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Pulmonary tuberculosis in children

Helena Huerga, Elisabeth Sanchez-Padilla, Nara Melikyan, Hakob Atshemyan, Armen Hayrapetyan, Ani Ulumyan, Mathieu Bastard, Naira Khachatryan, Catherine Hewison, Francis Varaine, Maryline Bonnet
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to measure the prevalence and incidence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and tuberculosis (TB) disease in children in close contact with patients with drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) in a country with high DR-TB prevalence. DESIGN AND SETTING: This is a prospective cohort study of paediatric contacts of adult patients with pulmonary DR-TB in Armenia. Children were screened using tuberculin skin test, interferon-gamma release assay and chest X-ray at the initial consultation, and were reassessed every 3-6 months for a period of 24 months...
December 6, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Rajendra Kc, Shakti D Shukla, Sanjay S Gautam, Philip M Hansbro, Ronan F O'Toole
Chronic exposure to household indoor smoke and outdoor air pollution is a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality. The majority of these deaths occur in low and middle-income countries. Children, women, the elderly and people with underlying chronic conditions are most affected. In addition to reduced lung function, children exposed to biomass smoke have an increased risk of developing lower respiratory tract infections and asthma-related symptoms. In adults, chronic exposure to biomass smoke, ambient air pollution, and opportunistic exposure to fumes and dust are associated with an increased risk of developing chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and respiratory infections, including tuberculosis...
December 5, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Jinrong Liu, Baolin Tian, Qi Zeng, Chenghao Chen, Chunju Zhou, Huimin Li, Yuelin Shen, Shunying Zhao
BACKGROUND: Mediastinal teratoma is uncommon in children. It can be very difficult to diagnose especially in early stage. Rarely, teratoma may rupture into adjacent structures and lead to lung lesions or pleuritis. The main rarity of our reported cases was the dynamic imaging findings very similar to the developmental process of tuberculosis in patients 1 and 2, the pachypleuritis in patients 2 and 3, the extremely elevated inflammatory markers very similar to empyema in patient 3, and the extremely atypical tumor shape in all patients...
December 4, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Anna Lena Lopez, Josephine G Aldaba, Merrylle Morales-Dizon, Jesus N Sarol, Jedas Veronica Daag, Ma Cecilia Ama, Patrick Sylim, Aida Salonga, Karin Nielsen-Saines
INTRODUCTION: Xpert MTB/RIF is recommended for the simultaneous detection of tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin resistance directly from sputum specimens. Since young children cannot always expectorate, we assessed urine as a possible specimen source to diagnose TB in children using Xpert MTB/RIF. METHODS: During a field study to enhance childhood TB identification, spot urine samples were prospectively collected from consecutive ambulatory children aged 0 to 14 years presenting with presumptive pulmonary TB in community health centers...
November 26, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Davaasambuu Ganmaa, Polyna Khudyakov, Uyanga Buyanjargal, Badamtsetseg Jargalsaikhan, Delgerekh Baigal, Oyunsuren Munkhjargal, Narankhuu Yansan, Sunjidmaa Bolormaa, Enkhsaikhan Lkhagvasuren, Christopher T Sempos, Sabri Bromage, Zhenqiang Wu, Batbayar Ochirbat, Batbaatar Gunchin, Adrian R Martineau
Background: There is controversy regarding the potential influence of vitamin D deficiency, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, BCG vaccination, season and body habitus on susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to identify determinants of a positive QuantiFERON®-TB Gold (QFT) assay result in children aged 6-13 years attending 18 schools in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Data relating to potential risk factors for MTB infection were collected by questionnaire, physical examination and determination of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations...
November 27, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Kerry-Ann F O'Grady, Allan W Cripps, Keith Grimwood
Bronchiectasis has received increased attention recently, including an emphasis on preventing infective exacerbations that are associated with disease progression and lung function decline. While there are several bacteria and viruses associated with bronchiectasis, licensed vaccines are only currently available for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae protein D as a conjugate in a pneumococcal vaccine), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bordetella pertussis and influenza virus. The evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of these vaccines in both preventing and managing bronchiectasis in children and adults is limited with the focus of most research being on other chronic lung disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, asthma and cystic fibrosis...
