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"Opioid" and "HIV"

Henry J Whittle, Lila A Sheira, Edward A Frongillo, Kartika Palar, Jennifer Cohen, Daniel Merenstein, Tracey E Wilson, Adebola Adedimeji, Mardge H Cohen, Adaora A Adimora, Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Lisa Metsch, Janet M Turan, Eryka L Wentz, Phyllis C Tien, Sheri D Weiser
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between food insecurity and substance use. We aimed to investigate this relationship using longitudinal data among women with or at risk for HIV in the United States. DESIGN: Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a prospective cohort study. SETTING: Nine sites across the US. PARTICIPANTS: 2,553 women with or at risk for HIV. MEASUREMENTS: Semi-annual structured interviews were conducted during April 2013-March 2016...
August 14, 2018: Addiction
Leslie E Wolf, Laura M Beskow
Certificates of Confidentiality ("Certificates") are a federal legal tool designed to protect sensitive, identifiable research data from compelled disclosure. Congress first authorized their use in 1970 to facilitate research on illegal drug use. The scope of their use was later expanded to cover mental health research and then again to apply broadly to identifiable, sensitive research data, regardless of topic. Certificates can be critical to enabling conduct of essential research on sensitive topics, such as effective interventions to curb the opioid epidemic or reduce HIV transmission among minority youth...
May 2018: American Journal of Law & Medicine
J O Lam, G M Barnell, M Merchant, C G Ellis, M J Silverberg
OBJECTIVES: HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of anal cancer. Screening for anal cancer precursors using high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) may be clinically beneficial. In this study, we examined patient tolerability of this procedure. METHODS: The acceptability of HRA was evaluated among HIV-infected patients who completed a first-time HRA between July 2008 and December 2013 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. We reviewed electronic medical records to identify lack of HRA acceptability, which was defined as receipt of HRA with sedation, dispensation of opioid analgaesia, and/or an urgent care visit following HRA, and to evaluate factors associated with patients not returning for a recommended repeat HRA (proxy for HRA acceptability)...
August 6, 2018: HIV Medicine
M Eugenia Socias, M-J Milloy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: People who use drugs face multiple challenges to achieve optimal HIV treatment outcomes. This review discusses the current knowledge in substance use and antiretroviral therapy adherence, highlighting recent findings and potential interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies continue to demonstrate the negative impacts of substance use and related disorders on antiretroviral therapy adherence, with the exception of cannabis. Evidence-based addiction treatment, in particular, opioid agonist therapy, appears to improve adherence levels...
July 31, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Taylor A Ochalek, Sarah H Heil, Stephen T Higgins, Gary J Badger, Stacey C Sigmon
AIMS: There is a critical need to reduce infectious disease transmission among individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD). Here we examine the ability of a novel, automated educational intervention, delivered via iPad in a single visit, to improve human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C (HCV) knowledge among adults with OUD. METHODS: Participants were 25 adults enrolled in a 12-week trial evaluating the efficacy of an Interim Buprenorphine Treatment for reducing illicit opioid use and other risk behaviors during delays to opioid treatment...
July 19, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Theddeus Iheanacho, Elina Stefanovics, Robert Rosenheck
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence and sociodemographic and clinical correlates of opioid use disorder (OUD), a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, among homeless veterans nationally in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). DESIGN: Administrative data on 256,404 veterans who were homeless and/or had OUD in fiscal year 2012 were analyzed to evaluate OUD as a risk factor for homelessness along with associated characteristics, comorbidities, and patterns of service use...
