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Neural Integrators

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315150/n-acetylcysteine-add-on-treatment-leads-to-an-improvement-of-fornix-white-matter-integrity-in-early-psychosis-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#1
Paul Klauser, Lijing Xin, Margot Fournier, Alessandra Griffa, Martine Cleusix, Raoul Jenni, Michel Cuenod, Rolf Gruetter, Patric Hagmann, Philippe Conus, Philipp S Baumann, Kim Q Do
Mechanism-based treatments for schizophrenia are needed, and increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress may be a target. Previous research has shown that N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and glutathione (GSH) precursor almost devoid of side effects, improved negative symptoms, decreased the side effects of antipsychotics, and improved mismatch negativity and local neural synchronization in chronic schizophrenia. In a recent double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial by Conus et al., early psychosis patients received NAC add-on therapy (2700 mg/day) for 6 months...
October 12, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314605/structural-mri-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Rosa De Micco, Antonio Russo, Alessandro Tessitore
Among modern neuroimaging modalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely available, non-invasive, and cost-effective method to detect structural and functional abnormalities related to neurodegenerative disorders. In the last decades, MRI have been widely implemented to support PD diagnosis as well as to provide further insights into motor and non-motor symptoms pathophysiology, complications and treatment-related effects. Different aspects of the brain morphology and function may be derived from a single scan, by applying different analytic approaches...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312642/multiple-effects-of-the-herbicide-glufosinate-ammonium-and-its-main-metabolite-on-neural-stem-cells-from-the-subventricular-zone-of-newborn-mice
#3
Justyne Feat-Vetel, Vanessa Larrigaldie, Géraldine Meyer-Dilhet, Ameziane Herzine, Camille Mougin, Anthony Laugeray, Thierry Gefflaut, Olivier Richard, Valérie Quesniaux, Céline MontécotDubourg, Stéphane Mortaud
The globally used herbicide glufosinate-ammonium (GLA) is structurally analogous to the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, and is known to interfere with cellular mechanisms involved in the glutamatergic system. In this report, we used an in vitro model of murine primary neural stem cell culture to investigate the neurotoxicity of GLA and its main metabolite, 4-methylphosphinico-2-oxobutanoic acid (PPO). We demonstrated that GLA and PPO disturb ependymal wall integrity in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) and alter the neuro-glial differentiation of neural stem cells...
October 9, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311599/affective-and-interpersonal-psychopathic-traits-associated-with-reduced-corpus-callosum-volume-among-male-inmates
#4
Nathaniel E Anderson, J Michael Maurer, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Keith A Harenski, Carla L Harenski, Michael R Koenigs, Jean Decety, Kent A Kiehl
BACKGROUND: Psychopathy is a personality disorder associated with severe emotional and interpersonal consequences and persistent antisocial behavior. Neurobiological models of psychopathy emphasize impairments in emotional processing, attention, and integration of information across large-scale neural networks in the brain. One of the largest integrative hubs in the brain is the corpus callosum (CC) - a large white matter structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres. METHOD: The current study examines CC volume, measured via Freesurfer parcellation, in a large sample (n = 495) of incarcerated men who were assessed for psychopathic traits using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R)...
October 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310759/integrating-brain-implants-with-local-and-distributed-computing-devices-a-next-generation-epilepsy-management-system
#5
Vaclav Kremen, Benjamin H Brinkmann, Inyong Kim, Hari Guragain, Mona Nasseri, Abigail L Magee, Tal Pal Attia, Petr Nejedly, Vladimir Sladky, Nathanial Nelson, Su-Youne Chang, Jeffrey A Herron, Tom Adamski, Steven Baldassano, Jan Cimbalnik, Vince Vasoli, Elizabeth Fehrmann, Tom Chouinard, Edward E Patterson, Brian Litt, Matt Stead, Jamie Van Gompel, Beverly K Sturges, Hang Joon Jo, Chelsea M Crowe, Timothy Denison, Gregory A Worrell
Brain stimulation has emerged as an effective treatment for a wide range of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, and essential tremor have FDA indications for electrical brain stimulation using intracranially implanted electrodes. Interfacing implantable brain devices with local and cloud computing resources have the potential to improve electrical stimulation efficacy, disease tracking, and management. Epilepsy, in particular, is a neurological disease that might benefit from the integration of brain implants with off-the-body computing for tracking disease and therapy...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308171/a-head-mounted-camera-system-integrates-detailed-behavioral-monitoring-with-multichannel-electrophysiology-in-freely-moving-mice
#6
Arne F Meyer, Jasper Poort, John O'Keefe, Maneesh Sahani, Jennifer F Linden
Breakthroughs in understanding the neural basis of natural behavior require neural recording and intervention to be paired with high-fidelity multimodal behavioral monitoring. An extensive genetic toolkit for neural circuit dissection, and well-developed neural recording technology, make the mouse a powerful model organism for systems neuroscience. However, most methods for high-bandwidth acquisition of behavioral data in mice rely upon fixed-position cameras and other off-animal devices, complicating the monitoring of animals freely engaged in natural behaviors...
