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Small RNAs

Peng Li, Mingqiang Dong, Zhigang Wang
Previous studies demonstrated dysregulation of different microRNAs in thyroid cancer. Tetraspanins (TSPANs) are cell surface proteins with critical roles in many cellular processes, and implications in tumor development. Here we investigated the role of miR-369-3p in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and its association with TSPAN13. miR-369-3p and the TSPAN13 gene expression profiles of 513 thyroid cancer and 59 normal thyroid tissues were downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas database. Thyroid cancer tissues were classified according to the histological type, grouped based on low and high median miR-369-3p and TSPAN13 expression, and analyzed in relation to overall survival (OS) of patients...
August 2, 2018: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Lloyd D Harvey, Stephen Y Chan
Our appreciation of the roles of non-coding RNAs, in particular microRNAs, in the manifestation of pulmonary hypertension (PH) has advanced considerably over the past decade. Comprised of small nucleotide sequences, microRNAs have demonstrated critical and broad regulatory roles in the pathogenesis of PH via the direct binding to messenger RNA transcripts for degradation or inhibition of translation, thereby exerting profound influence on cellular activity. Yet, as inherently pleiotropic molecules, microRNAs have been difficult to study using traditional, reductionist approaches alone...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Chun-Wen Cheng, Jyh-Cherng Yu, Yi-Hsien Hsieh, Wen-Ling Liao, Jia-Ching Shieh, Chung-Chin Yao, Huei-Jane Lee, Po-Ming Chen, Pei-Ei Wu, Chen-Yang Shen
Background /Aims: Recent studies of microRNA (miRNA) involvement in tumorigenesis have indicated the critical role of these non-coding small RNAs in malignant transformation, but the prognostic role, if any, of miRNAs in breast cancer remains undetermined. Therefore, we assessed the prognostic significance of microRNA-9 (miR-9) and miR-221 in breast cancer toward the goal of understanding the contribution(s) of these miRNAs to cancer cell stemness. METHODS: The level of each of miR-9 and miR-221 in 206 paired laser capture microdissected tumor cells and non-tumor cells was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR)...
August 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Chun-Yuan Chen, Rainer B Lanz, Christopher J Walkey, Wen-Hsuan Chang, Wange Lu, Deborah L Johnson
RNA polymerase (pol) III transcribes a variety of small untranslated RNAs involved in transcription, RNA processing, and translation. RNA pol III and its components are altered in various human developmental disorders, yet their roles in cell fate determination and development are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Maf1, a transcriptional repressor, promotes induction of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) into mesoderm. Reduced Maf1 expression in mESCs and preadipocytes impairs adipogenesis, while ectopic Maf1 expression in Maf1-deficient cells enhances differentiation...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Wenzhang Cha, Rengen Fan, Yufeng Miao, Yong Zhou, Chenglin Qin, Xiangxiang Shan, Xinqiang Wan, Ting Cui
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have been identified as key endogenous biomolecules that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The abnormal expression or function of miRNAs has been demonstrated to be closely related to the occurrence or development of various human diseases, including cancers. Regulation of these abnormal miRNAs thus holds great promise for therapeutic treatments. In this review, we summarize exogenous molecules that are able to regulate endogenous miRNAs, including small molecule regulators of miRNAs and synthetic oligonucleotides...
March 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Dirk Baumjohann, Vigo Heissmeyer
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are critically involved in the establishment of potent antibody responses against infectious pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria, but their dysregulation may also result in aberrant antibody responses that frequently coincide with autoimmune diseases or allergies. The fate and identity of Tfh cells is tightly controlled by gene regulation on the transcriptional and posttranscriptional level. Here, we provide deeper insights into the posttranscriptional mechanisms that regulate Tfh cell differentiation, function, and plasticity through the actions of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and small endogenously expressed regulatory RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Daobao Zhang, Zhiyong Liu, Niandong Zheng, Honggang Wu, Zhao Zhang, Jianguo Xu
Malignant glioma is the most common and lethal type of primary tumor of the central nervous system. The incidence of glioma is increasing year by year. In recent years, a variety of new treatment methods have emerged, among which gene therapy has become a hotspot. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding single-strand RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional and/or translational level by binding loosely complimentary sequences in the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNAs...
