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Pulmonary tuberculosis in children

Maria Korzeniewska-Koseła
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the main features of TB epidemiology in 2016 in Poland and to compare with the situation in the EU/EEA countries. METHODS: Analysis of case- based data on TB patients from National TB Register, data on anti-TB drug susceptibility testing results in cases notified in 2016, data from National Institute of Public Health- National Institute of Hygiene on cases of tuberculosis as AIDS-defining disease, data from Central Statistical Office on deaths from tuberculosis based on death certificates, data from ECDC report „ European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control/WHO Regional Office for Europe...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Erkan Çakır, Ali Özdemir, Hayrettin Daşkaya, Tarık Umutoğlu, Mine Yüksel
Çakır E, Özdemir A, Daşkaya H, Umutoğlu T, Yüksel M. The value of nasopharyngeal aspirate, gastric aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 10-13. Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. A definitive microbiologic confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is important in the diagnosis of childhood TB. We aimed to compare the diagnostic value of nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA), gastric aspirate (GA) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens in children with highly suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)...
2018: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Saeed Khoshnood, Mohsen Heidary, Mehri Haeili, Michel Drancourt, Davood Darban-Sarokhalil, Mohammad Javad Nasiri, Vahid Lohrasbi
Tuberculosis (TB) is now among the top ten causes of mortality worldwide being resulted in 1.7 million deaths in 2016. The Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the only available TB vaccine which fails to provide consistent protection against pulmonary TB in adults and adolescents despite being efficacious at protecting infants and young children from the most severe, often deadly forms of TB disease. To achieve the goal of global TB elimination by 2050 we will need new interventions including more improved vaccines that are effective in adult individuals who have not been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well as latently infected or immunocompromised subjects...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
K Myo, M Zaw, T L Swe, Y Y Kyaw, T Thwin, T T Myo, K O Aye, A A Myint
BACKGROUND: The Xpert® MTB/RIF assay has been recommended for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). However, there are limited data from the South-East Asian region. SETTING: This study was carried out at a tertiary-level children's hospital in Mandalay, Myanmar. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of Xpert as a diagnostic test for PTB in children. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study of children with suspected PTB...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
K du Preez, L du Plessis, N O'Connell, A C Hesseling
SETTING: The Khayelitsha subdistrict has the highest burden of reported tuberculosis (TB) cases in Cape Town, Western Cape Province, South Africa. OBJECTIVES: To characterise the TB burden, spectrum and treatment outcomes among children managed at a district-level hospital, the Khayelitsha District Hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective medical record review of all children (age <13 years) diagnosed with TB in January-July 2014. A lay health care worker completed daily surveillance and supported linkage to TB care...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
C E Oh, G-Y Kwon, Y-H Kwon, E-J Lee, M-S Park, S-H Kim, S-M Jeon, U-Y Go, S E Park
SETTING: Nursery for newborns in Busan, Republic of Korea. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate tuberculosis (TB) transmission from a health care worker with active pulmonary TB to neonatal contacts. DESIGN: For the first investigation, infants who had been in the nursery 3 months before the index patient was diagnosed with pulmonary TB were enrolled. After a child who had stayed in the nursery 10 months before the diagnosis of the index patient was diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis, a second contact investigation was conducted...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Haseeb A Bhatti, Shueeta Kumari, Mohammad Hasan, Amber Siddiqui, Syed Maaz Tariq, Syed Ali Haider
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common congenital heart disease (CHD) with an incidence of four in every 1000 live births in Pakistan. Classically, these children present with central cyanosis in early life; however, milder defects may remain asymptomatic for months or even years. We report a malnourished and anemic teenage male, who was admitted with shortness of breath, hemoptysis, fever, palpitations, and weight loss. On examination, vitals were stable, except for oxygen saturation, which was 84% on pulse-oximeter...
June 5, 2018: Curēus
Madeeha Laghari, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Amer Hayat Khan, Naheed Memon
Background: Regardless of the advancement in medical technologies, the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in children has remained a challenge. Childhood TB is rampant and an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the trend of TB and treatment outcomes in children aged ≤14 years registered for TB treatment under DOTS course in three districts of Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: For this retrospective study, records of TB children (≤14 years) registered for the treatment of TB from January 2011 to December 2015 in three districts of Pakistan, were collected...
2018: PeerJ
Paul Aia, Lungten Wangchuk, Fukushi Morishita, Jacob Kisomb, Robin Yasi, Margaret Kal, Tauhid Islam
Papua New Guinea has strengthened its surveillance system for tuberculosis (TB) under the National TB Program. This paper provides an overview of TB surveillance data at the national and subnational levels from 2008 to 2016. TB case notification has consistently increased since 2008 with 6184 cases (93 per 100 000 population) in 2008 to 28 598 (359 per 100 000 population) in 2014 and has stabilized since 2014 with 28 244 cases (333 per 100 000 population) in 2016. The population-screening rate for TB rose from 0...
April 2018: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Maria Vincenza Mastrolia, Sara Sollai, Camilla Totaro, Pasqua Putignano, Maurizio de Martino, Luisa Galli, Elena Chiappini
BACKGROUND: Most of internationally adopted children (IAC) come from countries in which tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. Interpretation of discordant Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and Quantiferon-Gold In Tube (QFT) results is under debate. METHODS: Children consecutively referred to our IAC Center between 2009-2017 were prospectively evaluated and screened with protocol recommended by the America Academy of Pediatrics, including TST and QFT. TB infection prevalence was evaluated and possible risk factors associated with discordant TST/QFT results were investigated...
