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Hilary R Davies-Kershaw, Ruth A Hackett, Dorina Cadar, Annie Herbert, Martin Orrell, Andrew Steptoe
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether vision impairment is independently associated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with dementia. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 50 and older MEASUREMENTS: Cross-sectional association between self-rated vision (poor or blind, moderate, normal) and dementia was analyzed, adjusting for potential confounders (sex, wealth, education, cardiovascular risk factors) using multivariable logistic regression...
August 11, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Monica S Badve, Zien Zhou, Craig S Anderson, Maree L Hackett
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a common complication after stroke which increases morbidity and mortality. This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of antibiotics for the prevention of pneumonia after acute stroke. METHODS: Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched for randomized controlled trials comparing preventive antibiotics to placebo or no antibiotics after acute stroke. The primary outcome was poststroke pneumonia. Secondary outcomes were all infections, urinary tract infections, death, dependency, length of hospital stay, and adverse events...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Geoffrey Hackett
A third of men with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HH) and associated increased risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Men with HH are at increased risk of developing incident T2DM. We conducted MEDLINE, EMBASE, and COCHRANE reviews on T2DM, HH, testosterone deficiency, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality from May 2005 to October 2017, yielding 1,714 articles, 52 clinical trials and 32 randomized controlled trials (RCT). Studies with testosterone therapy suggest significant benefits in sexual function, quality of life, glycaemic control, anaemia, bone density, fat, and lean muscle mass...
July 17, 2018: World Journal of Men's Health
Carolyn S Calfee, Kevin L Delucchi, Pratik Sinha, Michael A Matthay, Jonathan Hackett, Manu Shankar-Hari, Cliona McDowell, John G Laffey, Cecilia M O'Kane, Daniel F McAuley
BACKGROUND: Precision medicine approaches that target patients on the basis of disease subtype have transformed treatment approaches to cancer, asthma, and other heterogeneous syndromes. Two distinct subphenotypes of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been identified in three US-based clinical trials, and these subphenotypes respond differently to positive end-expiratory pressure and fluid management. We aimed to investigate whether these subphenotypes exist in non-US patient populations and respond differently to pharmacotherapies...
August 2, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Hyun-Kyoung Koo, Dragoş M Vasilescu, Steven Booth, Aileen Hsieh, Orestis L Katsamenis, Nick Fishbane, W Mark Elliott, Miranda Kirby, Peter Lackie, Ian Sinclair, Jane A Warner, Joel D Cooper, Harvey O Coxson, Peter D Paré, James C Hogg, Tillie-Louise Hackett
BACKGROUND: The concept that small conducting airways less than 2 mm in diameter become the major site of airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is well established in the scientific literature, and the last generation of small conducting airways, terminal bronchioles, are known to be destroyed in patients with very severe COPD. We aimed to determine whether destruction of the terminal and transitional bronchioles (the first generation of respiratory airways) occurs before, or in parallel with, emphysematous tissue destruction...
August 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
David G Taylor, Francois Giuliano, Geoff Hackett, Evelyn Hermes-DeSantis, Michael G Kirby, Robert A Kloner, Terry Maguire, Vera Stecher, Paul Goggin
Erectile dysfunction (ED), which worldwide is likely to affect in excess of 300 million men by 2025, is often either untreated or insufficiently treated. It can be a prelude to other serious illnesses and may be a cause or consequence of depression in affected individuals. Among men younger than 60 years of age, ED can be a robust early-stage indicator of vascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Untreated or inadequately treated ED can also be a sign of poor communication between health professionals and service users of all ages...
July 21, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
John P Mulhall, Annamaria Giraldi, Geoff Hackett, Wayne J G Hellstrom, Emmanuele A Jannini, Eusebio Rubio-Aurioles, Landon Trost, Tarek A Hassan
BACKGROUND: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition that may affect men of all ages; in 1999, a Process of Care Model was developed to provide clinicians with recommendations regarding the evaluation and management of ED. AIM: To reflect the evolution of the study of ED since 1999, this update to the process of care model presents health care providers with a tool kit to facilitate patient interactions, comprehensive evaluation, and counseling for ED. METHODS: A cross-disciplinary panel of international experts met to propose updates to the 1999 process of care model from a global perspective...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
John P Mulhall, Annamaria Giraldi, Geoff Hackett, Wayne J G Hellstrom, Emmanuele A Jannini, Eusebio Rubio-Aurioles, Landon Trost, Tarek A Hassan
INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition the treatment of which over the years has expanded from specialty care settings to various other clinical settings. A Process of Care Model was developed in 1999 to provide primary care physicians with guidance in the diagnosis and management of ED. AIM: This update to the Process of Care Model aims to reflect current ED management practices, because the study of ED has changed since 1999. METHODS: Updates to the Process of Care Model were developed during a meeting of international experts from diverse disciplines...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Ross Leader, James Hackett, Anne Allan, Paul Carter
Linezolid is a bacteriostatic antibiotic of the Oxazolidinone class; it works by inhibiting the initiation of protein synthesis on bacterial ribosomes. Due to its excellent bioavailability after oral dosing, it has become an important tool in combating multi-drug-resistant bacteria including glycopeptide-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Side effects are multiple and potentially serious. We report the case of an 87-year-old man who developed pancytopenia secondary to a 6-week course of linezolid...
