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Neural Integrators

Dusti K Sloan, Diana S Spencer, Kathleen S Curtis
Multiple stimulatory and inhibitory neural circuits control eating, and these circuits are influenced by an array of hormonal, neuropeptide, and neurotransmitter signals. For example, estrogen and oxytocin (OT) both are known to decrease food intake, but the mechanisms by which these signal molecules influence eating are not fully understood. These studies investigated the interaction between estrogen and OT in the control of food intake. RT-qPCR studies revealed that 17β-estradiol benzoate (EB)-treated rats showed a two-fold increase in OT mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) compared to Oil-treated controls...
August 14, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
L Tedesco Triccas, Sarah Meyer, Dante Mantini, Kenneth Camilleri, Owen Falzon, Tracey Camilleri, Geert Verheyden
BACKGROUND: Predicting sensorimotor upper limb outcome receives continued attention. Measures by electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) could be neurophysiological predictors for sensorimotor upper limb recovery. NEW METHOD: The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the current evidence for EEG/MEG-based measures to index neural activity after stroke and the relationship between abnormal neural activity and sensorimotor upper limb impairment...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Duc Duy Nguyen, Zixuan Cang, Kedi Wu, Menglun Wang, Yin Cao, Guo-Wei Wei
Advanced mathematics, such as multiscale weighted colored subgraph and element specific persistent homology, and machine learning including deep neural networks were integrated to construct mathematical deep learning models for pose and binding affinity prediction and ranking in the last two D3R Grand Challenges in computer-aided drug design and discovery. D3R Grand Challenge 2 focused on the pose prediction, binding affinity ranking and free energy prediction for Farnesoid X receptor ligands. Our models obtained the top place in absolute free energy prediction for free energy set 1 in stage 2...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
Claudio Lucchiari, Paola Maria Sala, Maria Elide Vanutelli
Creativity, meant as the ability to produce novel, original and suitable ideas, has received increased attention by research in the last years, especially from neuroaesthetics and social neuroscience. Besides the research conducted on the neural correlates of such capacities, previous work tried to answer the question of whether it is possible to enhance creativity through cognitive and neural stimulation. In particular, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been applied to increase neuronal excitability in those areas related to creativity...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Amanda Bischoff-Grethe, Christina E Wierenga, Laura A Berner, Alan N Simmons, Ursula Bailer, Martin P Paulus, Walter H Kaye
Interoception, or the sensing and integration of bodily state signals, has been implicated in anorexia nervosa (AN), given that the hallmark symptoms involve food restriction and body image disturbance. Here we focus on brain response to the anticipation and experience of affective interoceptive stimuli. Women remitted from AN (RAN; N = 18) and healthy comparison women (CW; N = 26) underwent a pleasant affective touch paradigm consisting of gentle strokes with a soft brush administered to the forearm or palm during functional neuroimaging...
August 16, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Jinhong Luo, Steffen R Hage, Cynthia F Moss
Understanding the neural underpinnings of vocal-motor control in humans and other animals remains a major challenge in neurobiology. The Lombard effect - a rise in call amplitude in response to background noise - has been demonstrated in a wide range of vertebrates. Here, we review both behavioral and neurophysiological data and propose that the Lombard effect is driven by a subcortical neural network, which can be modulated by cortical processes. The proposed framework offers mechanistic explanations for two fundamental features of the Lombard effect: its widespread taxonomic distribution across the vertebrate phylogenetic tree and the widely observed variations in compensation magnitude...
August 13, 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
J R Kelly, G Clarke, J F Cryan, T G Dinan
The biological mechanisms underlying psychiatric diagnoses are not well defined. Clinical diagnosis based on categorical systems exhibit high levels of heterogeneity and co-morbidity. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) attempts to reconceptualize psychiatric disorders into transdiagnostic functional dimensional constructs based on neurobiological measures and observable behaviour. By understanding the underlying neurobiology and pathophysiology of the relevant processes, the RDoC aims to advance biomarker development for disease prediction and treatment response...
