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Small RNAs

Chuang Tian, Yong Jin, Songshan Shi
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been suggested to serve important roles in the development of a number of human cancer types. An increasing amount of data has indicated that the lncRNA small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 (SUMO1) pseudogene 3 (SUMO1P3) has been involved in various types of human cancer. However, the function SUMO1P3 in the development of pancreatic cancer remains unclear. Firstly, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the expression of SUMO1P3 in pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines...
November 2018: Oncology Letters
Erika Girardi, Paula López, Sébastien Pfeffer
Every living organism has to constantly face threats from the environment and deal with a large number of pathogens against which it has to defend itself to survive. Among those, viruses represent a large class of obligatory intracellular parasites, which rely on their host machinery to multiply and propagate. As a result, viruses and their hosts have engaged in an ever-evolving arms race to be able to maintain their existence. The role played by micro (mi)RNAs in this ongoing battle has been extensively studied in the past 15 years and will be the subject of this review article...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Federico Fuchs Wightman, Luciana E Giono, Juan Pablo Fededa, Manuel de la Mata
MicroRNAs are extensively studied regulatory non-coding small RNAs that silence animal genes throughout most biological processes, typically doing so by binding to partially complementary sequences within target RNAs. A plethora of studies has described detailed mechanisms for microRNA biogenesis and function, as well as their temporal and spatial regulation during development. By inducing translational repression and/or degradation of their target RNAs, microRNAs can contribute to achieve highly specific cell- or tissue-specific gene expression, while their aberrant expression can lead to disease...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Zhengyun Xiao, Guo Cheng, Yang Jiao, Chen Pan, Ran Li, Danmei Jia, Jing Zhu, Chao Wu, Min Zheng, Junling Jia
Current single-cell RNA-seq approaches are hindered by preamplification bias, loss of strand of origin information, and the inability to observe small-RNA and mRNA dual transcriptomes. Here, we introduce a single-cell holo-transcriptome sequencing (Holo-Seq) that overcomes all three hurdles. Holo-Seq has the same quantitative accuracy and uniform coverage with a complete strand of origin information as bulk RNA-seq. Most importantly, Holo-Seq can simultaneously observe small RNAs and mRNAs in a single cell...
October 17, 2018: Genome Biology
Sara Zamani, Amir Sohrabi, Seyed Masoud Hosseini, Marjan Rahnamaye-Farzami, Abolfazl Akbari
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis is an important factor to improve survival of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) patients. Molecular biomarkers such as micro RNA (miRNA) can be used in the early detection of ICC. The expression of miR-21 and miR-29a are deregulated in many types of human cancers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in miR-21 and miR-29a expression patterns in Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection and various grades of cervical cancer among Iranian women...
October 17, 2018: MicroRNA
Yang Qiu, Yanpeng Xu, Yao Zhang, Hui Zhou, Yong-Qiang Deng, Xiao-Feng Li, Meng Miao, Qiang Zhang, Bo Zhong, Yuanyang Hu, Fu-Chun Zhang, Ligang Wu, Cheng-Feng Qin, Xi Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2018: Immunity
Perry V Halushka, Andrew J Goodwin, Marc K Halushka
Cardiovascular diseases exist across all developed countries societies. Biomarkers that can predict or diagnose diseases early in their pathogeneses can reduce their morbidity and mortality in afflicted individuals. microRNAs are small regulatory RNAs that modulate translation and have been identified as potential fluid-based biomarkers across numerous maladies. We describe the current state of cardiovascular disease biomarkers across a range of diseases, including myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, myocarditis, hypertension, heart failure, heart transplantation, aortic stenosis, diabetic cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, and sepsis...
October 17, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Shahid Siddique, Florian Mw Grundler
Cyst and root-knot nematodes, the two economically most important groups of plant parasitic nematodes, induce neoplastic feeding sites in the roots of their host plants. The formation of feeding sites is accompanied by large-scale transcriptomic, metabolomic, and structural changes in host plants. However, the mechanisms that lead to such remarkable changes have remained poorly understood until recently. Now, genomic and genetic analyses have greatly enhanced our understanding of all aspects of plant-nematode interaction...