May 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Roman Shrestha, Frederick L Altice, Brian Sibilio, Michael M Copenhaver
HIV sero-status disclosure among people living with HIV (PLWH) is an important component of preventing HIV transmission to sexual partners. Due to various social, structural, and behavioral challenges, however, many HIV-infected opioid-dependent patients do not disclose their HIV status to all sexual partners. In this analysis, we therefore examined non-disclosure practices and correlates of non-disclosure among high-risk HIV-infected opioid-dependent individuals. HIV-infected opioid-dependent individuals who reported HIV-risk behaviors were enrolled (N = 133) and assessed for HIV disclosure, risk behaviors, health status, antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, HIV stigma, social support and other characteristics...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Javier A Cepeda, Ksenia Eritsyan, Peter Vickerman, Alexandra Lyubimova, Marina Shegay, Veronika Odinokova, Leo Beletsky, Annick Borquez, Matthew Hickman, Chris Beyrer, Natasha K Martin
BACKGROUND: Most new HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) in eastern Europe and central Asia occur in Russia, where PWID have a high risk of overdose. In Russia, use of opioid agonist therapy (OAT) is prohibited, and coverage of needle and syringe programmes (NSPs) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) is poor. We aimed to assess the effects that scaling up harm reduction (ie, use of OAT and coverage of NSPs) and use of ART might have on HIV incidence and the frequency of fatal overdoses among PWID in two cities in the Ural Federal District and Siberian Federal District, where the prevalence of HIV is high or increasing in PWID...
July 19, 2018: Lancet HIV
Lineke Derks, Martyna Gassowski, Stine Nielsen, Matthias An der Heiden, Norbert Bannert, Claus-Thomas Bock, Viviane Bremer, Claudia Kücherer, Stefan Ross, Benjamin Wenz, Ulrich Marcus, Ruth Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: High prevalence of drug use and injection-related risk behaviours have been reported among former Soviet Union (FSU)-migrants. To investigate hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV seroprevalence and related risk behaviours in this subgroup in Germany, we compared first generation FSU-migrants and native Germans using data from a sero-behavioural survey of people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: Current injectors were recruited using respondent-driven sampling in eight German cities in 2011-2014...
July 10, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Alexei Zelenev, Portia Shea, Alyona Mazhnaya, Julia Rozanova, Lynn Madden, Ruthanne Marcus, Frederick L Altice
BACKGROUND: Opioid agonist therapies (OAT) in Ukraine were first introduced in 2004 not as addiction treatment, but for HIV prevention. Numerous obstacles have thwarted OAT scale-up, including individual constraints and structural barriers. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 1613 opioid dependent people who inject drugs (PWID) were recruited in 2014-2015 using stratified sampling in Kyiv, Odesa, Mykolayiv, Dnipro and Lviv. Analysis was restricted to a subset of 811 PWID who never received OAT...
June 30, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Zameer Mohamed, John Rwegasha, Jin U Kim, Yusuke Shimakawa, Lila Poiteau, Stéphane Chevaliez, Sanjay Bhagani, Simon D Taylor-Robinson, Mark R Thursz, Jessie Mbwambo, Maud Lemoine
The World Health Organisation has recently called for hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination and has identified people who inject drugs (PWID) as a key population to scale-up screening and linkage to care. This study reports the cascade of care for HCV in PWID attending the largest opioid substitution treatment (OST) clinic in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Between February 2011 and March 2016, HCV serology for all PWID registered at the Muhimbili National Hospital OST clinic, Dar-es-Salaam were obtained from records...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Perrine Roux, Salim Mezaache, Laélia Briand-Madrid, Marie Debrus, Nicolas Khatmi, Gwenaelle Maradan, Camélia Protopopescu, Daniela Rojas-Castro, Patrizia Carrieri
AIMS: In France, a non-negligible proportion of opioid-dependent individuals inject morphine sulfate. Although it has not yet been officially approved as an opioid substitution treatment (OST), some physicians can prescribe its use for people in methadone or buprenorphine treatment failure. Longitudinal data from the ANRS-AERLI study, which evaluated an educational intervention for safer injection called AERLI, provided us the opportunity to better characterize the profile, risk practices and needs of people who inject morphine sulfate (MSI), through comparison with other injectors, and to identify correlates of HIV/HCV risk practices in this group...
June 28, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Don C Des Jarlais, Theodore M Hammett, Binh Kieu, Yi Chen, Jonathan Feelemyer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe a small city/rural area HIV prevention project (the Cross Border Project) implemented in Ning Ming County, Guangxi Province, China, and Lang Son province, Vietnam, and consider its implications for addressing the opioid/heroin epidemic in small cities/rural areas in the USA. The description and the outcomes of the Cross Border project were taken from published reports, project records, and recent data provided by local public health authorities. Evaluation included serial cross-sectional surveys of people who inject drugs to assess trends in risk behaviors and HIV prevalence...
