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Preventive Health

Myriam Forster, Gower L Amy, Eunice Areba, Barbara J McMorris
INTRODUCTION: Research has demonstrated a robust relationship between psychosocial risk factors (e.g., perceptions of health risk, peer and parent influences, and school climate) and adolescent tobacco use. However, whether internal assets (IAs), factors that promote healthy youth development, can mitigate the adverse effects of psychosocial risks on tobacco use has not been well researched. METHOD: Using a population-based sample of middle and high school students (N = 112,364), multilevel logistic and negative binomial regression models estimated the direct effects of cumulative psychosocial risks and IAs on student tobacco use (e...
October 11, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Wendy Kliewer, Brittani Parham
INTRODUCTION: Recent increases in marijuana use among adolescents, in concert with decreases in perceptions of harm caused by marijuana use, documented associations of marijuana use with health problems and academic disengagement, and the increase in cannabis potency over the past two decades highlight the need for effective prevention and intervention efforts to delay and/or curb marijuana use among adolescents. The present study investigated the role of four promotive factors in the role of abstinence from marijuana use initiation...
September 1, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Praveen Satapute, Milan V Kamble, Shivakantkumar S Adhikari, Sudisha Jogaiah
Pesticides are generally applied to agricultural soil to control crop diseases, with the critical goal of preventing yield loss and optimizing economic returns. However, the excessive utilization of pesticides in agriculture is a severe environmental and human health problem. In the present study, effect of triazole based fungicide, propiconazole on soil physicochemical properties, stimulatory impact of propiconazole residue on soil microbial communities and soil enzyme activities (phosphatise and urease) in contaminated red sandy loam and deep black soils of paddy (Oryza sativa L...
October 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yves Henchoz, Laurence Seematter-Bagnoud, David Nanchen, Christophe Büla, Armin von Gunten, Jean-Francois Démonet, Brigitte Santos-Eggimann
BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity, or co-occurrence of several chronic diseases, has major consequences in terms of function, quality of life and mortality. Recent advances suggest that the aetiology of multimorbidity includes a life-long process. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between childhood adversity and multimorbidity in community-dwelling older adults, and to investigate variation in participants born immediately before, during and at the end of the Second World War...
October 9, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Anta F Yu, Hope House Men And Alumni
In this study, we used photovoice and grounded theory to understand the barriers and resources encountered by Black men navigating substance use recovery and/or reentry following incarceration in an urban, economically disadvantaged neighborhood. The conceptual framework that emerged highlighted the significant impact of traumatic disruptions to place and relationships, as well as an ongoing dialectical tension between considering passive participation in street life or choosing recovery. Regarding action steps, participants recommended investing in community infrastructure, rehabilitating adults to be mentors, and mentoring youth to prevent street involvement...
October 15, 2018: Health & Place
Solomon Sisay, Ayehu Mekonen, Adugna Abera, Yifru Berhan, Tadele Kebede, Abebe Ferede
BACKGROUND: Globally, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Tuberculosis (TB) are one of the leading causes of death if they occurred as co-morbidity in affected individuals. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the collaboration of TB and HIV control activities by determining the co-morbidity rate between 2009 and 2015 in Oromia Region, Ethiopia. METHODS: A retrospective health facility based study was conducted by collecting data from Directly Observed TREATMENT: Short-course (DOTS) implementing health facilities in the region...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Sofanne J Ravensbergen, Laura B Nellums, Sally Hargreaves, Ymkje Stienstra, Jon S Friedland
BACKGROUND: Migrants may be underimmunised and at higher risk of vaccine-preventable diseases, yet there has been no comprehensive examination of what policies are currently implemented across Europe targeting child and adult migrants. We analysed vaccination policies for migrants in 32 EU/EEA countries and Switzerland. METHODS: Using framework analysis, we did a comparative analysis of national policies and guidelines pertaining to vaccination in recently arrived migrants through a systematic guideline and literature review and by approaching national experts...
