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Angel Li, Tim Vigers, Laura Pyle, Edith Zemanick, Kristen Nadeau, Scott D Sagel, Christine L Chan
BACKGROUND: The effects of lumacaftor-ivacaftor therapy on glycemia have not been thoroughly investigated. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) provides detailed information about glycemic patterns and detects glucose abnormalities earlier than traditional screening tools for diabetes. METHODS: CGM measures, HbA1c, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results were collected and within-subject results compared in F508del homozygous youth with CF before and after initiation of lumacaftor-ivacaftor using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Ana Díez-Izquierdo, Pia Cassanello-Peñarroya, Cristina Lidón-Moyano, Nuria Matilla-Santander, Albert Balaguer, Jose M Martínez-Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature about thirdhand smoke (THS). METHODS: Systematic review of all aspects of THS. Standard methodological procedures were used to search the following databases through April 2018: MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Web of Science (WOS) in Indo-European languages. To identify published grey literature, the first 200 hits from Google Scholar™ were evaluated...
July 11, 2018: Environmental Research
Lisa Suwandhi, Simone Hausmann, Alexander Braun, Tim Gruber, Silke S Heinzmann, Eric J C Gálvez, Achim Buck, Beata Legutko, Andreas Israel, Annette Feuchtinger, Elizabeth Haythorne, Harald Staiger, Martin Heni, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Axel Walch, Cristina García Cáceres, Matthias H Tschöp, Guy A Rutter, Till Strowig, Martin Elsner, Siegfried Ussar
OBJECTIVE: The metabolic role of d-serine, a non-proteinogenic NMDA receptor co-agonist, is poorly understood. Conversely, inhibition of pancreatic NMDA receptors as well as loss of the d-serine producing enzyme serine racemase have been shown to modulate insulin secretion. Thus, we aim to study the impact of chronic and acute d-serine supplementation on insulin secretion and other parameters of glucose homeostasis. METHODS: We apply MALDI FT-ICR mass spectrometry imaging, NMR based metabolomics, 16s rRNA gene sequencing of gut microbiota in combination with a detailed physiological characterization to unravel the metabolic action of d-serine in mice acutely and chronically treated with 1% d-serine in drinking water in combination with either chow or high fat diet feeding...
July 25, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Mala Dharmalingam, P Ganavi Yamasandhi
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) commonly exist together. It has been regarded as a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The presentations of NAFLD range from simple steatosis (NAFL), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and cirrhosis. NAFLD has a prevalence of 70% among T2DM patients. Overweight/obesity and insulin resistance (IR) have been strongly linked with NAFLD. Noninvasive assessment and staging of disease are based on clinical parameters such as age, sex, liver function test, platelet count, lipid profile, BMI, and imaging modalities such as USG, transient elastography (TE), and magnetic resonance imaging mass spectroscopy...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Carmella Evans-Molina, Emily K Sims, Linda A DiMeglio, Heba M Ismail, Andrea K Steck, Jerry P Palmer, Jeffrey P Krischer, Susan Geyer, Ping Xu, Jay M Sosenko
BACKGROUND: The duration and patterns of β cell dysfunction during type 1 diabetes (T1D) development have not been fully defined. METHODS: Metabolic measures derived from oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were compared between autoantibody-positive (aAb+) individuals followed in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study who developed diabetes after 5 or more years or less than 5 years of longitudinal follow-up (Progressors≥5, n = 75; Progressors<5, n = 474) and 144 aAb-negative (aAb-) relatives...
August 9, 2018: JCI Insight
Gabriel Keine Kuga, Rafael Calais Gaspar, Vitor Rosetto Muñoz, Susana Castelo Branco Ramos Nakandakari, Leonardo Breda, Bruna Marina Sandoval, Flávio Henrique Caetano, José Alexandre Curiacos de Almeida Leme, José Rodrigo Pauli, Ricardo José Gomes
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of physical training on metabolic and morphological parameters of diabetic rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary diabetic and trained diabetic. Diabetes mellitus was induced by Alloxan (35mg/kg) administration for sedentary diabetic and Trained Diabetic Groups. The exercise protocol consisted of swimming with a load of 2.5% of body weight for 60 minutes per day (5 days per week) for the trained control and Trained Diabetic Groups, during 6 weeks...