August 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Jennifer R Havens, Sharon L Walsh, P Todd Korthuis, David A Fiellin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the epidemiology of opioid-use disorder in the rural United States (U.S.) as it pertains to HIV and hepatitis C transmission and treatment resources. RECENT FINDINGS: Heroin and fentanyl analogs have surpassed prescription opioids in their availability in rural opioid markets adding to HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) and overdose risks. Only 18% of rural individuals live in towns with inpatient services which are of limited quality and utility...
August 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Pablo Barreiro
Well-known AIDS researcher Robert Redfield picked to lead the CDC on March 2018. He is one of the HIV/AIDS pioneers in the United States. During two decades at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, in Bethesda, MD, he made pivotal contributions, highlighting the importance of heterosexual HIV transmission, developing the Walter Reed staging system for HIV infection, and demonstrating that active HIV replication takes place during all stages of HIV disease. In 1996, he was one of the cofounders of the Institute of Human Virology in Baltimore, MD...
April 2018: AIDS Reviews
Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, H Guarino, K Quinn, P Meylakhs, S Campos, A Meylakhs, D Berbesi, D Toro-Tobón, E Goodbody, D C Ompad, S R Friedman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The social networks of people who inject drugs (PWID) have long been studied to understand disease transmission dynamics and social influences on risky practices. We illustrate how PWID can be active agents promoting HIV, HCV, and overdose prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: We assessed drug users' connections and interactions with others at risk for HIV/HCV in three cities: New York City (NYC), USA (n = 539); Pereira, Colombia (n = 50); and St...
June 22, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Jonathan P Moorman, Matthew R Krolikowski, Stephanie M Mathis, Robert P Pack
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to address infection with HIV and hepatitis C in the Appalachian region of the USA and the driving forces underlying this epidemic. We seek to discuss epidemiology of disease and the possible interventions to reduce incidence and burden of disease in this resource-limited area. RECENT FINDINGS: The rise of the opioid crisis has fueled a rise in new hepatitis C infection, and a rise in new HIV infection is expected to follow...
June 21, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Mark Olfson, Stephen Crystal, Melanie Wall, Shuai Wang, Shang-Min Liu, Carlos Blanco
Importance: A recent increase in patients presenting with nonfatal opioid overdoses has focused clinical attention on characterizing their risks of premature mortality. Objective: To describe all-cause mortality rates, selected cause-specific mortality rates, and standardized mortality rate ratios (SMRs) of adults during their first year after nonfatal opioid overdose. Design, Setting, and Participants: This US national longitudinal study assesses a cohort of patients aged 18 to 64 years who were Medicaid beneficiaries and experienced nonfatal opioid overdoses...
June 20, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Alyona Mazhnaya, Karin E Tobin, Jill Owczarzak
BACKGROUND: In Eastern Europe and Central Asia new HIV infections occur at a high rate among people who inject drugs (PWID). Injection risk behavior may be associated with injecting in public places. However, there is a lack of studies exploring this association in Ukraine, which has an HIV prevalence 21-42% among PWID. METHODS: Data came from a baseline survey of PWID recruited to participate in a behavioral HIV prevention intervention. The association between HIV/HCV injection risk behavior and place of injection (private vs...
August 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Samuel R Friedman, Leslie Williams, April M Young, Jennifer Teubl, Dimitrios Paraskevis, Evangelia Kostaki, Carl Latkin, Danielle German, Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, Honoria Guarino, Tetyana I Vasylyeva, Britt Skaathun, John Schneider, Ania Korobchuk, Pavlo Smyrnov, Georgios Nikolopoulos
PURPOSE: This paper presents an overview of different kinds of risk and social network methods and the kinds of research questions each can address. RECENT FINDINGS: It also reviews what network research has discovered about how network characteristics are associated with HIV and other infections, risk behaviors, preventive behaviors, and care, and discusses some ways in which network-based public health interventions have been conducted. Based on this, risk and social network research and interventions seem both feasible and valuable for addressing the many public health and social problems raised by the widespread use of opioids in the US South...
June 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
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