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Neural Integrators

Zhihao Qi, Zhen Huang, Feng Xie, Linxi Chen
Mitochondria play a key role in the maintenance of neuronal function by continuously providing energy. Here, we will give a detailed review about the recent developments in regards to dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) induced unbalanced mitochondrial dynamics, excessive mitochondrial division, and neuronal injury in neural system dysfunctions and neurodegenerative diseases, including the Drp1 knockout induced mice embryonic death, the dysfunction of the Drp1-dependent mitochondrial division induced neuronal cell apoptosis and impaired neuronal axonal transportation, the abnormal interaction between Drp1 and amyloid β (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the mutant Huntingtin (Htt) in Huntington's disease (HD), and the Drp1-associated pathogenesis of other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Simone L Otto, Jerrel L Yakel
Disruption in cholinergic signaling has been linked to many environmental and/or pathological conditions known to modify adult neurogenesis. The α7 nAChRs are in the family of cys-loop receptor channels which have been shown to be neuroprotective in adult neurons and are thought to be critical for survival and integration of immature neurons. However, in developing neurons, poor calcium buffering may cause α7 nAChR activation to be neurotoxic. To investigate whether the α7 nAChR regulates neurogenesis in the hippocampus, we used a combination of mouse genetics and imaging to quantify neural stem cell (NSC) densities located in the dentate gyrus of adult mice...
December 4, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Pawel J Matusz, Nora Turoman, Ruxandra I Tivadar, Chrysa Retsa, Micah M Murray
In real-world environments, information is typically multisensory, and objects are a primary unit of information processing. Object recognition and action necessitate attentional selection of task-relevant from among task-irrelevant objects. However, the brain and cognitive mechanisms governing these processes remain not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that attentional selection of visual objects is controlled by integrated top-down audiovisual object representations ("attentional templates") while revealing a new brain mechanism through which they can operate...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Yu Lei, Benshen Song, Liang Chen, Jiabin Su, Xin Zhang, Wei Ni, Yuguo Yu, Bin Xu, Lianchun Yu, Yuxiang Gu, Ying Mao
Treatment of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) in adult moyamoya disease (MMD) is still unclear because of its unveiled neural synchronization. This study introduced a dynamic measurement of connectivity number entropy (CNE) to characterize both spatial and temporal dimensions of network interactions. Fifty-one patients with MMD were recruited (27 with VCI and 24 with intact cognition), as well as 26 normal controls (NCs). Static network properties were first examined to confirm its aberrance in MMD with VCI...
December 3, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Jan F Scheitz, Christian H Nolte, Wolfram Doehner, Vladimir Hachinski, Matthias Endres
Cardiac complications are a frequent medical problem during the first few days after an ischaemic stroke, and patients present with a broad range of symptoms including myocardial injury, cardiac dysfunction, and arrhythmia, with varying overlap between these three conditions. Evidence from clinical and neuroimaging studies and animal research suggests that these cardiac disturbances share the same underlying mechanisms. Although the exact cascade of events has yet to be elucidated, stroke-induced functional and structural alterations in the central autonomic network, with subsequent dysregulation of normal neural cardiac control, are the assumed pathophysiology...
December 2018: Lancet Neurology
Yanye Lu, Shuqing Chen, Shiyang Hu, Joachim Hornegger, Andreas Maier, Markus Kowarschik, Rebecca Fahrig, Xiaolin Huang, Yan Xia, Jang-Hwan Choi, Qiushi Ren
PURPOSE: Benefiting from multi-energy X-ray imaging technology, material decomposition facilitates the characterization of different materials in X-ray imaging. However, the performance of material decomposition is limited by the accuracy of the decomposition model. Due to the presenceof non-ideal effects in X-ray imaging systems, it is difficult to explicitly build the imaging system models for material decomposition. As an alternative, this paper explores the feasibility of using machine learning approaches for material decomposition tasks...
