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Pharmaceutical technology

Gábor Vasvári, József Kalmár, Péter Veres, Miklós Vecsernyés, Ildikó Bácskay, Pálma Fehér, Zoltán Ujhelyi, Ádám Haimhoffer, Ágnes Rusznyák, Ferenc Fenyvesi, Judit Váradi
In this current article matrix formulations for oral drug delivery are reviewed. Conventional dosage forms and novel applications such as 3D printed matrices and aerogel matrices are discussed. Beside characterization, excipients and matrix forming agents are also enlisted and classified. The incorporated drug could exist in crystalline or in amorphous forms, which makes drug dissolution easily tunable. Main drug release mechanisms are detailed and reviewed to support rational design in pharmaceutical technology and manufacturing considering the fact that R&D members of the industry are forced to obtain knowledge about excipients and methods pros and cons...
July 2018: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
N Bostijn, J Van Renterghem, W Dhondt, C Vervaet, T De Beer
The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of an innovative continuous manufacturing system for semi-solid and liquid pharmaceutical formulations. A commercially available pharmaceutical oral suspension was selected as model formulation. Premixes of the raw materials were dosed via peristaltic pumps to the mixing compartment, which consists of two consecutive mixing units. An experimental design was used to study the influence of several process parameters (throughput, mixing speed in mixing unit 1 and mixing speed in mixing unit 2) on the quality attributes of the oral suspension...
August 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Bo Sun, Weijun Wang, Zhibin He, Min Zhang, Fangong Kong, Mohini Sain, Yonghao Ni
Tea polyphenols have received much attention from the pharmaceutical and food industries owing to their extraordinary antioxidant and antibacterial characteristics. However, tea polyphenols are very unstable to processing and storage, since they are sensitive to the environmental factors like temperature, light and pH. Therefore, the effective application of tea polyphenols requires a protective mechanism to maintain its activity. The utilization of compounded tea polyphenols, instead of raw materials, can potentially help to improve their stability...
August 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Ioannis J Stavrou, Atalanti Christou, Constantina P Kapnissi-Christodoulou
Carob (Ceratonia Siliqua L., tree of the pea family Fabaceae) and its products have recently attracted great interest due to their polyphenolic composition. This review summarizes the polyphenolic compounds that are contained in different carob parts (leaves, pod, seeds, barks) and products (syrup, flour, fiber). It also states the main differences of polyphenolic composition due to environmental and natural reasons, such as region, variety, and gender, and due to the processes used for preparation, extraction and analysis...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Irina Pereira, Patrícia Severino, Ana C Santos, Amélia M Silva, Eliana B Souto
The medicinal properties of essential oils from aromatic plants are known since antiquity. Currently, the technological innovation enabled the reinvention of the ancient plant knowledge leading to the identification and extraction of organic compounds present in essential oils. These organic compounds belong mainly to the terpene group and are accountable for the wide range of bioactive properties attributed to essential oils. Linalool (C10 H18 O), so-called 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol, is a monoterpene alcohol broadly present as a major constituent of plant essential oils, particularly lavender and coriander...
August 3, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Hui Yan, Heinz W Siesler
Notwithstanding the first developments of miniaturized vibrational spectrometers more than a decade ago, only recently real handheld near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers (<200 g) became commercially available at significantly reduced costs compared to other portable systems. While on the one hand this development was driven by the consumer request for every-day-life applications by non-experts, on the manufacturer side it was supported by the availability and potential of new technologies such as micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS)...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Goutam Banerjee, Pritam Chattopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Biotechnological production of fragrances is a recent trend that has expanded rapidly in the last two decades. Vanillin is the second most demanded flavoring agent after saffron. Vanillin is extensively used in various applications, e.g., as a food additive in food and beverages and a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. PRESENT PERSPECTIVE: Vanillin is also considered as a valuable product for other applications, such as metal plating and production of other flavoring agents, herbicides, ripening agents, antifoaming agents, and personal and home-use products (such as in deodorants, air fresheners, and floor polishing agents)...
