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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084095/clostridium-difficile-the-difficult-kloster-fuelled-by-antibiotics
#1
REVIEW
Leon M T Dicks, Lasse S Mikkelsen, Erik Brandsborg, Harold Marcotte
Clostridium difficile is normally present in low numbers in a healthy adult gastro-intestinal tract (GIT). Drastic changes in the microbial population, e.g., dysbiosis caused by extensive treatment with antibiotics, stimulates the growth of resistant strains and the onset of C. difficile infection (CDI). Symptoms of infection varies from mild diarrhea to colitis (associated with dehydration and bleeding), pseudomembranous colitis with yellow ulcerations in the mucosa of the colon, to fulminant colitis (perforation of the gut membrane), and multiple organ failure...
August 6, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053493/benzo-a-pyrene-attenuates-the-pattern-recognition-receptor-induced-proinflammatory-phenotype-of-murine-macrophages-by-inducing-il-10-expression-in-an-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-dependent-manner
#2
Christiane Fueldner, Janine Kohlschmidt, Sina Riemschneider, Felix Schulze, Katharina Zoldan, Charlotte Esser, Sunna Hauschildt, Jörg Lehmann
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are environmental contaminants known to be immunosuppressive. Most effects of BaP towards immune cells are thought to be mediated through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The AhR is a ligand-activated transcription factor, which plays a critical modulatory role in various cells during immune response. Macrophages are key players in innate immunity against intracellular bacteria and are discussed to be a target of AhR-mediated immune regulation...
July 24, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30033415/antibacterial-assay-and-reversion-of-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-damage-on-wistar-mice-by-vernonia-amygdalina-delile
#3
Nwinyi Obinna Chukwuemeka, Smith Oluwakemi Oyebisi, Olugbuyiro Joseph Adebisi Oluwadare, Rotimi Solomon Oladapo, Njobeh Patrick Berka
In this study Vernonia amygdalina. Delile stem and leaves were evaluated for anti-cancer and antibacterial actions against selected microorganisms. The crude plant extracts were extracted using methanol and fractionated into ethyl acetate, hexane, aqueous and crude extracts. Cancer inducing agent Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was introduced into Wistar mice and screened with crude extracts of Vernonia amygdalina. Delile to evaluate the anti-cancer properties of the extracts. The effect of CCl4 in mice was determined by isolating and quantifying damaged DNA fragments in liver and blood using DNA zol BD and diphenylamine (DPA)...
July 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30023799/mechanistic-insight-into-size-dependent-enhanced-cytotoxicity-of-industrial-antibacterial-titanium-oxide-nanoparticles-on-colon-cells-because-of-reactive-oxygen-species-quenching-and-neutral-lipid-alteration
#4
Suresh K Verma, Ealisha Jha, Pritam Kumar Panda, Arun Thirumurugan, S K S Parashar, Shubhransu Patro, Mrutyunjay Suar
This study evaluates the impact of industrially prepared TiO2 nanoparticles on the biological system by using an in vitro model of colon cancer cell lines (HCT116). Industrial synthesis of titanium oxide nanoparticles was mimicked on the lab scale by the high-energy ball milling method by milling bulk titanium oxide particles for 5, 10, and 15 h in an ambient environment. The physiochemical characterization by field emission scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and UV-visible spectroscopy revealed alteration in the size and surface charge with respect to increase in the milling time...