December 3, 2018: Medical Physics
Liang Ma, Edmund T Rolls, Xiuqin Liu, Yuting Liu, Zeyu Jiao, Yue Wang, Weikang Gong, Zhiming Ma, Fuzhou Gong, Lin Wan
Analysis linking directly genomics, neuroimaging phenotypes and clinical measurements is crucial for understanding psychiatric disorders, but remains rare. Here, we describe a multi-scale analysis using genome-wide SNPs, gene-expression, grey matter volume (GMV) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores (PANSS) to explore the etiology of schizophrenia. With 72 drug-naive schizophrenic first episode patients (FEPs) and 73 matched heathy controls, we identified 108 genes, from schizophrenia risk genes, that correlated significantly with GMV, which are highly co-expressed in the brain during development...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
Ueli Kramer, Stéphane Kolly, Pauline Maillard, Antonio Pascual-Leone, Andrea C Samson, Ruth Schmitt, Adriano Bernini, Gilles Allenbach, Patrick Charbon, Yves de Roten, Philippe Conus, Jean-Nicolas Despland, Bogdan Draganski
Changes in emotional processing (EP) and in theory of mind (TOM) are central across treatment approaches for patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Although the assessment of EP relies on the observation of a patient's self-criticism in a two-chair dialogue, an individual's TOM assessments is made based on responses to humorous stimuli based on false beliefs. For this pilot study, we assessed eight patients with BPD before and after a 3-month-long psychiatric treatment, using functional magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral tasks...
December 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Qi-Gang Zhou, Ashley D Nemes, Daehoon Lee, Eun Jeoung Ro, Jing Zhang, Amy S Nowacki, Susan M Dymecki, Imad M Najm, Hoonkyo Suh
We investigated how pathological changes in newborn hippocampal dentate granule cells (DGCs) lead to epilepsy. Using a rabies virus-mediated retrograde tracing system and a designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) chemogenetic method, we demonstrated that newborn hippocampal DGCs are required for the formation of epileptic neural circuits and the induction of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). A rabies virus-mediated mapping study revealed that aberrant circuit integration of hippocampal newborn DGCs formed excessive de novo excitatory connections as well as recurrent excitatory loops, allowing the hippocampus to produce, amplify, and propagate excessive recurrent excitatory signals...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Sandeep Reddy, John Fox, Maulik P Purohit
In recent years, there has been massive progress in artificial intelligence (AI) with the development of deep neural networks, natural language processing, computer vision and robotics. These techniques are now actively being applied in healthcare with many of the health service activities currently being delivered by clinicians and administrators predicted to be taken over by AI in the coming years. However, there has also been exceptional hype about the abilities of AI with a mistaken notion that AI will replace human clinicians altogether...
December 3, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
Mubeena Mariyath P M, Mehdi H Shahi, Mohd Tayyab, Shirin Farheen, Nabeela Khanam, Sartaj Tabassum, Asif Ali
BACKGROUND: Cadmium is a nonessential toxic heavy metal, which enters the body easily and damages the cellular system. The sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway is one of the key regulatory pathways, which define neural growth and development. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore how cadmium exposure affects neural activities, Shh signaling cascade, and its downstream target genes. METHODS: Total 18 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups, control and test groups...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Lei Deng, Zhe Zou, Xin Ma, Ling Liang, Guanrui Wang, Xing Hu, Liu Liu, Jing Pei, Guoqi Li, Yuan Xie
Fast object tracking on embedded devices is of great importance for applications such as autonomous driving, unmanned aerial vehicle, and intelligent monitoring. Whereas, most of previous general solutions failed to reach this goal due to the facts that (i) high computational complexity and heterogeneous operation steps in the tracking models and (ii) parallelism-limited and bloated hardware platforms (e.g., CPU/GPU). Although previously proposed devices leverage neural dynamics and near-data processing for efficient tracking, their flexibility is limited due to the tight integration with vision sensor and the effectiveness on various video datasets is yet to be fully demonstrated...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Raphael Ganzenmüller, Prajal Pradhan, Jürgen P Kropp
Annual greenhouse gas emissions have increased more than threefold between 1950 and 2014, posing a major threat to the integrity of the entire earth system and subsequently to humankind. Consequently, roadmaps towards low-carbon pathways are urgently needed. Our study contributes to a more detailed understanding of the dynamics of country based emission patterns and uses them to discuss prospective low-carbon pathways for countries. As availability of databases on sectoral emissions substantially increased, we employ machine learning techniques to classify emission features and pathways...
