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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777227/in-utero-exposure-to-gestational-diabetes-and-adiposity-does-breastfeeding-make-a-difference
#1
L L Hui, A M Li, E A S Nelson, G M Leung, S L Lee, C M Schooling
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Short-term breastfeeding from mothers with gestational diabetes (GDM) may programme metabolism and increase offspring diabetes risk. We examined the association of in utero GDM exposure with adiposity from infancy to adolescence, and whether any association was modified by breastfeeding during early infancy. METHODS: In the prospective Chinese birth cohort "Children of 1997" (n = 7342, 88% follow-up rate), generalised estimate equations with multiple imputation were used to assess associations of in utero GDM exposure with age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score during infancy (3 and 9 months), childhood (2- < 8 years) and adolescence (8-16 years), adjusted for sex, parity, maternal age, birth place, preeclampisa, smoking, and family socio-economic position...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773698/protocol-for-the-validation-of-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-cow-s-milk-related-symptom-score-comiss-against-open-food-challenge-in-a-single-blinded-prospective-multicentre-trial-in-infants
#2
Yvan Vandenplas, Rajat Mukherjee, Christophe Dupont, Philippe Eigenmann, Arne Høst, Mikael Kuitunen, Carmen Ribes-Koninkx, Neil Shah, Hania Szajewska, Andrea von Berg, Ralf G Heine, Zheng-Yan Zhao
INTRODUCTION: The symptoms of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) in infancy can be non-specific which may delay a correct diagnosis and cause adverse clinical outcomes. The diagnosis of non-IgE-mediated CMPA is particularly complex as it involves a 2 to 4 week elimination diet followed by oral food challenge (OFC). The Cow's Milk-related Symptom Score (CoMiSS) is a clinical resource for primary healthcare providers which aims to increase awareness of CMPA symptoms to facilitate an earlier diagnosis...
May 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773348/validation-of-standard-method-en-iso-11290-part-2-for-the-enumeration-of-listeria-monocytogenes-in-food
#3
Patricia Rollier, Bertrand Lombard, Laurent Guillier, Danièle François, Karol Romero, Sylvie Pierru, Laurence Bouhier, Nathalie Gnanou Besse
The reference method for the detection and enumeration of L. monocytogenes in food (Standards EN ISO 11290-1&2) have been validated by inter-laboratory studies in the frame of the Mandate M381 from European Commission to CEN. In this paper, the inter-laboratory studies led in 2013 on 5 matrices (cold-smoked salmon, milk powdered infant food formula, vegetables, environment, and cheese) to validate Standard EN ISO 11290-2 are reported. According to the results obtained, the method of the revised Standard EN ISO 11290-2 can be considered as a good method for the enumeration of L...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772397/grandmother-and-health-care-professional-breastfeeding-perspectives-provide-opportunities-for-health-promotion-in-an-american-indian-community
#4
Bailey Houghtaling, Carmen Byker Shanks, Selena Ahmed, Elizabeth Rink
RATIONALE: While breastfeeding is well recognized as beneficial, rates of breastfeeding among American Indian women are below average and contribute to health inequities. Culturally specific approaches to breastfeeding research are called for to inform appropriate interventions in American Indian communities. Specifically, a grandmother's role in breastfeeding promotion is of great import particularly in American Indian (AI) groups, although is an understudied topic to date. OBJECTIVE: This research seeks to fill a prominent literature gap by utilizing a grounded theory and community-based research approach to inform breastfeeding practices from the voices of grandmothers and health care professionals in a rural AI community in the United States...
May 8, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769176/using-feeding-to-reduce-pain-during-vaccination-of-formula-fed-infants-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Netty G P Bos-Veneman, Marrit Otter, Sijmen A Reijneveld
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and potential side effects of formula feeding to reduce pain during vaccination among infants. STUDY DESIGN: In the setting of well-baby clinics we recruited a community-based sample of full-term born infants who were already formula fed by the choice of the parents (n=48, aged 4-10 weeks) and received their first DTaP-IPV-HepB-Hib and pneumococcal vaccinations and randomised them into two groups. To evaluate pain experienced during vaccination we compared infants who drank formula feeding before, during and after vaccination with infants who did not...
May 16, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768650/gestation-at-birth-mode-of-birth-infant-feeding-and-childhood-hospitalization-with-infection
#6
Jason P Bentley, David P Burgner, Antonia W Shand, Jane C Bell, Jessica E Miller, Natasha Nassar
INTRODUCTION: Infections are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in preschool children. We aimed to assess the impact of the co-occurrence of cesarean section, early birth and formula feeding on hospitalization with infection in early childhood. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Population-based retrospective record-linkage cohort study of 488 603 singleton livebirths ≥32 weeks gestational age in New South Wales, Australia, 2007-2012. Multivariable Cox-regression was used to estimate independent and combined adjusted associations of gestational age, mode of birth (vaginal or cesarean section by labor onset) and formula feeding with time to first and repeat hospitalization with infection for children <5 years of age...