November 26, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Manaf AlMatar, Essam A Makky, Husam AlMandeal, Emel Eker, Begüm Kayar, Işιl Var, Fatih Köksal
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is considered as one of the most efficacious human pathogens. The global mortality rate of TB stands at approximately 2 million, while about 8 to 10 million active new cases are documented yearly. It is, therefore, a priority to develop vaccines that will prevent active TB. The vaccines currently used for the management of TB can only proffer a certain level of protection against meningitis, TB, and other forms of disseminated TB in children; however, their effectiveness against pulmonary TB varies and cannot provide life-long protective immunity...
November 26, 2018: Current Molecular Pharmacology
Fiona V Cresswell, Lindsey Te Brake, Rachel Atherton, Rovina Ruslami, Kelly E Dooley, Rob Aarnoutse, Reinout van Crevel
Meningitis is the most severe manifestation of tuberculosis, resulting in death or disability in over 30% of those affected, with even higher morbidity and mortality among patients with HIV or drug resistance. Antimicrobial treatment of Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is similar to treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, although some drugs show poor central nervous system penetration. Therefore, intensification of antibiotic treatment may improve TBM treatment outcome. Areas covered: In this review we address three main areas: available data for old and new anti-tuberculous agents; intensified treatment in specific patient groups like HIV co-infection, drug-resistance and children; and optimal research strategies...
November 24, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Elisabetta Walters, Marieke M van der Zalm, Anne-Marie Demers, Andrew Whitelaw, Megan Palmer, Corné Bosch, Heather R Draper, H Simon Schaaf, Pierre Goussard, Carl J Lombard, Robert P Gie, Anneke C Hesseling
304 young children with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis had a gastric aspirate, induced sputum and nasopharyngeal aspirate collected on each of two consecutive weekdays. Specimens collected on the second day were pooled in the laboratory for each child individually. The diagnostic yield by Xpert and culture from pooled specimens was not significantly different to a single gastric aspirate.
November 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Rewa K Choudhary, Kristin M Wall, Irene Njuguna, Patricia B Pavlinac, Sylvia M Lacourse, Vincent Otieno, John Gatimu, Joshua Stern, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Dalton Wamalwa, Grace John-Stewart, Lisa M Cranmer
BACKGROUND: The blood monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) is associated with active tuberculosis (TB) in adults, but has not been evaluated as a TB diagnostic biomarker in HIV-infected children in whom respiratory sampling is difficult. SETTING: In a cohort of HIV-infected hospitalized Kenyan children initiating antiretroviral therapy, absolute monocyte and lymphocyte counts were determined at enrollment and 4, 12, and 24 weeks thereafter. METHODS: Children were classified as confirmed, unconfirmed, or unlikely pulmonary TB...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Laila Parvaresh, Shopna K Bag, Jin-Gun Cho, Neil Heron, Hassan Assareh, Sophie Norton, Stephen Corbett, Ben J Marais
Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an important component of strategies to achieve global tuberculosis (TB) elimination, but implementation is rarely monitored. This is a retrospective review of TB contact tracing outcomes at one of the busiest TB clinics in Australia, measured against the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention performance indicators. In total, 45 of 53 (85%) pulmonary TB cases had 171 close contacts, of whom 139 (81%) were evaluated with a tuberculin skin test (TST); 58 of 139 (42%) were positive at baseline...
