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Preventive medical screening

Jayanti M Clay, Joanne K Daggy, Sunetris Fluellen, Brownsyne Tucker Edmonds
OBJECTIVE: To assess women's attitudes and preferences related to recent changes in cervical cancer screening guidelines. METHODS: We distributed 380 surveys in three University based and Community clinics. Study participants anonymously completed surveys, which included questions related to demographics, cervical cancer, screening practices, risk perception and attitudes towards changing practices. RESULTS: 315 women agreed to participate (83%)...
October 3, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Ilknur Sanli, Sven H van Helden, René H M Ten Broeke, Piet Geusens, Joop P W Van den Bergh, Peter R G Brink, Martijn Poeze
BACKGROUND: Several guidelines recommend a bone and fall-related osteoporosis risk assessment in all patients with fracture and age > 50 years. In practice, however, there is no consensus whether screening > 85 years is useful. AIM: To evaluate the subsequent fracture risk in all patient > 85 years, comparing the two populations of Fracture Liaison Service (FLS) attenders and non-attenders. METHODS: All patients > 85 years that presented at the FLS with a non-vertebral fracture were included in the study during a 5-year period (September 2004 and December 2009)...
October 11, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Issam I Raad, Anne-Marie Chaftari, Harrys A Torres, Ehab Mouris Ayoub, Liliane Iskander Narouz, Jalen Bartek, Ray Hachem
Egypt has one of the highest prevalence rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the world, mostly with genotype 4 that is highly associated with severe fibrosis. As a consequence, hepatocellular carcinoma has become the leading cause of cancer in this country. Mauritania is a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV and HCV could both be iatrogenically transmitted through infected blood products, infected needles, and medical equipment improperly sterilized. Adequate and efficient healthcare and public health measures with good surveillance programs, access for screening, prevention strategies, and successful treatment are needed to halt the spread of these diseases...
September 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Michael Inouye, Gad Abraham, Christopher P Nelson, Angela M Wood, Michael J Sweeting, Frank Dudbridge, Florence Y Lai, Stephen Kaptoge, Marta Brozynska, Tingting Wang, Shu Ye, Thomas R Webb, Martin K Rutter, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Riyaz S Patel, Ruth J F Loos, Bernard Keavney, Harry Hemingway, John Thompson, Hugh Watkins, Panos Deloukas, Emanuele Di Angelantonio, Adam S Butterworth, John Danesh, Nilesh J Samani
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) has substantial heritability and a polygenic architecture. However, the potential of genomic risk scores to help predict CAD outcomes has not been evaluated comprehensively, because available studies have involved limited genomic scope and limited sample sizes. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to construct a genomic risk score for CAD and to estimate its potential as a screening tool for primary prevention. METHODS: Using a meta-analytic approach to combine large-scale, genome-wide, and targeted genetic association data, we developed a new genomic risk score for CAD (metaGRS) consisting of 1...
October 16, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Laurel Sharples, Cathina Nguyen, Baldeep Singh, Steven Lin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a silent epidemic affecting one in three women. The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends routine IPV screening for women of childbearing age, but actual rates of screening in primary care settings are low. Our objectives were to determine how often IPV screening was being done in our system and whether screening initiated by medical assistants or physicians resulted in more screens. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review to investigate IPV screening practices in five primary care clinics within a university-based network in Northern California...
October 2018: Family Medicine
Bernardette Rivas-Gomez, Paloma Almeda-Valdés, María Teresa Tussié-Luna, Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas
The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight the peculiarities of the Mexican population regarding the clinical expression, genetics, and treatment of lipid disorders. Furthermore, it is a call for action to address the existing gaps in care and research of dyslipidemias. The Mexican Mestizos are highly susceptible to metabolic disorders (i.e., low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, hypertriglyceridemia, abdominal obesity, and type 2 diabetes); these conditions are associated with ethnic-specific genetic variants...