November 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Serap Aydin, Cagdas Güdücü, Firat Kutluk, Adile Öniz, Murat Özgören
In this study, 64-channel single trial auditory brain oscillations (STABO) have been firstly analyzed by using complexity metrics to observe the effect of musical experience on brain functions. Experimental data was recorded from eyes-opened volunteers during listening the musical chords by piano. Complexity estimation methods were compared to each other for classification of groups (professional musicians and non-musicians) by using both classifiers (Support Vector Machine (SVM), Naive Bayes (NB)) and statistical tests (one-way ANOVA) with respect to electrode locations...
November 29, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Steven T Szabo, Michael J Thorpy, Geert Mayer, John H Peever, Thomas S Kilduff
Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and cataplexy are common symptoms of narcolepsy, a sleep disorder associated with the loss of hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons. Although only a few drugs have received regulatory approval for narcolepsy to date, treatment involves diverse medications that affect multiple biochemical targets and neural circuits. Clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy for the following classes of drugs as narcolepsy treatments: alerting medications (amphetamine, methylphenidate, modafinil/armodafinil, solriamfetol [JZP-110]), antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), sodium oxybate, and the H3 -receptor inverse agonist/antagonist pitolisant...
November 8, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Christian Brodbeck, L Elliot Hong, Jonathan Z Simon
During speech perception, a central task of the auditory cortex is to analyze complex acoustic patterns to allow detection of the words that encode a linguistic message [1]. It is generally thought that this process includes at least one intermediate, phonetic, level of representations [2-6], localized bilaterally in the superior temporal lobe [7-9]. Phonetic representations reflect a transition from acoustic to linguistic information, classifying acoustic patterns into linguistically meaningful units, which can serve as input to mechanisms that access abstract word representations [10, 11]...
November 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Akram Al Abbar, Norshariza Nordin, Nadiah Ghazalli, Syahril Abdullah
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have great potentials for regenerative medicine. However, serious concerns such as the use of the viral-mediated reprogramming strategies and exposure of iPSCs to animal products from feeder cells and serum-containing medium have restricted the application of iPSCs in the clinics. Therefore, the generation of iPSCs with minimal viral integrations and in non-animal sourced and serum-free medium is necessary. In this report, a polycistronic lentiviral vector carrying Yamanaka's factors was used to reprogram mouse fibroblasts into iPSCs in feeder- and xeno-free culture environment...
December 2018: Tissue & Cell
Jason E Chung, Hannah R Joo, Jiang Lan Fan, Daniel F Liu, Alex H Barnett, Supin Chen, Charlotte Geaghan-Breiner, Mattias P Karlsson, Magnus Karlsson, Kye Y Lee, Hexin Liang, Jeremy F Magland, Jeanine A Pebbles, Angela C Tooker, Leslie F Greengard, Vanessa M Tolosa, Loren M Frank
The brain is a massive neuronal network, organized into anatomically distributed sub-circuits, with functionally relevant activity occurring at timescales ranging from milliseconds to years. Current methods to monitor neural activity, however, lack the necessary conjunction of anatomical spatial coverage, temporal resolution, and long-term stability to measure this distributed activity. Here we introduce a large-scale, multi-site, extracellular recording platform that integrates polymer electrodes with a modular stacking headstage design supporting up to 1,024 recording channels in freely behaving rats...
November 17, 2018: Neuron
Dante Duarte, Luis Eduardo Coutinho Castelo-Branco, Elif Uygur Kucukseymen, Felipe Fregni
Fibromyalgia affects more than 5 million people in the United States and has a detrimental impact on individuals' quality of life. Current pharmacological treatments provide limited benefits to relieve the pain of fibromyalgia, along with a risk of adverse effects; a scenario that explains the increasing interest for multimodal approaches. A tailored strategy to focus on this dysfunctional endogenous pain inhibitory system is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor cortex. By combining tDCS with aerobic exercise, the effects can be optimized...
December 3, 2018: Expert Review of Medical Devices
Ahmed Hosny, Chintan Parmar, Thibaud P Coroller, Patrick Grossmann, Roman Zeleznik, Avnish Kumar, Johan Bussink, Robert J Gillies, Raymond H Mak, Hugo J W L Aerts
BACKGROUND: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients often demonstrate varying clinical courses and outcomes, even within the same tumor stage. This study explores deep learning applications in medical imaging allowing for the automated quantification of radiographic characteristics and potentially improving patient stratification. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed an integrative analysis on 7 independent datasets across 5 institutions totaling 1,194 NSCLC patients (age median = 68...
November 2018: PLoS Medicine
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