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Small RNAs

Christopher F Basler, Nevan J Krogan, Daisy W Leung, Gaya K Amarasinghe
Filoviruses, which include Ebola virus and Marburg virus, are negative-sense RNA viruses associated with sporadic outbreaks of severe viral hemorrhagic fever characterized by uncontrolled virus replication. The extreme virulence and emerging nature of these zoonotic pathogens make them a significant threat to human health. Replication of the filovirus genome and production of viral RNAs requires the function of a complex of four viral proteins, the nucleoprotein (NP), viral protein 35 (VP35), viral protein 30 (VP30) and large protein (L)...
December 11, 2018: Antiviral Research
Allie M Graham, Felipe S Barreto
The role of gene expression in adaptation to differing thermal environments has been assayed extensively. Yet, in most natural systems, analyses of gene expression reveal only one level of the complexity of regulatory machineries. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs which are key components of many gene regulatory networks, and they play important roles in a variety of cellular pathways by modulating post-transcriptional quantities of mRNA available for protein synthesis. The characterization of miRNA loci and their regulatory dynamics in non-model systems are still largely understudied...
December 12, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Sherif Abou Elela, Xinhua Ji
The double-stranded RNA-binding protein (dsRBP) family controls RNA editing, stability, and function in all eukaryotes. The central feature of this family is the recognition of a generic RNA duplex using highly conserved double-stranded RNA-binding domain (dsRBD) that recognizes the characteristic distance between the minor grooves created by the RNA helix. Variations on this theme that confer species and functional specificities have been reported but most dsRBPs retain their capacity to bind generic dsRNA...
December 11, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Shiho Ueda, Hidemi Hayashi, Takako Miyamoto, Shinya Abe, Kana Hirai, Kanji Matsukura, Hideki Yagi, Yuta Hara, Kinji Yoshida, Shogo Okazaki, Masakazu Tamura, Yuki Abe, Toshinori Agatsuma, Shin-Ichiro Niwa, Kazue Masuko, Takashi Masuko
L-type amino-acid transporter 1 (LAT1) disulfide-linked to the CD98 heavy chain (hc) is highly expressed in most cancer cells, but weakly expressed in normal cells. In this study, we developed novel anti-LAT1 mAbs, and demonstrated the internalization activity, inhibitory effects of amino acid uptake and cell growth and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, as well as in vivo anti-tumor effects in athymic mice. Furthermore, we examined the reactivity of mAbs with LAT1 of Macaca fascicularis to evaluate possible side effects of anti-human LAT1 mAbs in clinical trials...
December 10, 2018: Cancer Science
Lingling Wang, Xingye Xu, Jian Yang, Lihong Chen, Bo Liu, Tao Liu, Qi Jin
BACKGROUND: Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) is an important model organism of dermatophytes, which are the most common fungal pathogens worldwide. Despite the severity and prevalence of the infection caused by these pathogens, current therapies are not sufficient. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of small noncoding RNAs that are key factors in the regulation of gene expression. These miRNAs are reported to be highly conserved in different organisms and are involved in various essential cellular processes...
December 14, 2018: BMC Genomics
Yu Zhong, Chao Yu, Wenyi Qin
Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are considered as critical regulators in pathogenesis progression of cerebral ischemia. In present study, lncRNA-small nucleolar RNA host gene 14 (SNHG14) was found upregulated in middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) treated brain tissues and oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) treated PC-12 cells. Interference of SNHG14 by shRNA vector enhanced neuron survival and suppressed inflammation in response to OGD/R insult. SNHG14 positively regulated the expression of Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) via acting as a sponge of microRNA (miR)-136-5p...
December 14, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
Carolyn M Klinge
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are regulators of intracellular and intercellular signaling in breast cancer. ncRNAs modulate intracellular signaling to control diverse cellular processes, including levels and activity of estrogen receptor α (ERα), proliferation, invasion, migration, apoptosis, and stemness. In addition, ncRNAs can be packaged into exosomes to provide intercellular communication by the transmission of microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) to cells locally or systemically. This review provides an overview of the biogenesis and roles of ncRNAs: small nucleolar RNA (snRNA), circular RNAs (circRNAs), PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), miRNAs, and lncRNAs in breast cancer...