July 26, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
India A Reddy, Nicholas K Smith, Kevin Erreger, Dipanwita Ghose, Christine Saunders, Daniel J Foster, Brandon Turner, Amanda Poe, Vance L Albaugh, Owen McGuinness, Troy A Hackett, Brad A Grueter, Naji N Abumrad, Charles Robb Flynn, Aurelio Galli
The gut-to-brain axis exhibits significant control over motivated behavior. However, mechanisms supporting this communication are poorly understood. We reveal that a gut-based bariatric surgery chronically elevates systemic bile acids and attenuates cocaine-induced elevations in accumbal dopamine. Notably, this surgery reduces reward-related behavior and psychomotor sensitization to cocaine. Utilizing a knockout mouse model, we have determined that a main mediator of these post-operative effects is the Takeda G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5)...
July 2018: PLoS Biology
Hueiming Liu, Richard Lindley, Mohammed Alim, Cynthia Felix, Dorcas Bc Gandhi, Shweta J Verma, Deepak K Tugnawat, Anuradha Syrigapu, Ramaprabhu K Ramamurthy, Jeyaraj D Pandian, Marion Walker, Anne Forster, Maree L Hackett, Craig S Anderson, Peter Langhorne, Gudlavalleti Vs Murthy, Pallab K Maulik, Lisa A Harvey, Stephen Jan
Background Training family carers to provide evidence-based rehabilitation to stroke patients could address the recognized deficiency of access to stroke rehabilitation in low-resource settings. However, our randomized controlled trial in India (ATTEND) found that this model of care was not superior to usual care alone. Aims This process evaluation aimed to better understand trial outcomes through assessing trial implementation and exploring patients', carers', and providers' perspectives. Methods Our mixed methods study included process, healthcare use data and patient demographics from all sites; observations and semi-structured interviews with participants (22 patients, 22 carers, and 28 health providers) from six sampled sites...
July 25, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Shahid Y Khan, Muhammad Ali, Firoz Kabir, Ruiqiang Chen, Chan Hyun Na, Mei-Chong W Lee, Nader Pourmand, Sean F Hackett, S Amer Riazuddin
We previously investigated the transcriptome and proteome profiles of the murine ocular lens at six developmental time points including two embryonic (E15 and E18) and four postnatal time points (P0, P3, P6, and P9). Here, we extend our analyses to identify novel transcripts and peptides in developing  mouse lens. We identified a total of 9,707 novel transcripts and 325 novel fusion genes in developing mouse lens. Additionally, we identified 13,281 novel alternative splicing (AS) events in mouse lens including 6,990 exon skipping (ES), 2,447 alternative 3' splice site (A3SS), 1,900 alternative 5' splice site (A5SS), 1,771 mutually exclusive exons (MXE), and 173 intron retention (IR)...
July 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alexey Ruzin, Susan T Pastula, Elizabeth Levin-Sparenberg, Xiaohui Jiang, Jon Fryzek, Andrey Tovchigrechko, Bin Lu, Yanping Qi, Hui Liu, Hong Jin, Li Yu, Judith Hackett, Tonya Villafana, Mark T Esser
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an established cause of serious lower respiratory disease in infants, elderly and high-risk populations. The OUTSMART surveillance program aims to characterize patient populations and currently circulating RSV strains, and monitor temporal and geographic evolution of RSV F and G proteins in the U.S. METHODS: The OUTSMART 2016-17 study collected RSV-positive samples from 25 RSVAlert® laboratories from 4 U.S. regions and Puerto Rico during November 2016 through March 2017...
