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Pulmonary tuberculosis in children

Danilo Buonsenso, Lucilla Pezza, Piero Valentini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Coleman Kishamawe, Susan F Rumisha, Irene R Mremi, Veneranda M Bwana, Mercy G Chiduo, Isolide S Massawe, Leonard E G Mboera
OBJECTIVE: To determine the causes, patterns and trends of respiratory diseases-related deaths in hospitals of Tanzania 2006-2015. METHODS: Retrospective study involving 39 hospitals. Medical records of patients who died in hospital were retrieved, reviewed and analysed. Sources of data were hospital admission registers, death registers, and International Classification of Diseases report forms. Information on demographic characteristics, date of death, the immediate underlying cause of death and co-morbid conditions was collected...
October 10, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Danilo Buonsenso, Michela Sali, Davide Pata, Enrico Masiello, Gilda Salerno, Manuela Ceccarelli, Giovanni Delogu, Piero Valentini
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency might be implicated in the development of active tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated vitamin D levels in children with active TB compared to children with latent TB infection (LTBI), non-TB pneumonia (NTBP) and healthy controls to determine if there was a difference. METHODS: In this prospective study, vitamin D levels were measured and compared between the four groups and adjusted for age, ethnicity, gender and season of sample collection...
September 27, 2018: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Tehreem Mohiyuddin, James A Seddon, H Lucy Thomas, Maeve K Lalor
INTRODUCTION: The epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) is changing in the United Kingdom (UK) and globally. Childhood TB is a key indicator of recent transmission and provides a marker of wider TB control. We describe the recent epidemiology of childhood TB in the UK, how this compares to TB in adults, and document changes with time. METHODS: TB cases notified in the UK between 2000 and 2015 were categorized as children (<15 years) or adults (≥15 years). Descriptive analyses were carried out on demographic, clinical and microbiological data...
September 25, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Paula Tiittala, Karolina Tuomisto, Taneli Puumalainen, Outi Lyytikäinen, Jukka Ollgren, Olli Snellman, Otto Helve
BACKGROUND: Infectious disease screening of migrants at increased risk is a feature of national infection prevention and control measures. Asylum seekers in Finland are offered screening of tuberculosis (TB), hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) and syphilis based on individual risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate the public health response to a large influx of asylum seekers to Finland in 2015-2016 with respect to national guidelines on initial health services and infectious disease screening...
September 24, 2018: BMC Public Health
Sin Wee Loh, Koh Cheng Thoon, Natalie Woon Hui Tan, Jiahui Li, Chia Yin Chong
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Each case represents ongoing transmission and has a significant public health burden. We aim to examine the clinical profile of paediatric TB and compare pulmonary TB (PTB) with extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) in Singapore. Methods: A retrospective study of patients admitted to KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore from January 2008 to September 2017 with active TB was undertaken...
2018: BMJ Paediatrics Open
Toyin Omotayo Togun, Emily MacLean, Beate Kampmann, Madhukar Pai
INTRODUCTION: As studies of biomarkers of tuberculosis (TB) disease provide hope for a simple, point-of-care test, we aimed to synthesize evidence on biomarkers for diagnosis of TB in children and compare their accuracy to published target product profiles (TPP). METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of biomarkers for diagnosis of pulmonary TB in exclusively paediatric populations, defined as age less than 15 years. PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched for relevant publications from January 1, 2000 to November 27, 2017...
2018: PloS One
Francine Mwayuma Birungi, Brian van Wyk, Jeannine Uwimana, Joseph Ntaganira, Stephen Michael Graham
Introduction: To report on the diagnostic yield using the Xpert MTB/RIF assay on gastric lavage samples from children (<15 years) who were household contacts of tuberculosis (TB) cases in Kigali, Rwanda. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 216 child contacts of index cases with sputum smear-positive TB over a 7 month period, from 1st August 2015 to 29th February 2016. Child contacts with tuberculosis-related symptoms or abnormal chest X-ray had sputum collected by gastric lavage on two consecutive days and samples were examined by smear microscopy, Xpert MTB/RIF assay and solid culture...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Minnie John, Aditya Chhikara, Deepthi M John, Nayaab Khawar, Brande Brown, Pramod Narula
BACKGROUND In 2017, in New York City (NYC), 86% of the cases of tuberculosis (TB) occurred in patients who were born outside the United States (US). This case report illustrates the importance of the use of the tuberculin skin test (TST), and other tests for TB infection (TTBI), in screening high-risk groups, the challenges of diagnosing TB in young children, and highlights the importance of preventing a delay in the diagnosis of TB in family members. CASE REPORT Following a routine TST in an asymptomatic 10-year-old girl, a diagnosis of TB was made, which was confirmed on chest X-ray (CXR) and by the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in the sputum...
August 24, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Maria Korzeniewska-Koseła
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the main features of TB epidemiology in 2016 in Poland and to compare with the situation in the EU/EEA countries. METHODS: Analysis of case- based data on TB patients from National TB Register, data on anti-TB drug susceptibility testing results in cases notified in 2016, data from National Institute of Public Health- National Institute of Hygiene on cases of tuberculosis as AIDS-defining disease, data from Central Statistical Office on deaths from tuberculosis based on death certificates, data from ECDC report „ European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control/WHO Regional Office for Europe...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Erkan Çakır, Ali Özdemir, Hayrettin Daşkaya, Tarık Umutoğlu, Mine Yüksel
Çakır E, Özdemir A, Daşkaya H, Umutoğlu T, Yüksel M. The value of nasopharyngeal aspirate, gastric aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 10-13. Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. A definitive microbiologic confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is important in the diagnosis of childhood TB. We aimed to compare the diagnostic value of nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA), gastric aspirate (GA) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens in children with highly suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)...
