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Preventive Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110555/frontier-and-remote-paramedicine-practitioner-models
#1
Peter O'Meara, Gary Wingrove, Michael Nolan
INTRODUCTION: For the past 50 years paramedic services and paramedic roles in high-income nations have evolved in response to changes in community needs and expectations. The aim of this article is to review paramedic models of service delivery, with an emphasis on models that have the potential to improve the health and wellbeing of frontier and remote populations. METHODS: Paramedic models of relevance to rural and frontier settings were identified from searches of CINHAL and Medline, while key paramedic-specific journals were individualy searched in the event that they were not indexed...
August 2018: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110521/endovascular-coiling-versus-neurosurgical-clipping-for-people-with-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-haemorrhage
#2
REVIEW
Antti Lindgren, Mervyn DI Vergouwen, Irene van der Schaaf, Ale Algra, Marieke Wermer, Mike J Clarke, Gabriel Je Rinkel
BACKGROUND: Around 30% of people who are admitted to hospital with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) will rebleed in the initial month after the haemorrhage if the aneurysm is not treated. The two most commonly used methods to occlude the aneurysm for prevention of rebleeding are microsurgical clipping of the neck of the aneurysm and occlusion of the lumen of the aneurysm by means of endovascular coiling. This is an update of a systematic review that was previously published in 2005...
August 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110509/brief-periods-of-inactivity-reduce-leg-microvascular-but-not-macrovascular-function-in-healthy-young-men
#3
Jennifer R Vranish, Benjamin E Young, Brandi Y Stephens, Jasdeep Kaur, Jaume Padilla, Paul J Fadel
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? We aimed to examine leg vascular responses to brief periods of inactivity. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate that a mere 10 min of sitting is sufficient to impair leg microvascular function (reactive hyperaemia). However, conduit artery vasodilatation (flow-mediated dilatation) was unaffected, indicating maintained macrovascular function. Interestingly, immobile supine rest also resulted in a reduction in microvascular function alone that was prevented when calf muscle contractions were performed...
August 15, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110335/researchers-attitudes-to-the-3rs-an-upturned-hierarchy
#4
Nuno Henrique Franco, Peter Sandøe, I Anna S Olsson
Animal use in biomedical research is generally justified by its potential benefits to the health of humans, or other animals, or the environment. However, ethical acceptability also requires scientists to limit harm to animals in their research. Training in laboratory animal science (LAS) helps scientists to do this by promoting best practice and the 3Rs. This study evaluated scientists' awareness and application of the 3Rs, and their approach to other ethical issues in animal research. It was based on an online survey of participants in LAS courses held in eight venues in four European countries: Portugal (Porto, Braga), Germany (Munich, Heidelberg), Switzerland (Basel, Lausanne, Zurich), and Denmark (Copenhagen)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110333/prognostic-factors-for-return-to-work-and-work-disability-among-colorectal-cancer-survivors-a-systematic-review
#5
Chantal M den Bakker, Johannes R Anema, AnneClaire G N M Zaman, Henrika C W de Vet, Linda Sharp, Eva Angenete, Marco E Allaix, Rene H J Otten, Judith A F Huirne, Hendrik J Bonjer, Angela G E M de Boer, Frederieke G Schaafsma
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is diagnosed progressively in employed patients due to screening programs and increasing retirement age. The objective of this study was to identify prognostic factors for return to work and work disability in patients with colorectal cancer. METHODS: The research protocol was published at PROSPERO with registration number CRD42017049757. A systematic review of cohort and case-control studies in colorectal cancer patients above 18 years, who were employed when diagnosed, and who had a surgical resection with curative intent were included...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110245/downy-mildew-a-serious-disease-threat-to-rose-health-worldwide
#6
Catalina Salgado-Salazar, Nina Shiskoff, Margery Daughtrey, Cristi L Palmer, Jo Anne Crouch
Peronospora sparsa is a downy mildew-causing oomycete that can infect roses, blackberries, and other members of the rose family. During the last 70 years, this disease has become a serious problem for rose growers in the U.S. and worldwide. While much is known about the disease and its treatment, including significant research on molecular identification methods, as well as environmental conditions conducive to disease and the fungicides used to prevent it, significant knowledge gaps remain in our basic comprehension of the pathogen's biology...