July 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Luca F R Gebert, Ian J MacRae
Since their serendipitous discovery in nematodes, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of biological processes in animals. These small RNAs form complex networks that regulate cell differentiation, development and homeostasis. Deregulation of miRNA function is associated with an increasing number of human diseases, particularly cancer. Recent discoveries have expanded our understanding of the control of miRNA function. Here, we review the mechanisms that modulate miRNA activity, stability and cellular localization through alternative processing and maturation, sequence editing, post-translational modifications of Argonaute proteins, viral factors, transport from the cytoplasm and regulation of miRNA-target interactions...
August 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
Wonyong Kim, Cristina Miguel-Rojas, Jie Wang, Jeffrey P Townsend, Frances Trail
Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) plays important roles in sexual development in eukaryotes. In filamentous fungi, however, little is known about the expression and roles of lncRNAs during fruiting body formation. By profiling developmental transcriptomes during the life cycle of the plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum , we identified 547 lncRNAs whose expression was highly dynamic, with about 40% peaking at the meiotic stage. Many lncRNAs were found to be antisense to mRNAs, forming 300 sense-antisense pairs...
August 14, 2018: MBio
Toshiaki Watanabe, Xiekui Cui, Zhongyu Yuan, Hongying Qi, Haifan Lin
Argonaute/Piwi proteins can regulate gene expression via RNA degradation and translational regulation using small RNAs as guides. They also promote the establishment of suppressive epigenetic marks on repeat sequences in diverse organisms. In mice, the nuclear Piwi protein MIWI2 and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are required for DNA methylation of retrotransposon sequences and some other sequences. However, its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that piRNA-dependent regions are transcribed at the stage when piRNA-mediated DNA methylation takes place...
August 14, 2018: EMBO Journal
Lining Huang, Xingming Jiang, Zhidong Wang, Xiangyu Zhong, Sheng Tai, Yunfu Cui
OBJECTIVES: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a group of transcripts with length greater than 200 nucleotides, have been involved in multiple pathophysiological processes of the human body, especially in tumorigenesis and progression of cancers. The aberrant expression of lncRNAs processes crucial functions involved in proliferation, apoptosis and metastatic capacity of cancers. Recent studies have revealed that small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 (SNHG1), a long non-coding RNA transcribed from UHG, was located in chromosome 11...
August 2, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Brandon C Reagan, Elena E Ganusova, Jessica C Fernandez, Tyra N McCray, Tessa M Burch-Smith
It is now widely accepted that plant RNAs can have effects at sites far away from their sites of synthesis. Cellular mRNA transcripts, endogenous small RNAs and defense-related small RNAs all move from cell to cell via plasmodesmata (PD), and may even move long distances in the phloem. Despite their small size, PD have complicated substructures, and the area of the pore available for RNA trafficking can be remarkably small. The intent of this review is to bring into focus the role of PD in cell-to-cell and long distance communication in plants...
October 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Alla Fishman, Dean Light, Ayelet T Lamm
The ability to profile and quantify small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), specifically microRNAs (miRNAs), using high-throughput sequencing is challenging because of their small size. We developed QsRNA-seq, a method for preparation of sRNA libraries for high-throughput sequencing that overcomes this difficulty by enabling a gel-free separation of fragments shorter than 100 nt that differ only by 20 nt in length. The method allows the use of unique molecular identifiers for quantification and is more amenable to automation than gel-based methods...
August 14, 2018: Genome Biology
Huan Wang, Hongling Wei, Lei Tang, Junkai Lu, Changkao Mu, Chunlin Wang
BACKGROUND: The mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) is a euryhaline and commercially important species. MiRNAs participate in the regulation of many physiological activities. RESULTS: The miRNA transcriptome of the gills of S. paramamosain was used to investigate the expression profiles of miRNAs in response to a sudden drop in salinity. In total, seven known miRNAs and 43 novel miRNAs were identified, with 18 differentially expressed small RNAs. Fourteen thousand nine hundred fifty-one differentially expressed miRNAs target genes were screened by prediction...