October 10, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307880/a-deep-learning-approach-to-competing-risks-representation-in-peer-to-peer-lending
#7
Fei Tan, Xiurui Hou, Jie Zhang, Zhi Wei, Zhenyu Yan
Online peer-to-peer (P2P) lending is expected to benefit both investors and borrowers due to their low transaction cost and the elimination of expensive intermediaries. From the lenders' perspective, maximizing their return on investment is an ultimate goal during their decision-making procedure. In this paper, we explore and address a fundamental problem underlying such a goal: how to represent the two competing risks, charge-off and prepayment, in funded loans. We propose to model both potential risks simultaneously, which remains largely unexplored until now...
October 10, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307491/neural-stem-cell-lineage-specific-cannabinoid-type-1-receptor-regulates-neurogenesis-and-plasticity-in-the-adult-mouse-hippocampus
#8
Tina Zimmermann, Mattia Maroso, Annika Beer, Sarah Baddenhausen, Susann Ludewig, Wenqiang Fan, Constance Vennin, Sebastian Loch, Benedikt Berninger, Clementine Hofmann, Martin Korte, Ivan Soltesz, Beat Lutz, Julia Leschik
Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult mouse hippocampus occur in a specific neurogenic niche, where a multitude of extracellular signaling molecules converges to regulate NSC proliferation as well as fate and functional integration. However, the underlying mechanisms how NSCs react to extrinsic signals and convert them to intracellular responses still remains elusive. NSCs contain a functional endocannabinoid system, including the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1). To decipher whether CB1 regulates adult neurogenesis directly or indirectly in vivo, we performed NSC-specific conditional inactivation of CB1 by using triple-transgenic mice...
October 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306845/kisspeptin-and-the-control-of-emotions-mood-and-reproductive-behaviour
#9
Edouard G A Mills, Waljit S Dhillo, Alexander N Comninos
Reproduction is fundamental for the survival of all species and requires meticulous synchronisation of a diverse complement of neural, endocrine and related behaviours. The reproductive hormone kisspeptin (encoded by the KISS1/Kiss1 gene) is now a well-established orchestrator of reproductive hormones, acting upstream of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at the apex of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) reproductive axis. Beyond the hypothalamus, kisspeptin is also expressed in limbic and paralimbic brain regions, which are areas of the neurobiological network implicated in sexual and emotional behaviours...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306660/ng2-expression-in-ng2-glia-is-regulated-by-binding-of-soxe-and-bhlh-transcription-factors-to-a-cspg4-intronic-enhancer
#10
Hitoshi Gotoh, William M Wood, Kiran D Patel, Daniel C Factor, Linda L Boshans, Tadashi Nomura, Paul J Tesar, Katsuhiko Ono, Akiko Nishiyama
NG2 is a type 1 integral membrane glycoprotein encoded by the Cspg4 gene. It is expressed on glial progenitor cells known as NG2 glial cells or oligodendrocyte precursor cells that exist widely throughout the developing and mature central nervous system and vascular mural cells but not on mature oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, microglia, neurons, or neural stem cells. Hence NG2 is widely used as a marker for NG2 glia in the rodent and human. The regulatory elements of the mouse Cspg4 gene and its flanking sequences have been used successfully to target reporter and Cre recombinase to NG2 glia in transgenic mice when used in a large 200 kb bacterial artificial chromosome cassette containing the 38 kb Cspg4 gene in the center...
October 10, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306384/a-numerical-simulation-of-neural-fields-on-curved-geometries
#11
R Martin, D J Chappell, N Chuzhanova, J J Crofts
Despite the highly convoluted nature of the human brain, neural field models typically treat the cortex as a planar two-dimensional sheet of ne;urons. Here, we present an approach for solving neural field equations on surfaces more akin to the cortical geometries typically obtained from neuroimaging data. Our approach involves solving the integral form of the partial integro-differential equation directly using collocation techniques alongside efficient numerical procedures for determining geodesic distances between neural units...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301571/deep-learning-with-microfluidics-for-biotechnology
#12
REVIEW
Jason Riordon, Dušan Sovilj, Scott Sanner, David Sinton, Edmond W K Young
Advances in high-throughput and multiplexed microfluidics have rewarded biotechnology researchers with vast amounts of data but not necessarily the ability to analyze complex data effectively. Over the past few years, deep artificial neural networks (ANNs) leveraging modern graphics processing units (GPUs) have enabled the rapid analysis of structured input data - sequences, images, videos - to predict complex outputs with unprecedented accuracy. While there have been early successes in flow cytometry, for example, the extensive potential of pairing microfluidics (to acquire data) and deep learning (to analyze data) to tackle biotechnology challenges remains largely untapped...