October 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Will Putzbach, Ashley Haluck-Kangas, Quan Q Gao, Aishe A Sarshad, Elizabeth T Bartom, Austin Stults, Abdul S Qadir, Markus Hafner, Marcus E Peter
CD95/Fas ligand binds to the death receptor CD95 to induce apoptosis in sensitive cells. We previously reported that CD95L mRNA is enriched in sequences that, when converted to si/shRNAs, kill all cancer cells by targeting critical survival genes (Putzbach et al., 2017). We now report expression of full-length CD95L mRNA itself is highly toxic to cells and induces a similar form of cell death. We demonstrate that small (s)RNAs derived from CD95L are loaded into the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC) which is required for the toxicity and processing of CD95L mRNA into sRNAs is independent of both Dicer and Drosha...
October 16, 2018: ELife
Feng Yin, Tommy Anderson, Nishtha Panwar, Kang Zhang, Swee Chuan Tjin, Beng Koon Ng, Ho Sup Yoon, Junle Qu, Ken-Tye Yong
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are categorized as novel two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials with unique physical and chemical properties, bearing varied applications in medical and materials sciences. However, only a few works report the application of TMDCs for gene therapy in cancer treatment. Here, we engineer a multi-gene delivery system based on functionalized monolayer MoS2 , which can co-deliver HDAC1 and KRAS small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to Panc-1 cancer cells for combinational cancer therapy...
2018: Nanotheranostics
Jian Jiang, Binbin Ma, Xiaojie Li, Wenlong Jin, Chuanchun Han, Ling Wang, Hong Wang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory non-coding RNAs that have been reported to play an important role in a variety of cellular functions. Recent studies indicated that some miRNAs are involved in regulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress adaptation. However, the miRNAs were still unknown in osteosarcoma. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-1281 induced by ER stress promoted cell apoptosis and decreased ER stress adaptation of osteosarcoma in vitro and in vivo . Further mechanistic studies revealed that p53, an important tumor suppressor, directly bound to the promoter of miR-1281, leading to its increase under ER stress...
2018: American Journal of Cancer Research
Shibo Duan, Ming Li, Zhifeng Wang, Longlong Wang, Yongjie Liu
Background: Recent findings around long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have opened novel areas of research around their prospective use in overcoming chemoresistance. Herein, we aimed to investigate the role of lncRNA H19 in temozolomide (TMZ) resistance of human glioma cells and the possible mechanisms. Methods: Short-/long-term oxidative stress was induced, and TMZ-resistant glioma cells (U251TMZ and LN229TMZ ) were established. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) and overexpression plasmids were used to modulate the expression of H19 and/or luciferase the reporters...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Aldo H De-La-Cruz-Montoya, Eric G Ramírez-Salazar, Mayeli M Martínez-Aguilar, Pablo M González-de-la-Rosa, Manuel Quiterio, Cei Abreu-Goodger, Jorge Salmerón, Rafael Velázquez-Cruz
Osteoporosis is the most frequent disorder of bone metabolism, owing to an alteration between osteoclast and osteoblast activity, which results from the interaction of genetic, environmental, and epigenetic factors. microRNAs, small non-coding RNAs of around 22 nucleotides with important regulatory roles in gene regulation, that target mRNAs for post-transcriptional destabilization have been suggested as biomarkers in several disorders. In this work, we used small RNA sequencing to identify microRNAs from peripheral blood monocytes that were differentially expressed between non-osteoporotic and osteoporotic Mexican postmenopausal women, to elucidate the potential role of microRNAs as non-invasive marker candidates in osteoporosis...