August 14, 2018: BMC Genomics
Jelle Slager, Rieza Aprianto, Jan-Willem Veening
A precise understanding of the genomic organization into transcriptional units and their regulation is essential for our comprehension of opportunistic human pathogens and how they cause disease. Using single-molecule real-time (PacBio) sequencing we unambiguously determined the genome sequence of Streptococcus pneumoniae strain D39 and revealed several inversions previously undetected by short-read sequencing. Significantly, a chromosomal inversion results in antigenic variation of PhtD, an important surface-exposed virulence factor...
August 13, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Tian-Tian Li, Rong-Quan He, Jie Ma, Zu-Yun Li, Xiao-Hua Hu, Gang Chen
Lung cancer is the top cause of cancer‑associated mortality in men and women worldwide. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a subtype that constitutes ~15% of all lung cancer cases. Long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs), possessing no or limited protein‑coding ability, have gained extensive attention as a potentially promising avenue by which to investigate the biological regulation of human cancer. lncRNAs can modulate gene expression at the transcriptional, post‑transcriptional and epigenetic levels. The current review highlights the developing clinical implications and functional roles of lncRNAs in SCLC, and provides directions for their future utilization in the diagnosis and treatment of SCLC...
August 7, 2018: Oncology Reports
Chanchan Chen, Jianying Zhan, Junqi Ling, Yu Du, Yuluan Hou
Dental follicle stem/progenitor cells have the potential to undergo osteogenesis. naked cuticle homolog 2 (Nkd2) is a signal‑inducible feedback antagonist of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the function of Nkd2 in the differentiation of dental follicle stem/progenitor cells (DFSCs) into osteoblasts. Immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were employed to detect Nkd2 expression in rat DFSCs...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Baohong Jiang, Yuehua Li, Xiaofei Qu, Hongbo Zhu, Yeru Tan, Qun Fan, Yiling Jiang, Mingchu Liao, Xiaoping Wu
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the long noncoding RNA cancer susceptibility candidate 9 (CASC9) on doxorubicin (DOX)‑resistant breast cancer and to reveal the potential underlying mechanisms. The expression of CASC9 in breast cancer tissues and cell lines, in addition to drug‑resistant breast cancer cells (MCF‑7/DOX), was detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Subsequently, MCF‑7/DOX cells were transfected with the silencing vector pS‑CASC9, containing enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) or control small interfering (si)RNAs...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Yaron S Feldheim, Tal Zusman, Anya Kapach, Gil Segal
The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila translocates more than 300 effector proteins into host cells during infection. The PmrAB two-component system (TCS) has been shown to activate the expression of a large pool of these effector-encoding genes (EEGs) and the LetAS TCS, as part of the LetAS-RsmYZ-CsrA cascade, has been shown to repress the expression of another pool of EEGs. We identified a single-domain response regulator (SDRR), named LerC, which functions as a connector protein between the PmrAB and the LetAS TCSs...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Lian-Mei Tan, Cui-Jun Zhang, Xiao-Mei Hou, Chang-Rong Shao, Yu-Jia Lu, Jin-Xing Zhou, Yong-Qiang Li, Lin Li, She Chen, Xin-Jian He
In eukaryotes, heterochromatin regions are typically subjected to transcriptional silencing. DNA methylation has an important role in such silencing and has been studied extensively. However, little is known about how methylated heterochromatin regions are subjected to silencing. We conducted a genetic screen and identified an epcr ( enhancer of polycomb-related ) mutant that releases heterochromatin silencing in Arabidopsis thaliana We demonstrated that EPCR1 functions redundantly with its paralog EPCR2 and interacts with PWWP domain-containing proteins (PWWPs), AT-rich interaction domain-containing proteins (ARIDs), and telomere repeat binding proteins (TRBs), thus forming multiple functionally redundant protein complexes named PEAT (<u>P</u>WWPs-<u>E</u>PCRs-<u>A</u>RIDs-<u>T</u>RBs)...
August 13, 2018: EMBO Journal
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