January 31, 2018: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018975/-in-vivo-study-of-the-effects-of-er-%C3%AE-on-apoptosis-and-proliferation-of-hormone-independent-prostate-cancer-cell-lines-pc-3m
#5
Changli Zhou, Chunyu Yu, Lirong Guo, Xige Wang, Huimin Li, Qinqin Cao, Feng Li
Objective: To evaluate the in vivo therapeutic effects of attenuated Salmonella carrying PCDNA3.1-ER β plasmid in hormone-independent prostatic cancer in nude mice and to clarify the mechanism by which estrogen receptor β (ER β ) induces apoptosis and proliferation in prostatic cancer cells in mice. Methods: The orthotopic prostatic cancer models of mice were randomly divided as follows: MOCK group, treated with PBS, PQ group, treated with attenuated Salmonella alone, PQ-PCDNA3...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016386/therapeutic-advantage-of-genetically-engineered-salmonella-typhimurium-carrying-short-hairpin-rna-against-inhibin-alpha-subunit-in-cancer-treatment
#6
W Yoon, Y Yoo, Y S Chae, S-H Kee, B M Kim
Background: In contrast to its well-known endocrine function, the role of inhibin in cancer development and therapeutic response is unclear. Salmonella, particularly less toxic attenuated Salmonella strains, are used to treat cancer in two ways. First, Salmonella accumulate around tumors, penetrate the cell barrier, and replicate inside the tumors. Second, Salmonella can act as a vehicle for delivering anti-cancer agents or pro-apoptotic genes to attack tumors. In this study, we aimed to develop a suitable cancer therapeutic strategy by genetically modifying attenuated Salmonella typhimurium to harbor short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression plasmids targeting alpha subunit of inhibin (sh-INHA)...
July 17, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992102/biosynthesis-characterization-and-evaluation-of-bioactivities-of-leaf-extract-mediated-biocompatible-gold-nanoparticles-from-alternanthera-bettzickiana
#7
Nagalingam M, Kalpana V N, Devi Rajeswari V, Panneerselvam A
The objective of the study was to synthesize gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) using leaf extract of Alternanthera bettzickiana (A. bettzickiana ). The biosynthesized Au NPs were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Zeta potential and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Morphologically, the Au NPs showed spherical shaped structures. Size distribution of Au NPs calculated using Scherrer's formula, showed an average size of 80-120 nm...
September 2018: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29970062/10-hydroxy-2-decenoic-acid-of-royal-jelly-exhibits-bactericide-and-anti-inflammatory-activity-in-human-colon-cancer-cells
#8
Yuan-Chang Yang, Wing-Ming Chou, Debora Arny Widowati, I-Ping Lin, Chi-Chung Peng
BACKGROUND: Royal jelly (RJ), the exclusive food for the larva of queen honeybee, is regarded as the novel supplement to promote human health. The function of RJ may be attributed to its major and unique fatty acid, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA). The current study investigated the anti-inflammory function of 10-HDA on human colon cancer cells, WiDr, as well as its effect on the growth of pathogenic bacterium. METHODS: The pro-inflammatory cytokines, receptor antagonist cytokine (IL-1ra) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in WiDr cells was analyzed by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or western blot...
July 3, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29964313/cyp450-mediated-mitochondrial-ros-production-involved-in-arecoline-n-oxide-induced-oxidative-damage-in-liver-cell-lines
#9
Tsu-Shing Wang, Cheng-Ping Lin, Yu-Pong Chen, Mu-Rong Chao, Chien-Chun Li, Kai-Li Liu
BACKGROUND: IARC has classified the betel nut as a human environmental carcinogen. Previous studies have found that arecoline (AR) is the major alkaloid present in the saliva of betel quid chewers. Saliva contains a large content of AR which has been further shown to cause mutation of oral mucosa cells, resulting in oral cancer. Whereas, to date, there are only few studies reported the hepatotoxicity associated with arecoline and betel nut chewing. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine the toxic effects of AR and its oxidative metabolite, arecoline N-oxide (ARNO), in normal liver cell lines...
July 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29963961/tumor-targeting-salmonella-typhimurium-a1-r-in-combination-with-gemcitabine-gem-regresses-partially-gem-resistant-pancreatic-cancer-patient-derived-orthotopic-xenograft-pdox-nude-mouse-models
#10
Kei Kawaguchi, Kentaro Miyake, Ming Zhao, Tasuku Kiyuna, Kentaro Igarashi, Masuyo Miyake, Takashi Higuchi, Hiromichi Oshiro, Michael Bouvet, Michiaki Unno, Robert M Hoffman
Gemcitabine (GEM) is first-line therapy for pancreatic cancer but has limited efficacy in most cases. Nanoparticle-albumin bound (nab)-paclitaxel is becoming first-line therapy for pancreatic cancer, but also has limited efficacy for pancreatic cancer. Our goal was to improve the treatment outcome in patient-like models of pancreatic cancer. We previously established patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (PDOX) pancreatic cancers from two patients. The pancreatic tumor was implanted orthotopically in the pancreatic tail of nude mice to establish the PDOX models...