October 15, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Eunice L Lozada-Delgado, Nilmary Grafals-Ruiz, Miguel A Miranda-Román, Yasmarie Santana-Rivera, Fatma Valiyeva, Mónica Rivera-Díaz, María J Marcos-Martínez, Pablo E Vivas-Mejía
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive of all brain tumors, with a median survival of only 14 months after initial diagnosis. Novel therapeutic approaches are an unmet need for GBM treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Several dysregulated miRNAs have been identified in all cancer types including GBM. In this study, we aimed to uncover the role of miR-143 in GBM cell lines, patient samples, and mouse models...
October 12, 2018: Cancers
Chen Fang, Jing Zhao, Junbo Li, Jialin Qian, Xu Liu, Qifan Sun, Wenli Liu, Yanjie Tian, Anquan Ji, Huijuan Wu, Jiangwei Yan
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small (22-24 nucleotides) non-coding RNAs with potential application in forensic science because of their anti-degradation property and tissue specificity. Recent studies on the use of miRNA in forensic applications have mainly focused on body fluid identification using realtime polymerase chain reaction or microarray analysis. However, the exploration of miRNA in bloodstains, which are the most valuable source of biological evidence during case investigations, is currently lacking, particularly for aged and environmentally compromised forensic samples...
October 3, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Rashmi R Hazarika, Nikolina Sostaric, Yifeng Sun, Vera van Noort
Several recent studies indicate that small Open Reading Frames (sORFs) embedded within multiple eukaryotic non-coding RNAs can be translated into bioactive peptides of up to 100 amino acids in size. However, the functional roles of the 607 Stress Induced Peptides (SIPs) previously identified from 189 Transcriptionally Active Regions (TARs) in Arabidopsis thaliana remain unclear. To provide a starting point for functional annotation of these plant-derived peptides, we performed a large-scale prediction of peptide binding sites on protein surfaces using coarse-grained peptide docking...
2018: PloS One
Huaping Tang, Lei Zhao, Meng Li, Tingtian Li, Yueqin Hao
Cyclic long noncoding RNAs have recently become major players in cancer biology and can serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis, and as potential therapeutic targets. We explored circulating LINC00342 as a predictor of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The expression of LINC00342 in tissues, serum, PBMC, and NSCLC cell lines were screened by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A multistage validation and risk score formula detection analysis was used. The effect of LINC00342 on proliferation was assessed by MTT, p53, and PTEN pathways, which were analyzed by Western blot analysis...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Hua Liu, Gaohua Li, Chunlian Ma, Yanfang Chen, Jinju Wang, Yi Yang
Increasing evidence shows that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) promotes neurogenesis and the expression of microRNA (miR)‑106b. The present study investigated whether rTMS promotes the proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and whether the effect is associated with the expression of miR‑106b. NPCs were cultured from the rat hippocampus and exposed to rTMS daily, comprising 1,000 stimuli for 3 days at 10 Hz, with 1.75 T output. The proliferation ability of the NPCs was revealed by EdU staining, and the levels of miR‑106b and downstream gene p21 in the NPCs were measured by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Isidro Álvarez-Escribano, Agustín Vioque, Alicia M Muro-Pastor
Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are currently considered as major post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in bacteria. The interplay between sRNAs and transcription factors leads to complex regulatory networks in which both transcription factors and sRNAs may appear as nodes. In cyanobacteria, the responses to nitrogen availability are controlled at the transcriptional level by NtcA, a CRP/FNR family regulator. In this study, we describe an NtcA-regulated sRNA in the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, that we have named NsrR1 (nitrogen stress repressed RNA1)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fei Zhan, Jingling Shen, Ruitao Wang, Liang Wang, Yao Dai, Yanqiao Zhang, Xiaoyi Huang
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. When the disease becomes metastatic, limited treatment strategies exist, and metastatic disease prognoses are difficult to predict. Recently, evidence has emerged, which indicates that small RNAs are detectable in patient fluids, and exosomal small RNA ectopic expression is correlated with the development, progression, and metastasis of human PCa; however, the role of small RNAs in PCa is only partially understood. In this review, we discuss the research status regarding circulating exosomal small RNAs and applications using these small RNAs in PCa particularly looking at metastatic disease...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
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