2018: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
Kerclin Danielle de Klerk, Steffen Bau, Gunar Günther
Tuberculosis is still one of the most common respiratory diseases in Africa and worldwide and miliary tuberculosis is a regular manifestation of it. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a rare disease entity, presenting in children as well as adults. It is characterized by the triad of recurrent episodes of alveolar hemorrhage, presenting as hemoptysis, iron deficiency anemia and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates seen on chest X-ray. These symptoms and signs can easily be confused for other diseases i.e. miliary tuberculosis, delaying appropriate management...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
J Villarreal, V Alarcón, E Alarcón-Arrascue, D A J Moore, E Heldal, A Mendoza-Ticona
OBJECTIVE: To characterise childhood tuberculosis (TB) treated with second-line drugs (SLDs) in Lima, Peru. DESIGN: Results for the age groups <5 and 5-14 years were compared and treatment outcomes were assessed in cases reported between 2011 and 2015 from six districts of Lima. RESULTS: Of 96 reported cases, 82 were evaluated. Among these, 59% were boys; the median age was 8 years and 32% were aged <5 years. Contact with a TB case was reported in 82% of cases; 90% were treatment-naïve, 98% had pulmonary localisation and 50% underwent the tuberculin skin test (purified protein derivative), with induration 10 mm in 88%...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Huang Lan, Wang Song-Ping
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics of serous cavity effusion related with paragonimiasis, so as to improve the physician's ability of the clinical diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: The clinical data of 50 cases of serous cavity effusion related with paragonimiasis diagnosed in a hospital in recent 3 years were collected and retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 50 patients, there were 35 males and 15 females, and 35 children and 15 adults...
August 31, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Calixte Ida Penda, Else Carole Eboumbou Moukoko, Nicolas Policarpe Nolla, Nadia Olivia Abomo Evindi, Paul Koki Ndombo
Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition among HIV infected children under five years of age followed up at the Laquintinie Hospital Douala (LHD). Methods: Medical records of children aged 13 days-59 months enrolled at initiation of antiretroviral treatment in the Day Care Unit/LHD, were reviewed for a period of 14 years (from 2002 to 2015). We used standard Z-scores, with cut-off point of <-2 SD to define low height-for-age (HAZ), low weight-for-height (WHZ) and low weight-for-age (WAZ)...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Francesco Di Gennaro, Luigi Pisani, Nicola Veronese, Damiano Pizzol, Valeria Lippolis, Annalisa Saracino, Laura Monno, Michaëla A M Huson, Roberto Copetti, Giovanni Putoto, Marcus J Schultz
Background : Chest ultrasound (CUS) has been shown to be a sensitive and specific imaging modality for pneumothorax, pneumonia, and pleural effusions. However, the role of chest ultrasound in the diagnosis of thoracic tuberculosis (TB) is uncertain. We performed a systematic search in the medical literature to better define the potential role and value of chest ultrasound in diagnosing thoracic tuberculosis. Aim : To describe existing literature with regard to the diagnostic value of chest ultrasound in thoracic tuberculosis...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Danilo Buonsenso, Lucilla Pezza, Piero Valentini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Coleman Kishamawe, Susan F Rumisha, Irene R Mremi, Veneranda M Bwana, Mercy G Chiduo, Isolide S Massawe, Leonard E G Mboera
OBJECTIVE: To determine the causes, patterns and trends of respiratory diseases-related deaths in hospitals of Tanzania 2006-2015. METHODS: Retrospective study involving 39 hospitals. Medical records of patients who died in hospital were retrieved, reviewed and analysed. Sources of data were hospital admission registers, death registers, and International Classification of Diseases report forms. Information on demographic characteristics, date of death, the immediate underlying cause of death and co-morbid conditions was collected...
October 10, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Danilo Buonsenso, Michela Sali, Davide Pata, Enrico Masiello, Gilda Salerno, Manuela Ceccarelli, Giovanni Delogu, Piero Valentini
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency might be implicated in the development of active tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated vitamin D levels in children with active TB compared to children with latent TB infection (LTBI), non-TB pneumonia (NTBP) and healthy controls to determine if there was a difference. METHODS: In this prospective study, vitamin D levels were measured and compared between the four groups and adjusted for age, ethnicity, gender and season of sample collection...
September 27, 2018: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Tehreem Mohiyuddin, James A Seddon, H Lucy Thomas, Maeve K Lalor
INTRODUCTION: The epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) is changing in the United Kingdom (UK) and globally. Childhood TB is a key indicator of recent transmission and provides a marker of wider TB control. We describe the recent epidemiology of childhood TB in the UK, how this compares to TB in adults, and document changes with time. METHODS: TB cases notified in the UK between 2000 and 2015 were categorized as children (<15 years) or adults (≥15 years). Descriptive analyses were carried out on demographic, clinical and microbiological data...
September 25, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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