December 12, 2018: Non-Coding RNA
Xiaorong Guo, Junfeng Niu, Xiaoyan Cao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes post-transcriptionally; they are known to play major roles in development and responses to abiotic stress. MicroRNA408 (miR408) is a conserved small RNA in plants; it was reported that miR408 genes were involved in abiotic stress in Arabidopsis . However, miR408 in Salvia miltiorrhiza has been rarely investigated. In this study, we cloned Sm-MIR408 , the miR408 precursor sequence, and its promoter sequence from S...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Giovanna Calabrese, Anna Dolcimascolo, Filippo Torrisi, Agata Zappalà, Rosario Gulino, Rosalba Parenti
In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have received increasing attention for their important role in tumor initiation and progression. MiRNAs are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate the expression of several oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. MiR-19a, a component of the oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster, has been reported to be highly expressed only in anaplastic thyroid cancer, the most undifferentiated, aggressive and lethal form of thyroid neoplasia. In this work, we evaluated the putative contribution of miR-19a in de-differentiation and aggressiveness of thyroid tumors...
December 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kjell E J Håkansson, Eveline A C Goossens, Stella Trompet, Eva van Ingen, Margreet R de Vries, Reginald V C T van der Kwast, Rasmus S Ripa, Jens Kastrup, Philipp J Hohensinner, Christoph Kaun, Johann Wojta, Stefan Böhringer, Saskia le Cessie, J Wouter Jukema, Paul H A Quax, A Yaël Nossent
Aims: We have shown that 14q32 microRNAs are highly involved in vascular remodeling and cardiovascular disease. However, the 14q32 locus also encodes 41 'orphan' small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). We aimed to gather evidence for an independent role for 14q32 snoRNAs in human cardiovascular disease. Methods & Results: We performed a look-up of the 14q32 region within the dataset of a Genome Wide Association Scan (GWAS) in 5244 participants of the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER)...
December 13, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Zicong Xie, Daxin Pang, Hongming Yuan, Huping Jiao, Chao Lu, Kankan Wang, Qiangbing Yang, Mengjing Li, Xue Chen, Tingting Yu, Xinrong Chen, Zhen Dai, Yani Peng, Xiaochun Tang, Zhanjun Li, Tiedong Wang, Huancheng Guo, Li Li, Changchun Tu, Liangxue Lai, Hongsheng Ouyang
Classical swine fever (CSF) caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is one of the most detrimental diseases, and leads to significant economic losses in the swine industry. Despite efforts by many government authorities to stamp out the disease from national pig populations, the disease remains widespread. Here, antiviral small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) were selected and then inserted at the porcine Rosa26 (pRosa26) locus via a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-in strategy. Finally, anti-CSFV transgenic (TG) pigs were produced by somatic nuclear transfer (SCNT)...
December 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Marcela Martínez-Valenzuela, Josefina Guzmán, Soledad Moreno, Carlos Leonel Ahumada-Manuel, Guadalupe Espín, Cinthia Núñez
Azotobacter vinelandii is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium of the Pseudomonadaceae family that prefers the use of organic acids rather than carbohydrates. Thus, in a mixture of acetate-glucose, glucose is consumed only after acetate is exhausted. In a previous work, we investigated the molecular basis of this carbon catabolite repression (CCR) process under diazotrophic conditions. In the presence of acetate, Crc-Hfq inhibited translation of the gluP mRNA, encoding the glucose transporter in A. vinelandii. Herein, we investigated the regulation in the expression of the small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) crcZ and crcY, which are known to antagonize the repressing activity of Hfq-Crc...
2018: PloS One
Yi Lei, Wang Guo, Bowang Chen, Lu Chen, Jiaxin Gong, Weimin Li
Currently, resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as gefitinib, has become one major obstacle for improving the clinical outcome of patients with metastatic and advanced‑stage non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While cell behavior can be modulated by long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs), the contributions of lncRNAs within extracellular vesicles (exosomes) are largely unknown. To this end, the involvement and regulatory functions of lncRNA H19 wrapped by exosomes during formation of gefitinib resistance in human NSCLC were investigated...
October 3, 2018: Oncology Reports
Lianhua Piao, Xiaofeng Yuan, Ming Zhuang, Xubin Qiu, Xiaoshuang Xu, Ren Kong, Zhiwei Liu
Suppressor of variegation 3‑9 homologue 2 (SUV39H2), a SET domain‑containing histone methyl-transferase, trimethylates histone H3 at lysine 9 and serves crucial roles in heterochromatin organization and genome stability. SUV39H2 is overexpressed in various types of human cancer, whereas it is almost undetectable in normal adult tissues, except testis. The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of SUV39H2 in osteosarcoma. In the present study, increased SUV39H2 expression levels were observed in osteosarcoma, the most common primary bone cancer in children and adolescents, and the knockdown of SUV39H2 expression by specific small interfering RNAs in osteosarcoma cells markedly suppressed cancer cell growth and led to a notable reduction in cell viability...