May 16, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768383/treatable-massive-pericardial-effusion-and-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-in-an-infant-with-a-novel-homozygous-acadvl-mutation-a-case-report
#7
Yoo-Mi Kim, Geena Kim, Hoon Ko, Han-Wook Yoo, Hyoung Doo Lee
RATIONALE: Infantile-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCMP) should be considered a largely genetic condition, although its onset is most often triggered by infection. Very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation that often causes severe cardiomyopathy and/or sudden death during the neonatal period. PATIENT CONCERNS: Herein, we report an infant with VLCAD deficiency who presented with severe cardiac manifestations, including massive pericardial effusion and HCMP...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767697/perspective-structure-function-claims-on-infant-formula
#8
John C Wallingford
In the context of a food product label, the term "claim" refers to information that attributes value to the product. The term extends to many different types of information, from product identity, descriptors of intended use, and identification of characteristic properties to the physiologic effects in the body of substances in the food, including the reduction of risk of disease. Food labeling, which includes claims, provides information that consumers want and use to improve their diets. Consumers prefer short statements on the front label claims to longer, more detailed information, including ingredients statements and a nutrition panel...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763383/eb-2017-article-soy-protein-isolate-feeding-does-not-result-in-reproductive-toxicity-in-the-pre-pubertal-rat-testis
#9
Martin Jj Ronis, Horacio Gomez-Acevedo, Kartik Shankar, Neha Sharma, Michael Blackburn, Rohit Singhal, Kelly E Mercer, Thomas M Badger
The isoflavone phytoestrogens found in the soy protein isolate used in soy infant formulas have been shown to have estrogenic actions in the developing male reproductive tract resulting in reproductive toxicity. However, few studies have examined potential estrogenicity of soy protein isolate as opposed to that of pure isoflavones. In this study, we fed weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats a semi-purified diet with casein or soy protein isolate as the sole protein source from postnatal day 21 to 33. Additional groups were fed casein or soy protein isolate and treated s...
May 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762375/starch-consumption-patterns-in-infants-and-young-children
#10
Erin Quann, Ryan Carvalho
BACKGROUND: The introduction of starch into an infant's diet is an important milestone in the feeding journey. Intestinal maturity and the presence of digestive enzymes are necessary for the physiologic breakdown of starch and other complementary foods. However, little is known about the consumption patterns of starch containing foods during complementary feeding. METHOD: The 2008 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) is a cross-sectional 24-hour dietary intake survey of a nationally representative sample of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers from birth to 48 months of age...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762374/structure-and-digestion-of-common-complementary-food-starches
#11
Amy Hui-Mei Lin
Starch is the major source of dietary glucose for rapid development of children. Starches from various crops naturally differ in molecular structures and properties. Cooking, processing, and storage may change their molecular properties and affect their digestibility and functionality. Starch digestion is affected by its susceptibility to α-amylase and α-glucosidase (maltase), and the susceptibility is determined by starch granule architecture and glucan structures, as well as the interaction between starch and other food components...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762373/use-of-starch-and-modified-starches-in-infant-feeding-a-historical-perspective
#12
Frank R Greer
There is a long history of the use of starch in infant feeding. Proprietary infant foods (1867-1920) contained added starch from either cereal grains or malted carbohydrates. When evaporated milk became available in the 1920s, the use of proprietary foods fell out of favor. Evaporated milk formulas were a mixture of milk, water, and modified starch or milk sugar (lactose). By the late 1920s, however, corn syrup became the most common modified starch added to evaporated milk formulas as it was widely available, inexpensive, and readily accepted...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761879/high-dose-human-milk-feedings-decrease-oxidative-stress-in-premature-infant
#13
Yimin Chen, Giamila Fantuzzi, Michael Schoeny, Paula Meier, Aloka L Patel
BACKGROUND: Premature infants are susceptible to oxidative stress, increasing the risk for serious morbidities. High-dose human milk (HM) feedings decrease morbidity risks and may reduce oxidative stress in this population. The purpose of this study was to compare oxidative stress using serial urinary F2 -isoprostane concentrations in predominantly HM and preterm formula (PF)-fed premature infants over the first 21 days of life (DOL), while controlling for perinatal oxidative stress exposures including bovine-based human milk fortifier (HMF) or PF introduction to predominantly HM-fed infants...