October 15, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Dorit Rubinstein Reiss, V B Dubal
Influenza mandates in health care institutions are recommended by professional associations as an effective way to prevent the contraction of influenza by patients from health care workers. Health care institutions with such mandates must operate within civil rights frameworks. A recent set of cases against health care institutions with influenza mandates reveals the liabilities posed by federal law that protects employees from religious discrimination. This article examines this legal framework and draws important lessons from this litigation for health care institutions...
September 2018: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
Ruby Mendenhall
Scholars are beginning to use the concept medicalization of poverty to theorize how the United States spends large amounts of money on illnesses related to poverty but invests much less in preventing these illnesses and the conditions that create them (e.g., economic insecurity, housing instability, continuous exposure to violence, and racism). This study examines the connection between poverty, disease burden and health-related costs through the in-depth interviews of 86 Black mothers living in neighborhoods with high levels of violence on the South Side of Chicago...
September 2018: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
Kristy M Rogers
Immunization noncompliance is a public health issue. Vaccines have been noted as one of the most effective public health interventions against the spread of infectious disease. However, there is an increase in the number of nonmedical exemptions and vaccine hesitancy. This has been linked to a decrease in the fear of contracting vaccine preventable diseases to public concerns regarding vaccine safety. Research has shown that decreased vaccine coverage lessens the effect of herd immunity placing those who are unvaccinated or unable to be vaccinated at increased risk of contracting vaccine preventable diseases...
October 18, 2018: NASN School Nurse
Yung-Ho Hsu, Yu-Chun Yen, Yi-Chun Lin, Li-Chin Sung
BACKGROUND: In this study, we evaluated the effects of various medications on the patency of vascular access (VA) for hemodialysis. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database of Taiwan. We adopted a case-control study design within a cohort of patients who had received regular hemodialysis between 2002 and 2012; 34,354 patients with first VA failure were identified, and the duration from VA creation date to the first VA failure date was calculated...
2018: PloS One
Fuhmei Wang, Jung-Der Wang, Yu-Wen Hung
INTRODUCTION: The introduction of universal health insurance coverage aims to provide equal accessibility and affordability of health care, but whether such a policy eliminates health inequalities has not been conclusively determined. This research aims to examine the healthcare outcomes of oral cancer and determine whether the universal coverage system in Taiwan has reduced health inequality. METHODS: Linking the databases of the National Cancer Registry with the National Mortality Registry in Taiwan, we stratified patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma by gender and income to estimate the incidence rate, cumulative incidence rate aged from 20 to 79 (CIR20-79), life expectancy, and expected years of life lost (EYLL)...
2018: PloS One
Eyasu Ejeta, Getenet Beyene, Getu Balay, Zegeye Bonsa, Gemeda Abebe
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of public health challenges among immigrant refugees and their surrounding communities in developing countries. Evaluating the treatment outcome of TB patients is one of the key indicators to understand the performance of TB control program. Hence, this study aims to assess profile, treatment outcome and factors associated with unsuccessful outcome of TB patients treated under the TB control program among refugees and their surrounding communities (SCs) in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia...
2018: PloS One
Louise P Hoyle, Emma Smith, Catherine Mahoney, Richard G Kyle
Violence and aggression toward nurses are global concerns. Despite repeated research on causal factors and widespread zero tolerance campaigns, rates of violence and aggression have not declined. Violence and aggression toward nurses can negatively affect their health and ultimately patient care. Media reporting of violence and aggression toward nurses might shape people's perceptions of the profession, perhaps impeding nurse recruitment and retention efforts in the face of global nursing shortages. The purpose of this study was to determine how print media in Scotland depicted reports of violence and aggression toward nurses...
October 18, 2018: Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice
Eileen T Bosso, Meredith E Fulmer, Ruth Petersen
For most infants, there is no better source of nutrition than breast milk. Breastfeeding is more than a lifestyle choice; it is an investment in the health of mothers and babies. Over the past 10 years, efforts from multiple sectors have contributed to significant increases in breastfeeding initiation and duration. This report summarizes progress, initiatives that contributed to this success, and areas where more work is needed.