June 2018: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine
Takashi Hoshino, Kunikazu Tsuji, Hiroaki Onuma, Mio Udo, Hiroko Ueki, Masako Akiyama, Kahaer Abula, Hiroki Katagiri, Kazumasa Miyatake, Toshihumi Watanabe, Ichiro Sekiya, Hideyuki Koga, Takeshi Muneta
BACKGROUND: The major complaint of knee osteoarthritis (OA) is persistent pain. Unlike acute inflammatory pain, persistent pain is usually difficult to manage since its pathology is not fully understood. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of persistent pain, we established 2 different inflammation-induced arthritis models by injecting monoiodo-acetic acid (MIA) into the joint cavity and performed integrated analyses of the structural changes in the synovial tissue and articular cartilage, sensory neuron rearrangement, and pain avoidance behavior in a rat arthritis model...
August 16, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Tiziana Vercillo, Sean O'Neil, Fang Jiang
The ability to constantly anticipate events in the world is critical to human survival. It has been suggested that predictive processing originates from the motor system and that incoming sensory inputs can be altered to facilitate sensorimotor integration. In the current study, we investigated the role of the readiness potentials, i.e. the premotor brain activity registered within the fronto-parietal areas, in sensorimotor integration. We recorded EEG data during three conditions: a motor condition in which a simple action was required, a visual condition in which a visual stimulus was presented on the screen, and a visuomotor condition wherein the visual stimulus appeared in response to a button press...
August 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Claudia Kasper, Francois Olivier Hebert, Nadia Aubin-Horth, Barbara Taborsky
Juveniles of the cooperatively-breeding cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher either consistently provide help in form of alloparental egg care ('cleaners') or consistently abstain from helping ('non-cleaners'). These phenotypes are not based on heritable genetic differences. Instead they arise during ontogeny, which should lead to differences in brain structure or physiology, a currently untested prediction. We compared brain gene expression profiles of cleaners and non-cleaners in two experimental conditions, a helping opportunity and a control condition...
August 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Colin Reardon, Kaitlin Murray, Alan E Lomax
The immune and nervous systems are tightly integrated, with each system capable of influencing the other to respond to infectious or inflammatory perturbations of homeostasis. Recent studies demonstrating the ability of neural stimulation to significantly reduce the severity of immunopathology and consequently reduce mortality have led to a resurgence in the field of neuroimmunology. Highlighting the tight integration of the nervous and immune systems, afferent neurons can be activated by a diverse range of substances from bacterial-derived products to cytokines released by host cells...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Jan M Deussing, Alon Chen
The physiological stress response is responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis in the presence of real or perceived challenges. In this function, the brain activates adaptive responses that involve numerous neural circuits and effector molecules to adapt to the current and future demands. A maladaptive stress response has been linked to the etiology of a variety of disorders, such as anxiety and mood disorders, eating disorders, and the metabolic syndrome. The neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and its relatives, the urocortins 1-3, in concert with their receptors (CRFR1, CRFR2), have emerged as central components of the physiological stress response...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Ana María Rivas-Grajales, Peter Savadjiev, Marek Kubicki, Paul G Nestor, Margaret Niznikiewicz, Robert W McCarley, Carl-Fredrik Westin, Martha E Shenton, James J Levitt
The white matter connections between the midbrain dopamine neurons and the striatum are part of a neural system involved in reward-based learning, a process that is impaired in patients with schizophrenia. The striato-nigro-striatal (SNS) tract, which participates in this process, has not as yet been explored. The present study aimed to use diffusion MRI (dMRI) to delineate the SNS tract, and to compare the application of two dMRI measures, Tract Dispersion (TD), an index of white matter morphology, and Fractional Anisotropy (FA), an index of white matter integrity, to detect group differences between patients with chronic schizophrenia (CSZ) and healthy controls (HC)...
August 14, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Lorenzo Posani, Simona Cocco, Rémi Monasson
The hippocampus is known to store cognitive representations, or maps, that encode both positional and contextual information, critical for episodic memories and functional behavior. How path integration and contextual cues are dynamically combined and processed by the hippocampus to maintain these representations accurate over time remains unclear. To answer this question, we propose a two-way data analysis and modeling approach to CA3 multi-electrode recordings of a moving rat submitted to rapid changes of contextual (light) cues, triggering back-and-forth instabitilies between two cognitive representations ("teleportation" experiment of Jezek et al)...
