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Preventive medical screening

Caoimhe Madden, Sinéad Lydon, Ciara Curran, Andrew W Murphy, Paul O'Connor
BACKGROUND: There is limited research, and guidance, on how to address safety in general practice proactively. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to synthesize the literature describing the use of patient record review (PRR) to measure and improve patient safety in primary care. The PRR methodologies utilized and the resulting outcomes were examined. METHODS: Searches were conducted using Medline, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO in February 2017. Reference lists of included studies and existing review papers were also screened...
December 2018: European Journal of General Practice
Minal S Kale, Deborah Korenstein
Overdiagnosis, is defined as the diagnosis of a condition that, if unrecognized, would not cause symptoms or harm a patient during his or her lifetime, and it is increasingly acknowledged as a consequence of screening for cancer and other conditions. Because preventive care is a crucial component of primary care, which is delivered to the broad population, overdiagnosis in primary care is an important problem from a public health perspective and has far reaching implications. The scope of overdiagnosis as a result of services delivered in primary care is unclear, though overdiagnosis of indolent breast, prostate, thyroid, and lung cancers is well described and overdiagnosis of chronic kidney disease, depression, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is also recognized...
August 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Karolina Piotrowicz, Krzysztof Rewiuk, Stanisław Górski, Weronika Kałwak, Barbara Wizner, Agnieszka Pac, Michał Nowakowski, Tomasz Grodzicki
BACKGROUND: In hospital settings, delirium affects as many as 50% of older patients, aggravating their symptoms and worsening their condition, and therefore increasing the risk of in-hospital complications and death. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of structured, non-pharmacological care, delivered to older hospitalised patients by trained volunteers (students of medical fields), on the reduction of incidence of adverse health-related outcomes. METHODS/DESIGN: This trial will be a randomised, investigator-blind, controlled trial conducted in an internal medicine and geriatric ward in Poland...
August 14, 2018: Trials
Susan R Davis, Penelope J Robinson, Fiona Jane, Shane White, Kristy A Brown, Sofie Piessens, Andrew Edwards, Jane McNeilage, Jillian Woinarski, Mitchell Chipman, Robin J Bell
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether metformin prevents tamoxifen-induced endometrial changes and insulin resistance (IR) after a diagnosis of breast cancer. METHODS: This was a single centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial. Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer taking tamoxifen were randomly allocated to metformin 850mg or identical placebo, twice daily, for 52 weeks. Outcome measures included double endometrial thickness (ET) measured by transvaginal ultrasound, fasting insulin, glucose and IR estimated by the homeostasis model of assessment (HOMA-IR)...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Ganga Maya Rizal, Jambay Gyeltshen, Kuenga Namgay
Alarming rate of emergence of antimicrobial resistance globally has urged Bhutan to take firm steps toward antibiotics stewardship through rational use in human, animal and agriculture. This paper specifically aims to investigate the status of use of three important antibiotics in animal feeds in Bhutan. A total of thirteen feed samples were selected randomly from the pool of feed samples. The samples were submitted by bidders for Annual Animal Feed Tender (fiscal year 2015-16) of the Department of Livestock, Bhutan...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Aseem K Tiwari, Gunjan Bhardwaj, Dinesh Arora, Geet Aggarwal, Swati Pabbi, Ravi C Dara, Ritesh Sachdev, Arun Raizada, Monisha Sethi
BACKGROUND: It is important to detect Latent Iron Deficiency (LID) to prevent development of an overt iron deficiency anemia. Early detection is difficult by using conventional hematological and biochemical parameters. Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) is presently the gold standard for diagnosing LID. We evaluated the utility of Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Equivalent (Ret-He), a newer hematological parameter, to predict LID in blood donors as compared to sTfR. METHODS: This was a randomized prospective study performed on 501 donor samples over a period of three-months...