July 2, 2018: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959056/genetically-engineered-salmonella-typhimurium-expressing-timp-2-as-a-therapeutic-intervention-in-an-orthotopic-glioma-mouse-model
#11
Min Wen, Jin Hai Zheng, Jin Myung Choi, Jian Pei, Chun-Hao Li, Song-Yuan Li, In-Young Kim, Sa-Hoe Lim, Tae-Young Jung, Kyung-Sub Moon, Jung-Joon Min, Shin Jung
Glioma is one of the most devastating and refractory cancers. The main factors underlying therapeutic failure include extremely invasive characteristics and lack of effective methods for drug delivery. Attenuated Salmonella strains presented a high concentration of tumor targets in various types of cancer models, suggesting a role as potential vectors for drug delivery. In this study, we genetically engineered an attenuated strain of Salmonella as an anti-invasive vector for the targeted delivery and expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2) in an orthotopic nude mouse model of glioma...
June 27, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29942026/a-genome-wide-mutation-analysis-method-enabling-high-throughput-identification-of-chemical-mutagen-signatures
#12
Shoji Matsumura, Yurika Fujita, Masayuki Yamane, Osamu Morita, Hiroshi Honda
Trinucleotide mutational signatures extracted from cancer genomes provide clues useful in understanding the roles of mutagens and mutagenic mechanisms in cancer development. The lack of a simple method for genome-wide analysis of alterations induced by mutagens hampers the identification of trinucleotide signatures of mutagen exposure and evaluation of their relationships with human cancers. Here, we describe a novel approach to facilitate analysis of chemically induced mutations in bacterial cells by detection of increased frequencies of base substitutions after mutagen exposure, using paired-end overlapping next-generation sequencing...
June 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929436/inhibition-of-traf6-ubiquitin-ligase-activity-by-prdx1-leads-to-inhibition-of-nfkb-activation-and-autophagy-activation
#13
Yoon Min, Mi-Jeong Kim, Sena Lee, Eunyoung Chun, Ki-Young Lee
TRAF6 (TNF receptor associated factor 6) plays a pivotal role in NFKB activation and macroautphagy/autophagy activation induced by TLR4 (toll like receptor 4) signaling. The objective of this study was to determine the functional role of PRDX1 (peroxiredoxin 1) in NFKB activation and autophagy activation. PRDX1 interacted with the ring finger domain of TRAF6 and inhibited its ubiquitin-ligase activity. The inhibition on TRAF6 ubiquitin-ligase activity by PRDX1 induced the suppression of ubiquitination of an evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in Toll pathways (ECSIT) essential for NFKB activation and BECN1 (beclin 1) required for autophagy activation...
July 23, 2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902112/improvement-of-lipase-obtaining-system-by-orange-waste-based-solid-state-fermentation-production-characterization-and-application
#14
Julia Carolina Athanázio-Heliodoro, Clarissa Hamaio Okino-Delgado, Célio Júnior da Costa Fernandes, Mirella Rossitto Zanutto, Débora Zanoni do Prado, Rodrigo Augusto da Silva, Roselaine Facanali, Willian Fernando Zambuzzi, Márcia Ortiz Mayo Marques, Luciana Francisco Fleuri
Lipases are an economic important group of biocatalysts that can be produced by some fungal under solid-state fermentation. Orange wastes are source of lipases and potential substrates for lipases production. This work assessed 19 fugal strains cultivated in Citrus sinensis cv. Hamlin orange wastes (peel, frit and core) for production of lipases in order to generate compounds with antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties. Fifteen of those fungi grew and produced lipases, mainly the Aspergillus brasiliensis [National Institute of Quality Control (INCQS) 40036]/frit system, which showed 99...