August 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Nurafiqah Rosman, W N W Salleh, Mohamad Azuwa Mohamed, J Jaafar, A F Ismail, Z Harun
Reports of pharmaceuticals exist in surface water and drinking water around the world, indicate they are ineffectively remove from water and wastewater using conventional treatment technologies. The potential of adverse effect of these pharmaceuticals on public health and aquatic life, also their continuos accumulation have raised the development of water treatment technologies. Hybrid treatment processes like membrane filtration and advance oxidation processes (AOPs) are likely to give rise to efficient simultaneous degradation and separation mechanisms...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Wen-Ting Wang, Hua Zhang, Yuan Yuan, Ya Guo, Shi-Xin He
Raman spectroscopy is a spectroscopic analysis technique that enables rapid qualitative and quantitative detection based on inelastic collision and Raman scattering intensity. This review detailed the generation principle, instrument composition, influencing factors, and common classifications of Raman spectrum. Furthermore, it summarized and forecast the research progress of Raman spectroscopy in the field of drug analysis simultaneously over the past decade, including the identification of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), qualitative and quantitative studies of pharmaceutical preparations, detection of illicit drugs, the identification of Chinese herbal medicines, and the combination with other technologies...
August 8, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Emma S Walker, Ruth A Roberts
From animal research through adverse events in clinical trials to health scares around food contamination, toxicology has frequently been a focus of scientific and societal concern. As these concerns shift with each new drug, new technology or public health scare, how can toxicology stay current, relevant and ethical? Two of the biggest ethical challenges in pharmaceutical toxicology are the use of animals in testing and the high safety-related attrition rates in new drug development. Both of these require progress in the discipline that will only be driven by research funding...
July 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Weixin Tao, Anna Yang, Zixin Deng, Yuhui Sun
Microbial natural products (NPs) especially of the Streptomyces genus have been regarded as an unparalleled resource for pharmaceutical drugs discovery. Moreover, recent progress in sequencing technologies and computational resources further reinforces to identify numerous NP biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) from the genomes of Streptomyces . However, the majority of these BGCs are silent or poorly expressed in native strains and remain to be activated and investigated, which relies heavily on efficient genome editing approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ranjith Kumar Kankala, Biao-Qi Chen, Chen-Guang Liu, Han-Xiao Tang, Shi-Bin Wang, Ai-Zheng Chen
In recent years, the supercritical fluid (SCF) technology has attracted enormous interest from researchers over the traditional pharmaceutical manufacturing strategies due to the environmentally benign nature and economically promising character of SCFs. Among all the SCF-assisted processes for particle formation, the solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluids (SEDS) process is perhaps one of the most efficient methods to fabricate the biomaterials and pharmaceutical compounds at an arbitrary gauge, ranging from micro- to nanoscale...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Mustafa Bookwala, Priyanka Thipsay, Samir Ross, Feng Zhang, Suresh Bandari, Michael A Repka
Although salt formation is the most ubiquitous and effective method of increasing the solubility and dissolution rates of acidic and basic drugs, it consumes large quantities of organic solvents and is a batch process. Herein, we show that the dissolution rate of indomethacin (a poorly water-soluble drug) can be increased by using hot melt extrusion of a 1:1 (mol/mol) indomethacin:tromethamine mixture to form a highly crystalline salt, the physicochemical properties of which are investigated in detail. Specifically, pH-solubility studies demonstrated that this salt exhibited a maximal solubility of 19...
August 4, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Janke Kleynhans, Anne Frederica Grobler, Thomas Ebenhan, Mike Sathekge, Jan Rijn Zeevaart
INTRODUCTION: Drug delivery systems are entities designed to alter the biological behaviour of the pharmaceutical active ingredients that they carry in order to afford more beneficial biodistribution and safety profiles. Many problems currently faced by the field of nuclear medicine (e.g. developing new theranostic agents, utilizing multimodal imaging platforms and providing targeted delivery) can be facilitated by applying drug delivery systems to radiopharmaceuticals that have been proven successful in other medical fields...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Antonio Durán, José María Monteagudo, Israel San Martín
The removal of pharmaceuticals present in wastewater is receiving more and more attention since most of them are refractory to traditional biological treatments. Many advanced oxidation processes have been reported in literature. However, cost estimations are not available for most of them. Recently, more environment friendly processes using solar radiation are gaining importance. The solar photo-Fenton process has been used with different reactor configurations and scales and seems to be the most promising technology for reducing operation costs...