November 1, 2018: Oncology Reports
Marta Budziszewska, Aleksandra Obrępalska-Stęplowska
Positive-sense single-stranded plant RNA viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that infect many agriculturally important crops. Most known plant RNA viruses are characterized by small genomes encoding a limited number of multifunctional viral proteins. Viral pathogens are considered to be absolutely dependent on their hosts, and viruses must recruit numerous host proteins and other factors for genomic RNA replication. Overall, the replication process depends on virus-plant protein-protein, RNA-protein and protein-lipid interactions...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jun Zi Zhu, Hong Jian Zhu, Bi Da Gao, Qian Zhou, Jie Zhong
Sclerotium rolfsii , which causes southern blight in a wide variety of crops, is a devastating plant pathogen worldwide. Mycoviruses that induce hypovirulence in phytopathogenic fungi are potential biological control resources against fungal plant diseases. However, in S. rolfsii , mycoviruses are rarely reported. In a previous study, we found a hypovirulent strain carrying a diverse pattern of dsRNAs. Here, we utilized the RNA_Seq technique to detect viral sequences. Deep sequencing, RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing validation analyses revealed that this strain harbors various new viral species that show affinity to the distinctly established and proposed families Benyviridae, Endornaviridae , Fusariviridae, Hypoviridae , and Fusagraviridae...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Esfandi Farbod, Kholghi Oskooei Vahid, Taheri Fatemeh, Kiani Arda, Taheri Mohammad, Ghafouri-Fard Soudeh
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer as the most fatal cancer of men has prompted researchers to find biomarkers for early detection and prognosis. Among the possible biomarkers are a group of non-coding transcripts with sizes more than 200 nucleotides called long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). AIMS: In the present study, we evaluated the expression levels of the lncRNA OIP5 antisense RNA 1 (OIP5-AS1) in 32 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples compared with their corresponding adjacent non-cancerous tissue (ANCTs) by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction...
2018: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Masatoshi Miyakoshi, Gianluca Matera, Kanako Maki, Yasuhiro Sone, Jörg Vogel
Global RNA profiling studies in bacteria have predicted the existence of many of small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) that are processed off mRNA 3' ends to regulate other mRNAs via the RNA chaperones Hfq and ProQ. Here, we present targets of SdhX (RybD), an Hfq-dependent sRNA that is generated by RNase E mediated 3' processing of the ∼10 000-nt mRNA of the TCA cycle operon sdhCDAB-sucABCD in enteric bacteria. An in silico search predicted ackA mRNA, which encodes acetate kinase, as a conserved primary target of SdhX...
December 12, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Zhuojia Chen, Meijie Qi, Bin Shen, Guanzheng Luo, Yingmin Wu, Jiexin Li, Zhike Lu, Zhong Zheng, Qing Dai, Hongsheng Wang
Transfer RNA is heavily modified and plays a central role in protein synthesis and cellular functions. Here we demonstrate that ALKBH3 is a 1-methyladenosine (m1A) and 3-methylcytidine (m3C) demethylase of tRNA. ALKBH3 can promote cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In vivo study confirms the regulation effects of ALKBH3 on growth of tumor xenograft. The m1A demethylated tRNA is more sensitive to angiogenin (ANG) cleavage, followed by generating tRNA-derived small RNAs (tDRs) around the anticodon regions...
December 12, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Arvindhan Nagarajan, Radoslav Janostiak, Narendra Wajapeyee
Posttranscriptional modification of mRNAs plays an important role in establishing the functional diversity of the proteome. The m6 A modification is found in many species of RNA, including tRNA, mRNA, rRNA, and long noncoding RNAs. The physiological role of m6 A modification of RNA is not fully explored and is a topic of current research. It is predicted that the major effect of m6 A modification of mRNAs is on its stability and/or translation. The global changes in m6 A levels in total RNA or particular species of RNAs can be measured by dot blot analysis using m6 A specific antibodies or using mass spectrometry following chromatographic separation...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
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