August 14, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Shaoyan Sun, Wengang Zhou, Qi Tian, Ming Yang, Houqiang Li
Image retrieval has achieved remarkable improvements with the rapid progress on visual representation and indexing techniques. Given a query image, search engines are expected to retrieve relevant results in which the top-ranked short list is of most value to users. However, it is challenging to measure the retrieval quality on-the-fly without direct user feedbacks. In this paper, we aim at evaluating the quality of retrieval results at the first glance (i.e., with the top-ranked images). For each retrieval result, we compute a correlation based feature matrix that comprises of contextual information from the retrieval list, and then feed it into a convolutional neural network regression model for retrieval quality evaluation...
August 10, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Maria Pasquini, Stefano Lai, Cristina Spalletti, Marina Cracchiolo, Sara Conti, Alessandro Panarese, Matteo Caleo, Silvestro Micera
Rodent models are decisive for translational research in healthy and pathological conditions of motor function thanks to specific similarities with humans. Here, we present an upgraded version of the M-Platform, a robotic device previously designed to train mice during forelimb retraction tasks. This new version significantly extend its possibilities for murine experiments during motor tasks: (a) an actuation system for friction adjustment allows to automatically adapt pulling difficulty; (b) the device can be used both for training, with a retraction task, and for assessment, with an isometric task; (c) the platform can be integrated with a neurophysiology systems to record simultaneous cortical neural activity...
August 8, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Mahesh Kandasamy, Ludwig Aigner
The brain is a dynamic organ of the biological renaissance due to the existence of neuroplasticity. Adult neurogenesis abides by every aspect of neuroplasticity in the intact brain and contributes to neural regeneration in response to brain diseases and injury. The occurrence of adult neurogenesis has unequivocally been witnessed in human subjects, experimental and wildlife research including rodents, bats and cetaceans. Adult neurogenesis is a complex cellular process, in which generation of neuroblasts namely, neuroblastosis appears to be an integral process that occur in the limbic system and basal ganglia in addition to the canonical neurogenic niches...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Lin Chen, Tian-Yu Wang, Ya-Wei Dai, Ming-Yang Cha, Hao Zhu, Qing-Qing Sun, Shi-Jin Ding, Peng Zhou, Leon Chua, David Wei Zhang
Brain-inspired neuromorphic computing has shown great promise beyond the conventional Boolean logic. Nanoscale electronic synapses, which have stringent demands for integration density, dynamic range, energy consumption, etc., are key computational elements of the brain-inspired neuromorphic system. Ferroelectric tunneling junctions have been shown to be ideal candidates to realize the functions of electronic synapses due to their ultra-low energy consumption and the nature of ferroelectric tunneling. Here, we report a new electronic synapse based on a three-dimensional vertical Hf0...
August 14, 2018: Nanoscale
Zhen Yang, Shi Gu, Nicolas Honnorat, Kristin A Linn, Russell T Shinohara, Irem Aselcioglu, Steven Bruce, Desmond J Oathes, Christos Davatzikos, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Danielle S Bassett, Yvette I Sheline
Despite widespread use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in clinical practice, its mechanisms with respect to brain networks remain sparsely described. In this study, we applied tools from graph theory and network science to better understand the transdiagnostic neural mechanisms of this treatment for depression. A sample of 64 subjects was included in a study of network dynamics: 33 patients (15 MDD, 18 PTSD) received longitudinal fMRI resting state scans before and after 12 weeks of CBT. Depression severity was rated on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Adam D Richard, Xin-Li Tian, Madison W El-Saadi, Xiao-Hong Lu
Cognitive decline is a feature of aging. Accumulating evidence suggests that the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) is involved in the process of aging-dependent cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration by regulating synaptic neurotransmission and affecting neuroplasticity. Age-related changes in brain structure and cognition are not uniform across the whole brain. Being one of the most vulnerable brain regions to aging-dependent alterations, striatum is integral to several central nervous system functions, such as motor, cognition, and affective control...
July 23, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
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