June 14, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875071/genotoxicity-of-disinfection-byproducts-and-disinfected-waters-a-review-of-recent-literature
#15
Constanza Cortés, Ricard Marcos
The presence of water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in tap water, resulting from disinfection processes involving chlorination or chloramination, increases the mutagenicity of the water and may pose adverse health effects. The topic was reviewed by DeMarini and coworkers in 2007. Here, we review research on the genotoxicity of DBPs published since that time. Studies, primarily using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, have continued to show that chlorination or chloramination of source waters results in finished, tap, or swimming pool/spa water that is more mutagenic than the original source water...
July 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765907/attenuated-bacteria-as-immunotherapeutic-tools-for-cancer-treatment
#16
Suneesh Kaimala, Ashraf Al-Sbiei, Otavio Cabral-Marques, Maria J Fernandez-Cabezudo, Basel K Al-Ramadi
The use of attenuated bacteria as cancer therapeutic tools has garnered increasing scientific interest over the past 10 years. This is largely due to the development of bacterial strains that maintain good anti-tumor efficacy, but with reduced potential to cause toxicities to the host. Because of its ability to replicate in viable as well as necrotic tissue, cancer therapy using attenuated strains of facultative anaerobic bacteria, such as Salmonella , has several advantages over standard treatment modalities, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755110/endostatin-gene-therapy-delivered-by-attenuated-salmonella-typhimurium-in-murine-tumor-models
#17
Kang Liang, Qing Liu, Pei Li, Yue Han, Xiaoping Bian, Yibo Tang, Qingke Kong
Salmonella typhimurium (hereafter S. typhimurium), as Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacteria, are good candidates for cancer therapy and delivering therapeutic antitumor agents. However, it is necessary to reduce the virulence of such bacteria and enhance their tumor-targeting ability, and their immunostimulatory ability to induce tumor cell apoptosis. In this study, we constructed a S. typhimurium mutant named S634 harboring aroA mutation and additional mutations involved in modifications of lipid A...
May 14, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754083/genotoxic-and-cytotoxic-properties-of-pm2-5-collected-over-the-year-in-wroc%C3%A5-aw-poland
#18
M K Bełcik, A Trusz-Zdybek, E Zaczyńska, A Czarny, K Piekarska
In the ambient is >2000 chemical substances, some of them are absorbed on the surface of the particulate matter and may causes many health problems. Air pollution is responsible for >3.2 million premature deaths which classifies it as a second place environmental risk factor. Especially dangerous for health are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives which shows mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Air pollutions were also classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer to group which carcinogenic properties on human were proved by available knowledge...
October 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744279/pathway-engineering-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum-s9114-for-5-aminolevulinic-acid-production
#19
Bin Zhang, Bang-Ce Ye
5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a non-protein amino acid with a significant potential for cancer treatment and plant stress resistance. Microbial fermentation has gradually replaced the traditional chemical-based method for ALA production, thus increasing the need for high-ALA-producing strains. In this study, we engineered the glutamate producing strain, Corynebacterium glutamicum S9114, for ALA production. To efficiently convert l-glutamate to ALA, hemA and hemL from Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli were tandemly overexpressed...
May 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743127/the-perils-of-multiplex-gastrointestinal-pathogen-panels-pseudo-outbreaks-of-salmonellae-and-entamoeba-histolytica-in-immunocompromised-hosts
#20
Elizabeth Robilotti, Eleanor Powell, Shauna Usiak, Ying Taur, N Esther Babady, Mini Kamboj
Two distinct clusters of gastroenteritis due to Salmonellae and Entamoeba histolytica (EH) were identified using a multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) at a tertiary-care cancer center. Despite temporo-spatial overlap, our investigation did not corroborate transmission or true infection. In clinical practice, GPPs may render false-positive results.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;867-870.
July 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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