2018: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Saeed Khoshnood, Mohsen Heidary, Mehri Haeili, Michel Drancourt, Davood Darban-Sarokhalil, Mohammad Javad Nasiri, Vahid Lohrasbi
Tuberculosis (TB) is now among the top ten causes of mortality worldwide being resulted in 1.7 million deaths including 0.4 million among people with HIV in 2016. The Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the only available TB vaccine which fails to provide consistent protection against pulmonary TB in adults and adolescents despite being efficacious at protecting infants and young children from the most severe, often deadly forms of TB disease. To achieve the goal of global TB elimination by 2050 we will need new interventions including more improved vaccines that are effective in adult individuals who have not been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well as latently infected or immunocompromised subjects...
December 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
K Myo, M Zaw, T L Swe, Y Y Kyaw, T Thwin, T T Myo, K O Aye, A A Myint
BACKGROUND: The Xpert® MTB/RIF assay has been recommended for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). However, there are limited data from the South-East Asian region. SETTING: This study was carried out at a tertiary-level children's hospital in Mandalay, Myanmar. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of Xpert as a diagnostic test for PTB in children. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study of children with suspected PTB...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
K du Preez, L du Plessis, N O'Connell, A C Hesseling
SETTING: The Khayelitsha subdistrict has the highest burden of reported tuberculosis (TB) cases in Cape Town, Western Cape Province, South Africa. OBJECTIVES: To characterise the TB burden, spectrum and treatment outcomes among children managed at a district-level hospital, the Khayelitsha District Hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective medical record review of all children (age <13 years) diagnosed with TB in January-July 2014. A lay health care worker completed daily surveillance and supported linkage to TB care...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
C E Oh, G-Y Kwon, Y-H Kwon, E-J Lee, M-S Park, S-H Kim, S-M Jeon, U-Y Go, S E Park
SETTING: Nursery for newborns in Busan, Republic of Korea. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate tuberculosis (TB) transmission from a health care worker with active pulmonary TB to neonatal contacts. DESIGN: For the first investigation, infants who had been in the nursery 3 months before the index patient was diagnosed with pulmonary TB were enrolled. After a child who had stayed in the nursery 10 months before the diagnosis of the index patient was diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis, a second contact investigation was conducted...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Haseeb A Bhatti, Shueeta Kumari, Mohammad Hasan, Amber Siddiqui, Syed Maaz Tariq, Syed Ali Haider
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common congenital heart disease (CHD) with an incidence of four in every 1000 live births in Pakistan. Classically, these children present with central cyanosis in early life; however, milder defects may remain asymptomatic for months or even years. We report a malnourished and anemic teenage male, who was admitted with shortness of breath, hemoptysis, fever, palpitations, and weight loss. On examination, vitals were stable, except for oxygen saturation, which was 84% on pulse-oximeter...
June 5, 2018: Curēus
Madeeha Laghari, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Amer Hayat Khan, Naheed Memon
Background: Regardless of the advancement in medical technologies, the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in children has remained a challenge. Childhood TB is rampant and an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the trend of TB and treatment outcomes in children aged ≤14 years registered for TB treatment under DOTS course in three districts of Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: For this retrospective study, records of TB children (≤14 years) registered for the treatment of TB from January 2011 to December 2015 in three districts of Pakistan, were collected...
2018: PeerJ
Paul Aia, Lungten Wangchuk, Fukushi Morishita, Jacob Kisomb, Robin Yasi, Margaret Kal, Tauhid Islam
Papua New Guinea has strengthened its surveillance system for tuberculosis (TB) under the National TB Program. This paper provides an overview of TB surveillance data at the national and subnational levels from 2008 to 2016. TB case notification has consistently increased since 2008 with 6184 cases (93 per 100 000 population) in 2008 to 28 598 (359 per 100 000 population) in 2014 and has stabilized since 2014 with 28 244 cases (333 per 100 000 population) in 2016. The population-screening rate for TB rose from 0...
April 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Maria Vincenza Mastrolia, Sara Sollai, Camilla Totaro, Pasqua Putignano, Maurizio de Martino, Luisa Galli, Elena Chiappini
BACKGROUND: Most of internationally adopted children (IAC) come from countries in which tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. Interpretation of discordant Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and Quantiferon-Gold In Tube (QFT) results is under debate. METHODS: Children consecutively referred to our IAC Center between 2009-2017 were prospectively evaluated and screened with protocol recommended by the America Academy of Pediatrics, including TST and QFT. TB infection prevalence was evaluated and possible risk factors associated with discordant TST/QFT results were investigated...
July 25, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Miquel Turbau Valls, Eva Gil Olivas, Teresa López García, Domingas Piedade, Agostinho Pessela, Milagros Moreno Nicasio
Introduction: There is scarce information on the profiles of patients attended in the Emergency Departments (ED) in rural Angola. Methods: Retrospective descriptive study including all the patients treated in the ED in Hospital Nossa Senhora da Paz (Cubal) during 6 months (December 2014- May 2015). The epidemiological and clinical data collected were: age, sex, shift, service assignment, reason for consultation and outcome (discharge, admission, referral or death)...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
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