2018: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
I V Loban, V D Isakov, G P Lavrentyuk, G V Pavlova
The Saint-Petersburg Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise has created the universal system of the internal quality control oriented toward the more rational exploitation of the available resources, material and technical facilities, and systemic management of the quality of forensic medical activities. The system serves as a basis for the timely identification of undesirable problematic situations, efficiently predict and/or prevent them and the resulting deterioration of the quality of expert work leading to the inadequate provision of finance and resources...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Bernadette Boden-Albala, Emily Goldmann, Nina S Parikh, Heather Carman, Eric T Roberts, Aaron S Lord, Veronica Torrico, Noa Appleton, Joel Birkemeier, Michael Parides, Leigh Quarles
Importance: Despite secondary prevention strategies with proven efficacy, recurrent stroke rates remain high, particularly in racial/ethnic minority populations who are disproportionately affected by stroke. Objective: To determine the efficacy of a culturally tailored skills-based educational intervention with telephone follow-up compared with standard discharge care on systolic blood pressure reduction in a multiethnic cohort of patients with mild/moderate stroke/transient ischemic attack...
October 8, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Sangyoon Lee, Ji Young Ryu, Dae Hwan Kim
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most important disease screened for upon patient history review during preimmigration medical examinations as performed in South Korea in prospective immigrants to certain Western countries. In 2007, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) changed the TB screening protocol from a smear-based test to the complete Culture and Directly Observed Therapy Tuberculosis Technical Instructions (CDOT TB TI) for reducing the incidence of TB in foreign-born immigrants...
September 28, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Rechelle Tull, William D Hoover, Jacqueline F De Luca, William W Huang, Joseph L Jorizzo
Eosinophilic fasciitis is an uncommon connective tissue disorder that affects patients of all ages, resulting in significant morbidity. Systemic corticosteroids can induce remission of disease. However, there is no universally accepted treatment ladder for eosinophilic fasciitis. This case series evaluates treatment efficacy in patients with eosinophilic fasciitis seen at Wake Forest University Department of Dermatology outpatient clinics. Patient charts were screened using ICD-9 diagnosis code 710.9 (unspecified diffuse connective tissue disease) to identify patients with eosinophilic fasciitis (n=10) seen at our institution...
2018: Drugs in Context
Sydney Cw Tang
Hong Kong experiences a progressive rise in the prevalence of treated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) as recorded by the Hong Kong Renal Registry managed by the Hospital Authority (HA) that takes care of 90 - 95% of the ESRD burden. The CKD burden is envisaged to be high, as reflected by 2 initiatives - SHARE which detected a high prevalence of urine or blood pressure abnormalities among 1,201 asymptomatic individuals who underwent screening, and RISKS that aimed to further characterize the spread of CKD in the asymptomatic population...
October 2018: Nephrology
Li-Li Hsiao
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem worldwide. Its prevalence and incidence are increasing, particularly among the ethnic minority populations. Diabetes, hypertension and obesity have been the three major aetiologies for CKD in all developed countries. While diabetes and hypertension remain the major causes of CKD in developing countries, environmental pollution, pesticides, water, analgesic abuse and herbal medications are common causes in these regions. Rapid urbanization and globalization are thought to be the contributing factors to rising prevalence and incidents of CKD...
October 2018: Nephrology
N Zoremba, M Coburn, G Schälte
Delirium is the most common form of cerebral dysfunction in intensive care patients and is a medical emergency that must be avoided or promptly diagnosed and treated. According to current knowledge the development of delirium seems to be caused by an interplay between increased vulnerability (predisposition) and simultaneous exposure to delirogenic factors. Since delirium is often overlooked in the clinical routine, a continuous screening for delirium should be performed. Due to the close connection between delirium, agitation and pain, sedation and analgesia must be evaluated at least every 8 h analogous to delirium screening...
October 8, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
L Reid, W Lahey, B Livingstone, M McNally
Goals of screening for frailty include (a) promoting healthy aging, (b) addressing frailty with preventive and targeted interventions, (c) better aligning social and medical responses to frailty with the needs of frail older adults and (d) preventing harms to frail older adults from excessive and inappropriate medical interventions that are insensitive to the implications of frailty. However, the medicalization of frailty and outcomes of the screening process also risk harming frail older adults and their autonomy through stereotyping and by legitimizing denial of care...