August 12, 2018: Vox Sanguinis
Hicham Fettah, Youssef Moutaouakkil, Mohamed Reda Sefrioui, Badreddine Moukafih, Yassir Bousliman, Ahmed Bennana, Jamal Lamsaouri, Sanaa Makram, Yahia Cherrah
Introduction: Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are defined as two or more drugs interacting in such a manner that the effectiveness or toxicity of one or more drugs is altered. Patients with cardiovascular disorders are at higher risk for DDIs because of the types and number of drugs they receive. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of DDIs in patients admitted to the cardiology department of a hospital in Morocco. Methods: A prospective observational study from June 2016 to September 2016 was carried out in the cardiology department of a hospital in Morocco...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Marie C Kearns, Jill Baker, Simon Myers, Ali Ghanem
Background: Despite significant improvements in survival rates, free flap failures still occur even in experienced hands and are most commonly due to arterial or venous thrombosis. In the absence of an evidence-based guideline on the prevention of thrombosis, we reviewed the literature to assess the evidence base for commonly used interventions aimed at its prevention. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed using the following keywords "free flap" and microsurgery with "pre-operative screening," "prevention of thrombosis," "ketorolac," "heparin," "low molecular weight heparin," "aspirin," "dextran," and "statins...
2018: European Journal of Plastic Surgery
Ulrike M M Bauer, Marc-André Körten, Gerhard-Paul Diller, Paul Helm, Helmut Baumgartner, Peter Ewert, Oktay Tutarel
BACKGROUND: As adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients are aging, a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is encountered similar to the general population. Currently, data regarding the primary and secondary prevention of acquired cardiovascular disease in ACHD is lacking. METHODS: The German National Register of Congenital Heart Defects was systematically screened for ACHD patients with established cardiovascular risk factors or documented acquired cardiovascular conditions...
August 4, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Bart N Green, Claire D Johnson, Scott Haldeman, Edward J Kane, Michael B Clay, Erin A Griffith, Juan M Castellote, Matthew Smuck, Shanmuganathan Rajasekaran, Eric L Hurwitz, Margareta Nordin, Kristi Randhawa, Hainan Yu
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop recommendations for prevention interventions for spinal disorders that could be delivered globally, but especially in underserved areas and in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We extracted risk factors, associations, and comorbidities of common spinal disorders (e.g., back and neck pain, spinal trauma, infection, developmental disorders) from a scoping review of meta-analyses and systematic reviews of clinical trials, cohort studies, case control studies, and cross-sectional studies...
August 11, 2018: European Spine Journal
Vitalii Pashkov, Petro Noha, Aleksey Soloviov
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Public health is an important concept, which is continually being globalized and integrated into today's society. It helps to improve and prolong the quality of life of people and prevent the spread of epidemics and serious incurable diseases. The components of public health include protection, prevention, and promotion. Prevention, the measures taken to prevent disease as opposed to treatment consist of screening and periodical medical examinations. There are two types of screening- universal screening and case finding (individual screening)...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Sameera Senanayake, Nalika Gunawardena, Paba Palihawadana, Chathurie Suraweera, R Karunarathna, Priyantha Kumara
OBJECTIVE: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is known to adversely affect mental health. The study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of depression and psychological distress and the associated factors among CKD patients living in Anuradhapura, a rural district in Sri Lanka. METHOD: A community-based, cross-sectional study included a representative sample of 1174 CKD patients, drawn proportionately from all registered patients in all 19 Medical Officer of Health areas in the district of Anuradhapura...
September 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Lisa B Kenney, Bethany Ames, Alexis L Michaud, David N Williams, Peter E Manley, Nicole J Ullrich
BACKGROUND: Evidence is not available to guide management of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) at risk for radiation-associated cerebral vascular disease (CVD) and stroke. We propose to use a consensus-based methodology to describe the collective opinion of regional experts for the care of these patients and identify areas of controversy. PROCEDURE: Thirty physicians from the New England region who care for CCS participated in a Delphi panel querying their management approach (imaging, laboratory tests, medications, counseling, referrals) to a CCS treated with cranial radiation formatted as five clinical scenarios (asymptomatic, small- and large-vessel CVD, transient ischemia, stroke) in three rounds of anonymous questionnaires...
August 9, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Olga Martínez Arroyo, Yolanda Andreu Vaíllo, Paula Martínez López, María José Galdón Garrido
PURPOSE: Cancer patient survival rates are rapidly growing, and further data are needed on the impact of the disease beyond diagnosis and treatment phases. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence and sociodemographic and medical risk factors of clinical distress. Additionally, we also explore the relationship between unmet psychosocial needs and both clinical distress and subgroups of survival periods. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 450 women who at least 1 month before had completed the primary treatment for breast cancer was conducted...