2018: PloS One
Dominique A Cadilhac, Doreen Busingye, Jonathan C Li, Nadine E Andrew, Monique F Kilkenny, Amanda G Thrift, Vincent Thijs, Maree L Hackett, Ian Kneebone, Natasha A Lannin, Alana Stewart, Ida Dempsey, Jan Cameron
Purpose: Worldwide, stroke is a leading cause of disease burden. Many survivors have unmet needs after discharge from hospital. Electronic communication technology to support post-discharge care has not been used for patients with stroke. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel electronic messaging system designed for survivors of stroke to support their goals of recovery and secondary prevention after hospital discharge. Participants and methods: This was a formative evaluation study...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
Delphine Cuchet-Lourenço, Davide Eletto, Changxin Wu, Vincent Plagnol, Olivier Papapietro, James Curtis, Lourdes Ceron-Gutierrez, Chris M Bacon, Scott Hackett, Badr Alsaleem, Mailis Maes, Miguel Gaspar, Ali Alisaac, Emma Goss, Eman AlIdrissi, Daniela Siegmund, Harald Wajant, Dinakantha Kumararatne, Mofareh S AlZahrani, Peter D Arkwright, Mario Abinun, Rainer Doffinger, Sergey Nejentsev
Receptor Interacting Serine/Threonine Kinase 1 (RIPK1) is a master regulator of signaling pathways leading to inflammation and cell death and is of medical interest as a drug target. Here, we report four patients from three unrelated families with complete RIPK1 deficiency caused by rare homozygous mutations. The patients suffered from recurrent infections, early-onset inflammatory bowel disease and progressive polyarthritis. They had immunodeficiency with lymphopenia and altered production of various cytokines revealed by whole-blood assays...
July 19, 2018: Science
Amber R Hackett, Stephanie L Yahn, Kirill Lyapichev, Angela Dajnoki, Do-Hun Lee, Mario Rodriguez, Natasha Cammer, Ji Pak, Saloni T Mehta, Olaf Bodamer, Vance P Lemmon, Jae K Lee
The glial scar is comprised of a heterogeneous population of reactive astrocytes. NG2 glial cells (also known as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells or polydendrocytes) may contribute to this heterogeneity by differentiating into astrocytes in the injured CNS, but there have been conflicting reports about whether astrocytes comprise a significant portion of the NG2 cell lineage. By using genetic fate mapping after spinal cord injury (SCI) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice, the goal of this study was to confirm and extend upon previous findings, which have shown that NG2 cell plasticity varies across CNS injuries...
July 3, 2018: Experimental Neurology
S Ramachandran, R C Strange, A A Fryer, F Saad, G I Hackett
BACKGROUND: Serum sex hormone-binding globulin levels have been associated with mortality in adult men with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). OBJECTIVES: To confirm the association of serum sex hormone-binding globulin with mortality and then determine whether this association is mediated by age and total testosterone concentration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 364 men (median age: 66 years) with T2DM over a median follow-up of 4.3 years using the Cox regression to study associations between sex hormone-binding globulin, age, total testosterone, and mortality...
July 13, 2018: Andrology
Chris Bell, James Hackett, Benjamin Hall, Heinke Pülhorn, Catherine McMahon, Ganesh Bavikatte
BACKGROUND: Physical, cognitive and emotional sequelae in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been identified; some as late as two years post-injury. To aid in the specialist management of such patients, a multidisciplinary neurotrauma clinic was initiated at a tertiary centre.  Aim: This study sought to describe the clinical features of patients who attended the clinic. METHODS: Patient data was collected under several categories: basic demographics, mechanism and severity of injury, initial CT findings and management, hospital stay and discharge details, symptoms in clinic and actions performed by clinic staff (medication changes, referrals to other services, etc...
July 10, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Ianthe Boden, Kate Sullivan, Claire Hackett, Brooke Winzer, Rebecca Lane, Melissa McKinnon, Iain Robertson
Background: Postoperative complications and delayed physical recovery are significant problems following emergency abdominal surgery. Physiotherapy aims to aid recovery and prevent complications in the acute phase after surgery and is commonplace in most first-world hospitals. Despite ubiquitous service provision, no well-designed, adequately powered, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial has investigated the effect of physiotherapy on the incidence of respiratory complications, paralytic ileus, rate of physical recovery, ongoing need for formal sub-acute rehabilitation, hospital length of stay, health-related quality of life, and mortality following emergency abdominal surgery...
2018: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
Di Jiang, Niccolette Schaefer, Hong Wei Chu
Air-liquid interface culture enables airway epithelial cells to differentiate into a pseudostratified cell layer, consisting of ciliated cells, goblet/secretory cells, and basal cells (Ghio et al., Part Fibre Toxicol 10:25, 2013). This technique is critically important for in vitro studies of lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis, since differentiated airway epithelial cells are more representative of the in vivo lung environment than non-differentiated cells (Derichs et al...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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