October 6, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301303/a-novel-bio-psychosocial-behavioral-treatment-model-of-panic-disorder
#13
Seon-Cheol Park, Yong-Ku Kim
To conceptualize a novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral treatment model of panic disorder (PD), it is necessary to completely integrate behavioral, psychophysiological, neurobiological, and genetic data. Molecular genetic research on PD is specifically focused on neurotransmitters, including serotonin, neuropeptides, glucocorticoids, and neurotrophins. Although pharmacological interventions for PD are currently available, the need for more effective, faster-acting, and more tolerable pharmacological interventions is unmet...
October 11, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301243/decision-tree-based-meta-strategy-improved-accuracy-of-disorder-prediction-and-identified-novel-disordered-residues-inside-binding-motifs
#14
Bi Zhao, Bin Xue
Using computational techniques to identify intrinsically disordered residues is practical and effective in biological studies. Therefore, designing novel high-accuracy strategies is always preferable when existing strategies have a lot of room for improvement. Among many possibilities, a meta-strategy that integrates the results of multiple individual predictors has been broadly used to improve the overall performance of predictors. Nonetheless, a simple and direct integration of individual predictors may not effectively improve the performance...
October 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300700/simulating-human-sleep-spindle-meg-and-eeg-from-ion-channel-and-circuit-level-dynamics
#15
B Q Rosen, G Krishnan, P Sanda, M Komarov, T Sejnowski, N Rulkov, I Ulbert, L Eross, J Madsen, O Devinsky, W Doyle, D Fabo, S Cash, M Bazhenov, E Halgren
BACKGROUND: Although they form a unitary phenomenon, the relationship between extracranial M/EEG and transmembrane ion flows is understood only as a general principle rather than as a well-articulated and quantified causal chain. METHOD: We present an integrated multiscale model, consisting of a neural simulation of thalamus and cortex during stage N2 sleep and a biophysical model projecting cortical current densities to M/EEG fields. Sleep spindles were generated through the interactions of local and distant network connections and intrinsic currents within thalamocortical circuits...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298130/pathophysiology-of-trans-synaptic-adhesion-molecules-implications-for-epilepsy
#16
REVIEW
Adam Gorlewicz, Leszek Kaczmarek
Chemical synapses are specialized interfaces between neurons in the brain that transmit and modulate information, thereby integrating cells into multiplicity of interacting neural circuits. Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) might form trans-synaptic complexes that are crucial for the appropriate identification of synaptic partners and further for the establishment, properties, and dynamics of synapses. When affected, trans-synaptic adhesion mechanisms play a role in synaptopathies in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including epilepsy...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298088/medical-image-classification-based-on-deep-features-extracted-by-deep-model-and-statistic-feature-fusion-with-multilayer-perceptron-%C3%A2
#17
ZhiFei Lai, HuiFang Deng
Medical image classification is a key technique of Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems. Traditional methods rely mainly on the shape, color, and/or texture features as well as their combinations, most of which are problem-specific and have shown to be complementary in medical images, which leads to a system that lacks the ability to make representations of high-level problem domain concepts and that has poor model generalization ability. Recent deep learning methods provide an effective way to construct an end-to-end model that can compute final classification labels with the raw pixels of medical images...
2018: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30297839/an-evolutionarily-conserved-mesodermal-enhancer-in-vertebrate-zic3
#18
Yuri S Odaka, Takahide Tohmonda, Atsushi Toyoda, Jun Aruga
Zic3 encodes a zinc finger protein essential for the development of meso-ectodermal tissues. In mammals, Zic3 has important roles in the development of neural tube, axial skeletons, left-right body axis, and in maintaining pluripotency of ES cells. Here we characterized cis-regulatory elements required for Zic3 expression. Enhancer activities of human-chicken-conserved noncoding sequences around Zic1 and Zic3 were screened using chick whole-embryo electroporation. We identified enhancers for meso-ectodermal tissues...
October 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30297601/a-novel-wind-speed-estimation-based-on-the-integration-of-an-artificial-neural-network-and-a-particle-filter-using-beidou-geo-reflectometry
#19
Kittipong Kasantikul, Dongkai Yang, Qiang Wang, Aung Lwin
Oceanographic remote sensing, which is based on the sensitivity of reflected signals from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), so-called GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R), is very useful for the observation of ocean wind speed. Wind speed estimation over the ocean is the core factor in maritime transportation management and the study of climate change. The main concept of the GNSS-R technique is using the different times between the reflected and the direct signals to measure the wind speed and wind direction...
October 8, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30296666/neurolinguistics-research-advancing-development-of-a-direct-speech-brain-computer-interface
#20
REVIEW
Ciaran Cooney, Raffaella Folli, Damien Coyle
A direct-speech brain-computer interface (DS-BCI) acquires neural signals corresponding to imagined speech, then processes and decodes these signals to produce a linguistic output in the form of phonemes, words, or sentences. Recent research has shown the potential of neurolinguistics to enhance decoding approaches to imagined speech with the inclusion of semantics and phonology in experimental procedures. As neurolinguistics research findings are beginning to be incorporated within the scope of DS-BCI research, it is our view that a thorough understanding of imagined speech, and its relationship with overt speech, must be considered an integral feature of research in this field...
September 22, 2018: iScience
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