August 6, 2018: Einstein
Jiajun Sun, Qicheng Ni, Jing Xie, Min Xu, Jun Zhang, Jie Kuang, Yanqiu Wang, Guang Ning, Qidi Wang
Context: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and pancreatogenic diabetes are both associated with loss of functional β cell mass. Previous studies have proposed β cell dedifferentiation as a mechanism of islet β cell failure, but its significance in humans is still controversial. Objective: To determine whether β-cell dedifferentiation occurs in human T2D with adequate glucose control and in non-diabetic chronic pancreatitis, we examined pancreatic islets from 9 non-diabetic controls, 10 diabetic patients with well-controlled fasting glycemia and 4 non-diabetic chronic pancreatitis individuals...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
David Church, Luís Cardoso, Richard G Kay, Claire L Williams, Bernard Freudenthal, Catriona Clarke, Julie Harris, Myuri Moorthy, Efthmia Karra, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann, Keith Burling, Alistair J K Williams, Alia Munir, T Hugh Jones, Dagmar Führer, Lars C Moeller, Mark Cohen, Bernard Khoo, David Halsall, Robert Semple
Context: Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS), spontaneous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia due to insulin-binding autoantibodies, may be difficult to distinguish from tumoral or other forms of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia including surreptitious insulin administration. No standardized treatment regimen exists. Objectives: To evaluate an analytic approach to IAS and responses to different treatments. Design and Setting: Observational study in the UK Severe Insulin Resistance Service...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Grażyna Deja, Małgorzata Kłeczek, Miron Chumięcki, Alina Strzała-Kłeczek, Rafał Deja, Przemysława Jarosz-Chobot
THE AIM OF THE STUDY: was to evaluate the usefulness of Flash FreeStyle Libre in glycemic control in children during summer camp on the basis of the participants' completed questionnaire and on the basis of the assessment o the suitability of the system performed by medical staff based on a comparative analysis: glycemia by sensor and glucometer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A study using the new Flash FreeStyle Libre glycemic control system was conducted at a seaside summer camp for children with diabetes at the seaside...
2018: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Jean Debédat, Nataliya Sokolovska, Muriel Coupaye, Simona Panunzi, Rima Chakaroun, Laurent Genser, Garance de Turenne, Jean-Luc Bouillot, Christine Poitou, Jean-Michel Oppert, Matthias Blüher, Michael Stumvoll, Geltrude Mingrone, Séverine Ledoux, Jean-Daniel Zucker, Karine Clément, Judith Aron-Wisnewsky
OBJECTIVE: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) induces type 2 diabetes remission (DR) in 60% of patients at 1 year, yet long-term relapse occurs in half of these patients. Scoring methods to predict DR outcomes 1 year after surgery that include only baseline parameters cannot accurately predict 5-year DR (5y-DR). We aimed to develop a new score to better predict 5y-DR. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We retrospectively included 175 RYGB patients with type 2 diabetes with 5-year follow-up...
August 6, 2018: Diabetes Care
Serge A Jabbour, Juan P Frìas, Elise Hardy, Azazuddin Ahmed, Hui Wang, Peter Öhman, Cristian Guja
OBJECTIVE: Among patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled with metformin, exenatide once weekly (QW) plus dapagliflozin combination produced greater reductions in glycemia, weight, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) at 28 weeks than exenatide QW or dapagliflozin alone (DURATION-8). Here, we investigated the safety and maintenance of efficacy at 52 weeks, after a 24-week extension. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This phase 3, multicenter, double-blind study randomized adults with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c ] 8...
August 6, 2018: Diabetes Care
Gabriela Mahelková, Marie Ceská Burdová, Šárka Malá, Lucie Hoskovcová, Dagmar Dotrelová, Katerina Štechová
Purpose: Neuropathies are among the most common long-term complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) and good glycemic control is essential in prevention of this complication. DM patients with similar mean glucose levels or HbA1c levels often exhibit differences in glucose variability. We tested for possible associations between parameters of glycemia compensation and corneal sub-basal nerve fiber status. Methods: The study included 20 patients with DM type 1 treated using an intensified insulin regimen...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
John M Dennis, William E Henley, Michael N Weedon, Mike Lonergan, Lauren R Rodgers, Angus G Jones, William T Hamilton, Naveed Sattar, Salim Janmohamed, Rury R Holman, Ewan R Pearson, Beverley M Shields, Andrew T Hattersley
OBJECTIVE: The choice of therapy for type 2 diabetes after metformin is guided by overall estimates of glycemic response and side effects seen in large cohorts. A stratified approach to therapy would aim to improve on this by identifying subgroups of patients whose glycemic response or risk of side effects differs markedly. We assessed whether simple clinical characteristics could identify patients with differing glycemic response and side effects with sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones...