July 28, 2018: Chemosphere
Degao Liu, Kaitlin J Palla, Rongbin Hu, Robert C Moseley, Christopher Mendoza, Mei Chen, Paul E Abraham, Jessy L Labbé, Udaya C Kalluri, Timothy J Tschaplinski, John C Cushman, Anne M Borland, Gerald A Tuskan, Xiaohan Yang
Due to public concerns about the decreasing supply of blue water and increasing heat and drought stress on plant growth caused by urbanization, increasing human population and climate change, interest in crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a specialized type of photosynthesis enhancing water-use efficiency (WUE) and drought tolerance, has increased markedly. Significant progress has been achieved in both basic and applied research in CAM plants since the beginning of this century. Here we provide a brief overview of the current status of CAM research, and discuss future needs and opportunities in a wide range of areas including systems biology, synthetic biology, and utilization of CAM crops for human benefit, with a focus on the following aspects: 1) application of genome-editing technology and high-throughput phenotyping to functional genomics research in model CAM species and genetic improvement of CAM crops, 2) challenges for multi-scale metabolic modeling of CAM systems, 3) opportunities and new strategies for CAM pathway engineering to enhance WUE and drought tolerance in C3 (and C4 ) photosynthesis crops, 4) potential of CAM species as resources for food, feed, natural products, pharmaceuticals and biofuels, and 5) development of CAM crops for ecological and aesthetic benefits...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Lynn Maria Weekes, Suzanne Blogg, Sharene Jackson, Kerren Hosking
The cost and potential harms of medicines and other health technologies are issues of concern for governments and third party payers of health care. Various means have been demonstrated to promote appropriate evidence-based use of these technologies as a way to reduce waste and unintended variation. Since 1998, Australia has had a national organisation responsible for large scale programs to address safe, effective and cost effective use of health technologies. This article reviews 20 years of experience for NPS MedicineWise (NPS)...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Katarzyna Kołecka, Magdalena Gajewska, Piotr Stepnowski, Magda Caban
Pharmaceutical residues are an emerging environmental problem. It is strongly confirmed that pharmaceuticals are present in soils and environmental waters (surface, marine and even groundwater), and that wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are the main source of pharmaceuticals in the watershed. The aim of this study was to recognize the spatial distribution and seasonal changes of selected pharmaceuticals in conventional WWTP with Sludge Treatment Reed Beds (STRBs) technology used for dewatering and stabilization of sewage sludge, because these systems have never been studied in terms of pharmaceuticals distribution or removal potential...
July 31, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sarah J Trenfield, Alvaro Goyanes, Richard Telford, David Wilsdon, Martin Rowland, Simon Gaisford, Abdul W Basit
Three-dimensional printing (3DP) has the potential to cause a paradigm shift in pharmaceuticals, enabling personalised medicines to be produced on-demand. To facilitate integration into healthcare, non-destructive characterisation techniques are required to ensure final product quality. Here, the use of process analytical technologies (PAT), including near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and Raman confocal microscopy, were evaluated on paracetamol-loaded 3D printed tablets composed of an acrylic polymer (Eudragit L100-55)...
August 2, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Piyush Bajaj, Swapan K Chowdhury, Robert Yucha, Edward J Kelly, Guangquing Xiao
Kidney is a major clearance organ of the body responsible for the elimination of many xenobiotics and prescription drugs. With its multitude of uptake and efflux transporters, and metabolizing enzymes, the proximal tubule cell (PTC) in the nephron plays a key role in the disposition of these molecules and is also a primary site for toxicity. In this mini-review, we first provide an overview of the major transporters and metabolizing enzymes in the PTCs responsible for biotransformation and disposition of drugs...
August 3, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
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