May 15, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760009/randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-theory-based-behavioural-intervention-to-reduce-formula-milk-intake
#14
Rajalakshmi Lakshman, Stephen J Sharp, Fiona Whittle, Annie Schiff, Wendy Hardeman, Lisa Irvine, Ed Wilson, Simon J Griffin, Ken K Ong
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of a theory-based behavioural intervention to prevent rapid weight gain in formula milk-fed infants. DESIGN: In this single (assessor) blind, randomised controlled trial, 669 healthy full-term infants receiving formula milk within 14 weeks of birth were individually randomised to intervention (n=340) or attention-matched control (n=329) groups. The intervention aimed to reduce formula milk intakes, and promote responsive feeding and growth monitoring to prevent rapid weight gain (≥+0...
May 14, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757936/formula-milk-supplementation-on-the-postnatal-ward-a-cross-sectional-analytical-study
#15
Kirsty V Biggs, Katherine Hurrell, Eleanor Matthews, Ekaterina Khaleva, Daniel Munblit, Robert J Boyle
Breastfeeding rates are low in the UK, where approximately one quarter of infants receive a breastmilk substitute (BMS) in the first week of life. We investigated the reasons for early BMS use in two large maternity units in the UK, in order to understand the reasons for the high rate of early BMS use in this setting. Data were collected through infant feeding records, as well as maternal and midwife surveys in 2016. During 2016, 28% of infants received a BMS supplement prior to discharge from the hospital maternity units with only 10% supplementation being clinically indicated...
May 14, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757789/sociocultural-factors-influencing-infant-feeding-choices-among-african-immigrant-women-living-with-hiv-a-synthesis-of-the-literature
#16
Josephine Etowa, Shannan MacDonald, Jean Hannan, J Craig Phillips, Nana Yaa Boadu, Seye Babatunde
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The World Health Organizations (WHO) strategy is to eliminate pediatric HIV. HIV prevention guidelines in high-income countries recommend mothers living with HIV avoid breastfeeding. Yet, breastfeeding is promoted as the normal and unequalled method of feeding infants. This creates a paradox for mothers coming from cultures where breastfeeding is an expectation and formula feeding suggests illness. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review is to examine the context influencing infant feeding among African immigrant women living with HIV to develop interventions to reduce the risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission...
April 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756573/lactoferrin-major-physiological-functions-and-applications
#17
Liyuan Hao, Qiang Shan, Jingya Wei, Fengtao Ma, Peng Sun
Lactoferrin (lactotransferrin; Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein and one of the most important bioactivators in milk and other external secretions. It has numerous biological roles, including the regulation of iron absorption and modulation of immune responses, and has anti-microbial, anti-viral, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. Lf regulates the quantity of iron absorbed in the intestine via its role in iron transport and can also chelate iron, directly or indirectly. Notably, it has been used as an adjuvant therapy for some intestinal diseases...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754873/elaboration-and-validation-of-the-method-for-the-quantification-of-the-emetic-toxin-of-bacillus-cereus-as-described-in-en-iso-18465-microbiology-of-the-food-chain-quantitative-determination-of-emetic-toxin-cereulide-using-lc-ms-ms
#18
P H In 't Veld, L F J van der Laak, M van Zon, E G Biesta-Peters
A method for the quantification of the Bacillus cereus emetic toxin (cereulide) was developed and validated. The method principle is based on LC-MS as this is the most sensitive and specific method for cereulide. Therefore the study design is different from the microbiological methods validated under this mandate. As the method had to be developed a two stage validation study approach was used. The first stage (pre-study) focussed on the method applicability and the experience of the laboratories with the method...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750766/infectious-morbidity-mortality-and-nutrition-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-formula-fed-infants-results-from-the-hptn-040-pactg-1043-trial
#19
Nava Yeganeh, D Heather Watts, Jiahong Xu, Tara Kerin, Esau C Joao, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Gerhard Theron, Glenda Gray, Breno Santos, Rosana Fonseca, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Valdilea Veloso, Margaret Camarca, Lynne Mofenson, Jack Moye, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: HIV exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are a growing population with potentially poor health outcomes. We evaluated morbidity and mortality in HEU formula-fed infants enrolled in the NICHD HPTN 040/PACTG 1043 trial. METHODS: Infectious morbidity, mortality, and undernutrition were evaluated within a cohort of 1,000 HEU infants enrolled between 4/2004 and 4/2010 in Brazil (N=766) and South Africa (N=234) as part of the NICHD/HPTN 040 trial of three different antiretroviral regimens to decrease intrapartum HIV vertical transmission...
May 10, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745984/effects-of-processing-on-structure-and-thermal-properties-of-powdered-preterm-infant-formula
#20
Xiaomeng Sun, Cuina Wang, Hao Wang, Mingruo Guo
Powdered infant formula is usually manufactured by ingredients mixing, homogenization, pasteurization, evaporation and spray drying. Effects of unit operations on the microstructure, thermal properties and other characteristics of preterm infant formula, fat (F), serum (S), and pellet (P) fractions on centrifugation were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. After homogenization, particles which may be casein and denatured whey proteins were observed on the surface of F fraction in microstructure images...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Food Science
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