August 2, 2018: Diabetes Care
Shaun Y M Teo, Jill A Kanaley, Kym J Guelfi, Summer Cook, Jeffrey J Hebert, Mitchell Forrest, Timothy J Fairchild
PURPOSE: The timing of exercise relative to meal consumption has recently been identified as potentially moderating the effectiveness of exercise on glycemic responses in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature related to exercise timing, relative to meal consumption, and glycemic control in individuals with T2DM. METHODS: Systematic searches in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials...
July 31, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Laura C Page, Amalia Gastaldelli, Sarah M Gray, David A D'Alessio, Jenny Tong
Emerging evidence supports the importance of ghrelin to defend against starvation-induced hypoglycemia. This effect may be mediated by inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as well as reduced insulin sensitivity. However, administration of ghrelin during meal consumption also stimulates the release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin important in nutrient disposition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between ghrelin and GLP-1 on parameters of glucose tolerance following a mixed nutrient meal...
July 31, 2018: Diabetes
Tadeusz Dereziński, Dorota Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz, Aleksandra Uruska, Mariusz Dąbrowski
BACKGROUND: The Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) is considered to be a reliable indicator of adipose tissue dysfunction and cardiometabolic disease risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate its usefulness in assessing cardiometabolic risk in a sample of elderly women living in a rural-urban community in central Poland. METHODS: A total of 365 women aged 65-74 years were included in this cross-sectional study. All patients were interviewed to obtain their history of diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, stroke and revascularization...
July 31, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Philippe Oriot, Wawrzyniak Jérémie, Martin Buysschaert
AIMS: The objective of this study was to evaluate glycemic control in type 1 diabetic mellitus patients who were switched from glargine 100 U/ml (Gla-100) to glargine 300 U/ml (Gla-300) in real life practice. METHODS: Glycemia based on self-monitoring capillary blood glucose, hypoglycemic events and insulin doses were considered during a two-week period before and after transition from Gla-100 to Gla-300 (period 1). Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ) levels, basal insulin doses and weight were also determined at 12 and 24 weeks after switching (period 2)...
May 2018: Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism
Klinsmann Carolo Dos Santos, Sarah Santiloni Cury, Ana Paula Costa Rodrigues Ferraz, José Eduardo Corrente, Bianca Mariani Gonçalves, Luiz Henrique de Araújo Machado, Robson Francisco Carvalho, Ana Cláudia de Melo Stevanato Nakamune, Alexandre Todorovic Fabro, Paula Paccielli Freire, Camila Renata Corrêa
Yacon ( Smallanthus sonchifolius ) is a native Andean plant rich in phenolic compounds, and its effects on dysmetabolism and cardiomyopathy in diabetic rats was evaluated. The rats (10/group) were allocated as follows: C, controls; C + Y, controls treated with Yacon leaf extract (YLE); DM, diabetic controls; and DM + Y, diabetic rats treated with YLE. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) was induced by the administration of streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg-1 /kg body weight, single dose, i.p.), and treated groups received 100 mg/kg body weight YLE daily via gavage for 30 d...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Francina Escobar-Arregoces, Catalina Latorre-Uriza, Juliana Velosa-Porras, Nelly Roa-Molina, Alvaro J Ruiz, Jaime Silva, Estefania Arias, Juliana Echeverri
Periodontal disease and its inflammatory response have been related to adverse outcomes in pregnancy such as preterm birth, preeclampsia and low birth weight. This study analyzed systemic inflammatory response in patients with high risk of preterm delivery and its relationship to periodontal disease. A pilot study was conducted for a case and control study, on 23 patients at risk of preterm delivery and 23 patients without risk of preterm delivery as controls. Exclusion criteria were patients who had received periodontal treatment, antibiotic or antimicrobial agents within the past three months, or with infections or baseline diseases such as diabetes or hypercholesterolemia...
June 2018: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
Orlando L Catanzaro, Ana Andornino, Nicole Brasquet, Irene Di Martino, Alejandra Arganiaraz
Major gingival-periodontal changes according to age have been observed in both diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats weighing 200-220 g were divided into two groups: 1) Nondiabetic (ND) and 2) Diabetic (D) by receiving an intraperitoneal (ip) dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg /kg). Animals from both groups (ND and D) were euthanized at 4, 8, 12, 17 y 25 weeks after treatment with saline solution or STZ. Glycemia values in ND rats were 5 to 6 mmol/L, while in D, glycemia increased progressively between weeks 4 and 25, with values ranging from 18...
June 2018: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
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