein; glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and albuminuria in an isolated urine sample (cutoff <30 mg/g)...
October 11, 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Davide Blonna, Davide Edoardo Bonasia, Lorenzo Mattei, Enrico Bellato, Valentina Greco, Roberto Rossi
Purpose: In type 2 diabetic patients affected by chronic shoulder pain, subacromial injection with corticosteroid could be an effective treatment. The aim of this study was to measure the risk-benefit ratio of this treatment. Methods: Twenty patients with well-controlled diabetes were included in a prospective study. In a first preinjection phase, patients were asked to measure glycemia for 7 days, before breakfast and dinner, and then 2 hours after lunch and dinner...
2018: Pain Research and Treatment
Denice S Feig, Rosa Corcoy, Lois E Donovan, Kellie E Murphy, Jon F R Barrett, J Johanna Sanchez, Tim Wysocki, Katrina Ruedy, Craig Kollman, George Tomlinson, Helen R Murphy
OBJECTIVE: To compare glycemic control, quality of life, and pregnancy outcomes of women using insulin pumps and multiple daily injection therapy (MDI) during the Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Type 1 Diabetes Pregnancy Trial (CONCEPTT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a prespecified analysis of CONCEPTT involving 248 pregnant women from 31 centers. Randomization was stratified for pump versus MDI and HbA1c . The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from randomization to 34 weeks' gestation...
October 16, 2018: Diabetes Care
Mirko Magnone, Giovanna Leoncini, Tiziana Vigliarolo, Laura Emionite, Laura Sturla, Elena Zocchi, Giovanni Murialdo
We tested the effect of chronic low-dose abscisic acid (ABA), a phytohormone-regulating human glucose tolerance, on the metabolic parameters that are dysregulated in prediabetes and metabolic syndrome (MS).Ten healthy subjects received 1 µg ABA/Kg body weight (BW)/day as an ABA-rich food supplement: (i) the glycemia profile after a carbohydrate-rich meal, with or without supplement, was compared; (ii) fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), and body mass index (BMI) after 75 days of daily supplementation of a habitual Mediterranean diet were compared with starting values...
October 12, 2018: Nutrients
Per Kappelgaard, Stig K Holfort, Oliver N Klefter, Michael Larsen
The purpose of this experimental clinical study was to assess the effects of dark adaptation and acute changes in glycemia on retinal vessel diameters in men. The study included 14 patients (mean age 63 years, range 48-74 years) with type 2 diabetes mellitus and minimal or no diabetic retinopathy. Retinal vessel diameters were assessed using infrared photography before and after dark adaptation, first while fasting and then at peak hyperglycemia during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Dark adaptation was accompanied by retinal vasodilatation, both during fasting (mean glycemia 7...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
Cong Xie, Xuyi Wang, Richard L Young, Michael Horowitz, Christopher K Rayner, Tongzhi Wu
The gastrointestinal tract stores ingested nutrients in the stomach which are then delivered to the small intestine at a controlled rate to optimize their digestion and absorption. The interaction of nutrients with the small and large intestine generates feedback that slows gastric emptying, induces satiation, and reduces postprandial glycemic excursions. The mechanisms underlying these nutrient-gut interactions are complex; it has only recently been appreciated that the gut has the capacity to detect intraluminal contents in much the same way as the tongue, via activation of specific G-protein-coupled receptors, and that ensuing signaling mechanisms modulate the release of an array of gut hormones that influence gastrointestinal motility, appetite and glycemia...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Vittorio Emanuele Bianchi
The metabolic sources of energy for myocardial contractility include mainly free fatty acids (FFA) for 95%, and in lesser amounts for 5% from glucose and minimal contributions from other substrates such lactate, ketones, and amino acids. However, myocardial efficiency is influenced by metabolic condition, overload, and ischemia. During cardiac stress, cardiomyocytes increase glucose oxidation and reduce FFA oxidation. In patients with ischemic coronary disease and heart failure, the low oxygen availability limits myocardial reliance on FFA and glucose utilization must increase...
September 11, 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
Thiago R Araujo, Joel A da Silva, Jean F Vettorazzi, Israelle N Freitas, Camila Lubaczeuski, Emily A Magalhães, Juliana N Silva, Elane S Ribeiro, Antonio C Boschero, Everardo M Carneiro, Maria L Bonfleur, Rosane Aparecida Ribeiro
Obesity predisposes to glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This disease is often characterized by insulin resistance, changes in insulin clearance, and β-cell dysfunction. However, studies indicate that, for T2D development, disruptions in glucagon physiology also occur. Herein, we investigated the involvement of glucagon in impaired glycemia control in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese mice. Male Swiss mice were subcutaneously injected daily, during the first 5 days after birth, with MSG (4 mg/g body weight [BW]) or saline (1...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
M Milard, F Laugerette, S Bugeat, P Plaisancié, M Létisse, E Meugnier, E Loizon, A Durand, C Buisson, A Géloën, S Serieye, M-C Michalski
Additives stabilize or improve the organoleptic or functional properties (or both) of many dairy products including whipping cream. Their influence on the metabolic effect of dairy cream is scarcely known. We tested the hypothesis that added emulsifier (lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides; MAG/DAG), thickener (carrageenan, CGN), or both, could modify the metabolic effect, notably in the intestine and liver. Nine-week-old male C57Bl/6J mice were fed UHT cream (indirect treatment) mixed with nonlipidic powder (final: 13% milkfat) for 1 or 4 wk...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Delphine Rousseau-Ralliard, Anne Couturier-Tarrade, René Thieme, Roselyne Brat, Audrey Rolland, Pascal Boileau, Marie-Christine Aubrière, Nathalie Daniel, Michèle Dahirel, Emilie Derisoud, Natalie Fournier, Maria Schindler, Véronique Duranthon, Bernd Fischer, Anne Navarrete Santos, Pascale Chavatte-Palmer
Tight metabolic control of type-1 diabetes is essential during gestation, but it could be crucial during the periconception period. Feto-placental consequences of maternal type-1 diabetes around the time of conception need to be explored. Using a rabbit model, type-1 diabetes was induced by alloxan 7 days before mating. Glycemia was maintained at 15-20 mmol/L with exogenous insulin injections to prevent ketoacidosis. At 4 days post-conception (dpc), embryos were collected from diabetic (D) or normoglycemic control (C) dams, respectively, and transferred into non-diabetic recipients...
October 8, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Steven K Malin, Monique E Francois, Natalie Z M Eichner, Nicole M Gilbertson, Emily M Heiston, Chiara Fabris, Marc D Breton
The effect of work-matched exercise intensity on β-cell function is unknown in people with prediabetes prior to clinical weight loss. We determined if short-term moderate continuous (CONT) versus high intensity interval (INT) exercise increased β-cell function. Thirty-one subjects (Age: 61.4±2.5 yr; BMI: 32.1±1.0 kg/m2 ) with prediabetes (ADA criteria, 75g OGTT) were randomized to work-matched CONT (70% HRpeak) or INT (3 min 90% HRpeak and 3 min 50% HRpeak) exercise for 60min/d over 2-weeks. A 75g 2 hr OGTT was conducted after an overnight fast, and plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide and FFA were determined for calculations of skeletal muscle (Oral Minimal Model; OMM), hepatic (HOMA-IR), and adipose (Adipose-IR) insulin sensitivity...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
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