August 9, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Sarah C Haight, Jean Y Ko, Van T Tong, Michele K Bohm, William M Callaghan
Opioid use by pregnant women represents a significant public health concern given the association of opioid exposure and adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, including preterm labor, stillbirth, neonatal abstinence syndrome, and maternal mortality (1,2). State-level actions are critical to curbing the opioid epidemic through programs and policies to reduce use of prescription opioids and illegal opioids including heroin and illicitly manufactured fentanyl, both of which contribute to the epidemic (3). Hospital discharge data from the 1999-2014 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) were analyzed to describe U...
August 10, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Monika Chaudhary, Jai Prakash Soni, Vishnu Kumar Goyal, Pramod Sharma, Mohan Makwana, Sawai Singh Lora
Background: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is considered the most common preventable cause of intellectual impairment, with a worldwide annual incidence of 1:4000 live births. In the absence of screening program actual incidence in India is not exactly known, but in previous studies it varies from 1:500 to 1:3400. We wished to find out the incidence of CH in Western Rajasthan using cord blood TSH as a screening tool and venous TSH within 14 days of life as a confirmatory test. Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted over a period of six months in teaching hospitals attached to Medical College...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Luigi Gianturco, Bruno D Bodini, Vincenzo Gianturco, Fabrizio E Pregliasco, Marta Cascio, Antonio Serafin, Maurizio Turiel
Soccer refereeing is a "not-conventional" sport in which aerobic workload is prevalent. Along the years, several studies have attempted to define best markers of referees' performance. Many studies focused their attention on field tests and their relationship with aerobic power. Instead, in this study, starting by a medical assessment satisfying the FIFA 11+ criteria for injuries prevention, we have investigated the foot of soccer referees and we have also wanted to find possible and/or unexpected improvements in performance...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Pascal Pujol, Pierre Vande Perre, Laurence Faivre, Damien Sanlaville, Carole Corsini, Bernard Baertschi, Michèle Anahory, Dominique Vaur, Sylviane Olschwang, Nadem Soufir, Noëlle Bastide, Sarah Amar, Michèle Vintraud, Olivier Ingster, Stéphane Richard, Pierre Le Coz, Jean-Philippe Spano, Olivier Caron, Pascal Hammel, Elisabeth Luporsi, Alain Toledano, Xavier Rebillard, Anne Cambon-Thomsen, Olivier Putois, Jean-Marc Rey, Christian Hervé, Caroline Zorn, Karen Baudry, Virginie Galibert, Joseph Gligorov, David Azria, Brigitte Bressac-de Paillerets, Nelly Burnichon, Marc Spielmann, Daniel Zarca, Isabelle Coupier, Olivier Cussenot, Anne-Paule Gimenez-Roqueplo, Sophie Giraud, Anne-Sophie Lapointe, Patricia Niccoli, Isabelle Raingeard, Muriel Le Bidan, Thierry Frebourg, Arash Rafii, David Geneviève
In oncology, the expanding use of multi-gene panels to explore familial cancer predisposition and tumor genome analysis has led to increased secondary findings discoveries (SFs) and has given rise to important medical, ethical, and legal issues. The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics published a policy statement for managing SFs for a list of genes, including 25 cancer-related genes. Currently, there are few recommendations in Europe. From June 2016 to May 2017, the French Society of Predictive and Personalized Medicine (SFMPP) established a working group of 47 experts to elaborate guidelines for managing information given on the SFs for genes related to cancers...
August 8, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Carolyn Bradner Jasik, Elizabeth Joy, Kimberly D Brunisholz, Katherine Kirley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is an evidence-based lifestyle change program for prediabetes that is associated with a 58% reduction in 3-year diabetes incidence, and it has been supported by the American Medical Association and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. However, 9 in 10 patients are unaware they have the condition. RECENT FINDINGS: With the passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and broadened coverage for preventive services, the DPP has emerged as an accessible intervention in patients at risk...
August 8, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Tessa Baker, Susan Kutz, Lorraine Toews, Nicola Edwards, Melanie Rock
The World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) both recognize the importance of veterinary services in controlling zoonotic diseases, in preventing human injury, and in protecting the welfare of non-human animals. Furthermore, both organizations recommend regular evaluations of veterinary programs. Accordingly, we conducted a scoping review to collate the available peer-reviewed evaluations of subsidized small animal veterinary services in terms of the effects on animal and public health...
September 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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