August 15, 2018: Plant Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110226/root-cause-analysis-of-oncology-adverse-events-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#7
Maya Aboumrad, Alexander Fuld, Christina Soncrant, Julia Neily, Douglas Paull, Bradley V Watts
PURPOSE: Oncology providers are leaders in patient safety. Despite their efforts, oncology-related medical errors still occur, sometimes resulting in patient injury or death. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) National Center of Patient Safety used data obtained from root cause analysis (RCA) to determine how and why these adverse events occurred in the VHA, and how to prevent future reoccurrence. This study details the types of oncology adverse events reported in VHA hospitals and their root causes and suggests actions for prevention and improvement...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110112/perceptions-on-the-importance-of-vaccination-and-vaccine-refusal-in-a-medical-school
#8
Amanda Hayashida Mizuta, Guilherme de Menezes Succi, Victor Angelo Martins Montalli, Regina Célia de Menezes Succi
OBJECTIVE: To identify the perception of medical students and physicians on the importance of vaccination and the risks of vaccine refusal. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with application of questionnaires about vaccines, vaccine refusal and its repercussions on public and individual health. A sample of 92 subjects was selected from a private medical school: group 1 (53 students from first to fourth grades) and group 2 (39 physicians). Data collected were tabulated in the Microsoft Excel Program and analyzed by Fisher's exact test...
August 9, 2018: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110019/adverse-effects-of-the-medicare-psi-90-hospital-penalty-system-on-revenue-neutral-hospital-acquired-conditions
#9
William V Padula, Joyce M Black, Patricia M Davidson, So Yeon Kang, Peter J Pronovost
OBJECTIVE: Health systems are grappling with improving the quality and safety of health care. By setting clear expectations, there is an opportunity to configure care models to decrease the risk of adverse events and promote the quality of care. The US Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have used Patient Safety Indicator 90 (PSI90), a composite rate of hospital-acquired conditions (HACs), to adjust payments and score hospitals on quality since 2015. However, PSI90 may be associated with adverse prioritization for preventing some conditions over others...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109967/comparing-the-effectiveness-of-brief-versus-in-depth-gatekeeper-training-on-behavioral-outcomes-for-trainees
#10
Susanne Condron, Lucas Godoy Garraza, Nora Kuiper, Bhuvana Sukumar, Christine Walrath, Richard McKeon
BACKGROUND: A common suicide prevention strategy is training gatekeepers to identify at-risk individuals and refer them to services. AIMS: The study aimed to examine whether differences in training outcomes were observed for brief versus in-depth gatekeeper trainings for trainees from varied professional settings while controlling for differences in trainee characteristics and community context. METHOD: Trainees' identification and referral behavior 3 months after gatekeeper training was compared with a sample of respondents matched on individual- and community-level variables using propensity score-based techniques...
August 15, 2018: Crisis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109855/-%C3%AE-ullying-and-the-mental-health-of-schoolchildren-with-special-educational-needs-in-primary-education
#11
Α Dasioti, G Kolaitis
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between bullying and mental Health in schoolchildren with special educational needs (SEN). Random sampling was used to select two groups of children aged 11-12 years, attending the fifth and sixth grades of primary school and integration classes in urban and rural locations in Greece. The final sample comprised a group of 80 children with SEN and a control group of 81 children. The participants completed The Revised Olweus Bullying Victim Questionnaire and The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)...
April 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109851/-a-proposal-for-the-implementation-of-early-intervention-in-psychosis-eip-services-in-greece-if-not-now-when
#12
N C Stefanis, V Mavreas, Ι Νimatoudis, F Gourzis, Μ Sarakouri, A Vgontzas, A Douzenis
The disorders of the psychosis spectrum, with the most severe being schizophrenia, are prevalent and have a great impact on the patients' quality of life. The purpose of this article is to highlight the need for a novel national strategic approach to the management of psychotic disorders in accordance with the international principles of early intervention. Even though outpatient treatment is considered adequate, there is an urgent need to adopt an early and more comprehensive and effective intervention strategy for young patients with psychosis and their families whose clinical and personal needs are clearly not met by the existing infrastructure of our mental health services...
April 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109850/hiv-and-malaria-infections-and-associated-risk-factors-among-febrile-illness-patients-in-northwest-ethiopia
#13
Yitayih Wondimeneh, Teklay Gebrecherkos, Dagnachew Muluye, Demekech Damtie, Getachew Ferede
OBJECTIVE: Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are the major medical challenges of priority faced by the sub-Saharan African countries in general and Ethiopia in particular. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of HIV and malaria infections among febrile illness patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 1, 2014 to May 30, 2015 at Kolla-Diba Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia...