July 25, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Miquel Turbau Valls, Eva Gil Olivas, Teresa López García, Domingas Piedade, Agostinho Pessela, Milagros Moreno Nicasio
Introduction: There is scarce information on the profiles of patients attended in the Emergency Departments (ED) in rural Angola. Methods: Retrospective descriptive study including all the patients treated in the ED in Hospital Nossa Senhora da Paz (Cubal) during 6 months (December 2014- May 2015). The epidemiological and clinical data collected were: age, sex, shift, service assignment, reason for consultation and outcome (discharge, admission, referral or death)...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Issa Sabi, Andrea Rachow, Daniel Mapamba, Petra Clowes, Nyanda E Ntinginya, Mohamed Sasamalo, Lujeko Kamwela, Frederick Haraka, Michael Hoelscher, Daniel H Paris, Elmar Saathoff, Klaus Reither
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the novel next-generation Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) in comparison to Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay for the detection of paediatric pulmonary tuberculosis in high burden settings. METHODS: From May 2011 to September 2012, children with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis were enrolled at two Tanzanian sites and sputum samples were examined using sputum smear, Xpert and culture. Xpert Ultra was tested between January and June 2017 using sputum pellets, which had been stored at -80°C...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Infection
Edouard Hosten, Mandana Mehta, Emmanuel Andre, Khaled Abu Rumman, Dimitri Van der Linden
Background: In response to the influx of displaced Syrians since 2011, the Jordanian National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) implemented a specific Tuberculosis (TB) reduction strategy, including contact-tracing (CT). Contacts of all refugees diagnosed with pulmonary TB (PTB) were registered by the International Organization for Migration and screened for active & latent TB infection (LTBI) in 6 NTP centres.The objectives of this study were to assess prevalence of active TB and LTBI, risk factors for LTBI as well as program performance...
2018: Conflict and Health
Michelle Earley, Joconiah Chirenda, Alexandra Highet, Hilda A Mujuru, Zhenhua Yang
Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) represents a major barrier to reducing global TB mortality, especially in countries confronting dual TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics. Our study aimed to characterize pediatric TB epidemiology in the high-burden setting of Harare, Zimbabwe, both to fill the current knowledge gap around the epidemiology of pediatric TB and to indicate areas for future research and interventions. We analyzed de-identified data of 1,051 pediatric TB cases (0-14 years) found among a total of 11,607 TB cases reported in Harare, Zimbabwe, during 2011-2012...
July 16, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
F Black, F Amien, J Shea
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to the international and national burden of disease. Global estimates suggest that there were 10.4 million new cases of TB in 2015. Children accounted for ~10% of these cases, although in South Africa (SA) this figure is thought to be higher. Despite clear evidence that isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) can reduce the risk of progression from TB infection to disease in TB contacts, IPT has been poorly implemented in SA national TB control programmes...
February 27, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
A A Malik, F Amanullah, A J Codlin, S Siddiqui, M Jaswal, J F Ahmed, S Saleem, A Khurshid, H Hussain
SETTING: Many children with tuberculosis (TB) remain undiagnosed due to the absence of services, lack of child-friendly diagnostics and underappreciation of TB as a common cause of childhood illness. OBJECTIVE: To show the impact of systematic verbal screening and contact tracing with appropriate management services on TB case finding in pediatric populations. DESIGN: Between October 2014 and March 2016, children were verbally screened at the pediatric out-patient departments of four public hospitals in Jamshoro District, Pakistan...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Leah N Githinji, Diane M Gray, Heather J Zar
Background: The advent of antiretroviral therapy has led to the improved survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children to adulthood and to HIV becoming a chronic disease in older children and adolescents. Chronic lung disease is common among HIV-infected adolescents. Lung function measurement may help to delineate the spectrum, pathophysiology and guide therapy for HIV-related chronic lung disease. Aim: The aim of this study was to review the available data on the spectrum and determinants of lung function abnormalities and the impact of antiretroviral therapy on lung function in perinatally HIV-infected children and adolescents...
2018: Pneumonia
Antoinette M Cilliers, Paul E Adams, Hopewell Ntsinjana, Udai Kala
IntroductionTakayasu's arteritis is a rare idiopathic arteritis causing stenosis or aneurysms of the aorta, pulmonary arteries, and their branches. It usually occurs in women, but has been described in children. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the clinical presentation, demographic profile, vascular involvement, origins, management, and outcome of children diagnosed with Takayasu's arteritis at a Southern African tertiary care centre between 1993 and 2015. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of all children with Takayasu's arteritis captured on a computerised electronic database during the study period...
September 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Teresa Bielecka, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Paweł Gonerko, Paweł Gruszczyński, Maria Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria Krasińska, Katarzyna Krenke, Joanna Lange, Anna Pankowska, Marek Popielarz, Andrzej Pustkowski, Joanna Stryczyńska-Kazubska, Zbigniew Doniec
Since the second half of the 20th century the incidence of tuberculosis has been declining in Poland. Despite this, current epidemiological data still support the need for the continued mass BCG vaccination in Poland in the near future. Apart from the protection against severe hematogenous forms of tuberculosis, vaccination lowers the risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Primary and acquired immunodeficiency, including immunity disorders associated with an ongoing treatment, are contraindications to BCG vaccination...
2018: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
Shally Awasthi, Krishna K Yadav, Monika Pandey, Abbas A Mahdi, Nidhi Awasthi
BACKGROUND: High morbidity and mortality due to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is seen in children under 5 years of age in India. Besides identified risk factors for CAP, there may be a phenotype-genotype association with cytokines, resulting in enhanced inflammatory response resulting in the adverse outcome (AO), namely complications and death. AIM: To assess the association of IL1RA gene polymorphism on serum levels of IL1RA and with AO in children under 5 years of age hospitalized with WHO-defined severe CAP...
June 26, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
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