2018: Journal of Frailty & Aging
L K Seidlmayer, F Riediger, N Pagonas, P Nordbeck, O Ritter, B Sasko
BACKGROUND: Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is an inherited disease presenting with arrhythmic events during physical exercise or emotional stress. If untreated, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is a highly lethal condition: About 80% of affected individuals experience recurrent syncope, and 30% experience cardiac arrest. Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is caused by mutations in genes encoding ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) and cardiac calsequestrin (CASQ2)...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Jian Guo, Tianjia Guan, Siyuan Fan, Baohua Chao, Longde Wang, Yuanli Liu
Anticoagulant therapy is an effective stroke prevention measurement for subjects with atrial fibrillation (AF) who are at high risk of ischemic stroke. However, it is reported that oral anticoagulants (OACs) are generally underused in clinical practice. A better awareness of current usage of anticoagulant therapy would enable prevention of stroke secondary to AF. Therefore, we determined the nationwide prevalence of AF and the frequency of OACs use among patients with ischemic stroke in China. Based on the China National Stroke Screening Survey, a representative nationwide sample of 1,252,703 adults over 40years old during 2013 and 2014 was involved...
September 13, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Lonneke Haer-Wigman, Vyne van der Schoot, Ilse Feenstra, Anneke T Vulto-van Silfhout, Christian Gilissen, Han G Brunner, Lisenka E L M Vissers, Helger G Yntema
Clinical genomic sequencing can identify pathogenic variants unrelated to the initial clinical question, but of medical relevance to the patients and their families. With ongoing discussions on the utility of disclosing or searching for such variants, it is of crucial importance to obtain unbiased insight in the prevalence of these incidental or secondary findings, in order to better weigh potential risks and benefits. Previous studies have reported a broad range of secondary findings ranging from 1 to 9%, merely attributable to differences in study design, cohorts tested, sequence technology used and genes analyzed...
October 5, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Marek Schwendt, John Shallcross, Natalie A Hadad, Mark D Namba, Helmut Hiller, Lizhen Wu, Eric G Krause, Lori A Knackstedt
PTSD is highly comorbid with cocaine use disorder (CUD), and cocaine users with PTSD + CUD are more resistant to treatment. Here we sought to develop a rat model of PTSD + CUD in order to identify the neurobiological changes underlying such comorbidity and screen potential medications for reducing cocaine seeking in the PTSD population. We utilized a predator scent stress model of PTSD, wherein rats received a single exposure to the fox pheromone 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT). One week after TMT exposure, stress-susceptible (susceptible), intermediate, and resilient phenotypes were detected and were consistent with behavioral, corticosterone, and gene expression profiles 3 weeks post TMT...
October 5, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Pooja Ramakant, Kul Ranjan Singh, Sapna Jaiswal, Sudhir Singh, Priya Ranjan, Chanchal Rana, Vinod Jain, Anand K Mishra
Breast cancer (BC) has become the most common cancer in urban women. Unfortunately, most women are not aware of BC symptoms/signs, prevention, and management. In resource-limited countries like India where we do not have structured screening/awareness programs, a majority of women present with locally advanced BC. The aim of our study is to identify the present status of awareness about BC prevention, early detection, symptoms, and management in urban and rural Indian women (medical, paramedical, and nonmedical) and to assess whether education and socioeconomic strata have any role in better awareness about BC or not...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
Gerald W Smetana, Joann G Elmore, Christoph I Lee, Risa B Burns
Breast cancer will develop in 12% of women during their lifetime and is the second leading cause of cancer death among U.S. women. Mammography is the most commonly used tool to screen for breast cancer. Considerable uncertainty exists regarding the age at which to begin screening and the optimal screening interval. Breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer. In addition, for women with dense breasts, small tumors may be missed on mammography and the sensitivity of screening is diminished. At the time of publication, 35 states had passed laws mandating that breast density be reported in the letters that radiologists send to women with their mammogram results...
October 2, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
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