October 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Salmaan Keshavjee, Farhana Amanullah, Adithya Cattamanchi, Richard Chaisson, Karen M Dobos, Gregory J Fox, Howard E Gendelman, Richard Gordon, Anneke Hesseling, Le Van Hoi, Beate Kampmann, Bavesh Kana, Gopal Khuller, David M Lewinsohn, Deborah A Lewinsohn, Philiana Ling Lin, Lenette Lin Lu, Gary Maartens, Andrew Owen, Marina Protopopova, Jyothi Rengarajan, Eric Rubin, Padmini Salgame, Erwin Schurr, James A Seddon, Susan Swindells, David M Tobin, Zarir Udwadia, Gerhard Walzl, Sudha Srinivasan, Roxana Rustomjee, Payam Nahid
Tuberculosis (TB) has surpassed HIV to become the leading infectious killer of adults globally, causing almost 2 million deaths annually. Although this airborne disease has been treatable since 1948, global rates of TB have dropped less than two percent per year; an estimated 10 million incident cases continue to occur annually, including one million in children. While transmission of active disease is an important driver of the epidemic, the seedbed that feeds the epidemic is the more than two billion people estimated to have TB infection, five to ten percent of whom will progress to active disease during their lifetime...
October 18, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Ian H Stanley, Joseph W Boffa, Megan L Rogers, Melanie A Hom, Brian J Albanese, Carol Chu, Daniel W Capron, N Brad Schmidt, Thomas E Joiner
OBJECTIVE: Suicide is a global public health concern. To inform the prevention and treatment of suicidality, it is crucial to identify transdiagnostic vulnerability factors for suicide and suicide-related conditions. One candidate factor is anxiety sensitivity (AS)-the fear of anxiety-related sensations-which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a host of mental health outcomes, including suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Importantly, AS is distinct from trait anxiety and negative affectivity, highlighting its potential incremental utility in the understanding of psychopathology...
November 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Ana Yibby Forero, Jenny Alexandra Hernández, Sandra Milena Rodríguez, Jhon Jairo Romero, Gina Emely Morales, Gabriel Ángel Ramírez
Introduction: Type II diabetes mellitus (DMII) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality both worldwide and in Colombia. It mainly affects men and women over 45 years of age. Inadequate control of this disease can generate greater health complications making it one of the most costly diseases in the country. Treatment includes activities other than glycemic control and requires constant monitoring by medical personnel and educational processes directed at the patient and his or her family. Objective: To characterize the feeding of patients with DMII in three public hospitals of Cundinamarca...
September 1, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Weilong Li, Michael F Murray, Monica A Giovanni
Family health history has long been known to be a powerful predictor of individual disease risk. It can be obtained prior to DNA sequencing in order to examine inheritance patterns, to be used as a proxy for genetic information, or as a tool to guide decision-making on the utility of diagnostic genetic testing. Increasingly, it is also being obtained retrospectively from sequenced individuals to examine familial disease penetrance and to identify at-risk relatives for cascade testing. The collection of adequate family history information to screen patients for disease risk and guide decision-making is a time-consuming process that is difficult to accomplish exclusively through discussion between patients and their providers...
October 18, 2018: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
Saida R Sharapova, Elyse Phillips, Karen Sirocco, Jennifer W Kaminski, Rebecca T Leeb, Italia Rolle
BACKGROUND: Normalisation of medicinal and recreational marijuana use has increased the importance of fully understanding effects of marijuana use on individual-and population-level health, including prenatal exposure effects on child development. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to examine the long-term effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on neuropsychological function in children aged 1-11 years. METHODS: Primary research publications were searched from Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL EbscoHost, Cochrane Library, Global Health and ERIC (1980-2018)...
October 18, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
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