August 15, 2018: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109835/calcium-sensing-receptor-in-nutrient-sensing-an-insight-into-the-modulation-of-intestinal-homoeostasis
#14
Guangmang Liu, Wei Cao, Gang Jia, Hua Zhao, Xiaoling Chen, Jing Wang
The animal gut effectively prevents the entry of hazardous substances and microbes while permitting the transfer of nutrients, such as water, electrolytes, vitamins, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals and microbial metabolites, which are intimately associated with intestinal homoeostasis. The gut maintains biological functions through its nutrient-sensing receptors, including the Ca-sensing receptor (CaSR), which activates a variety of signalling pathways, depending on cellular context. CaSR coordinates food digestion and nutrient absorption, promotes cell proliferation and differentiation, regulates energy metabolism and immune response, stimulates hormone secretion, mitigates secretory diarrhoea and enhances intestinal barrier function...
August 15, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109827/prevention-of-cardiovascular-diseases-with-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-oxidant-nutraceuticals-and-herbal-products-an-overview-of-pre-clinical-and-clinical-studies
#15
Sajal Jain, Harpal S Buttar, Meena Chintameneni, Ginpreet Kaur
BACKGROUND: Inflammation-induced endothelial abnormalities, dietary habits, and tobacco smoking are considered to be the primary risk factors for causing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disorders, peripheral arterial disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart defects, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Prevention of CVDs with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agents has been a challenging task for decades...
August 15, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109762/health-e-mums-evaluating-a-smartphone-app-design-for-diabetes-prevention-in-women-with-previous-gestational-diabetes
#16
Sharleen L O'Reilly, Rachel Laws
AIM: Women with prior gestational diabetes have increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes postpartum. While diabetes prevention programs are effective in reducing a woman's risk, the reach of traditional face-to-face programs is poor in this population and using a mHealth approach appears to be promising. We aimed to evaluate a pilot smartphone app developed from an evidence-based diabetes prevention program specifically for women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus using a series of focus groups to explore the app functionality and messaging...
August 14, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109741/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-in-australia-what-is-the-current-state-of-affairs
#17
Natasha Reid
The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is used to describe a wide range of difficulties that individuals who are exposed to alcohol prenatally can face. FASD is a significant public health concern that is currently under-recognised and consequently, under-diagnosed in Australia. A new Commonwealth FASD Strategy (2018-2028) is being developed and the Australian Government has announced significant funding for the expansion of FASD prevention, diagnostic and intervention services around Australia. Therefore, it is timely to consider what the current state of affairs regarding FASD in Australia is and describe areas for future research and service delivery...
August 15, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109630/rapid-and-selective-screening-method-for-isolation-and-identification-of-carotenoid-producing-bacteria
#18
Dalal Asker, Tarek S Awad, Teruhiko Beppu, Kenji Ueda
Carotenoids are naturally occurring yellow to red pigments with many biological activities including antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, membrane stabilizers, and precursors for vitamin A. These biological activities are linked with many health benefits (e.g., anticarcinogenic activity, prevention of chronic diseases, etc.), which grew the interest of several industrial sectors especially in food, feed, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. The production of natural carotenoids from microbial sources such as bacteria can help meet the growing global market of carotenoids estimated at $1...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109499/self-harm-and-suicidal-behaviour-among-incarcerated-adults-in-the-australian-capital-territory
#19
Amanda Butler, Jesse T Young, Stuart A Kinner, Rohan Borschmann
BACKGROUND: Suicide is the leading cause of death in prisons worldwide. Improved understanding of the factors associated with suicide is necessary to inform targeted suicide prevention and interventions. Here we aim to (a) document the prevalence of suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, self-harm, and mental disorder; and (b) identify demographic, mental health, and criminal justice correlates of suicidal ideation, in a sample of incarcerated adults in Australia. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2016 Detainee Health and Wellbeing Survey conducted in the Alexander Maconochie Centre, the Australian Capital Territory's only adult prison...
August 14, 2018: Health & Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109368/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-anxiety-and-depression-symptoms-among-adolescent-earthquake-victims-comorbidity-and-associated-sleep-disturbing-factors
#20
Wanjie Tang, Yi Lu, Jiuping Xu
PURPOSE: Our study aimed to examine the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms and their comorbidity and correlation with sleep problems among adolescent survivors 3 years after the 2013 Ya'an earthquake. METHODS: A representative sample of 6132 adolescent students was analysed from 11 primary and high schools in the three counties most severely affected by the earthquake. Students were invited to complete the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale-13, Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, the Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, and Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders...
August 14, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
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