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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221957/ochratoxin-a-concentrations-in-a-variety-of-grain-based-and-non-grain-based-foods-on-the-canadian-retail-market-from-2009-to-2014
#1
Beata Kolakowski, Sarah M O'Rourke, Henri P Bietlot, Karl Kurz, Barbara Aweryn
The extent of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination of domestically produced foods sold across Canada was determined from 2009 to 2014 with sampling and testing occurring each fiscal year. Cereal-based, fruit-based, and soy-based food samples (n = 6,857) were analyzed. Almost half of the samples (3,200; 47%) did not contain detectable concentrations of OTA. The remaining 3,657 samples contained OTA at 0.040 to 631 ng/g. Wheat, oats, milled products of other grains (such as rye and buckwheat), and to a lesser extent corn products and their derived foods were the most significant potential sources of OTA exposure for the Canadian population...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221877/duplex-real-time-pcr-method-for-the-differentiation-of-cronobacter-sakazakii-and-cronobacter-malonaticus
#2
Xiaofang Li, Jinghua Cui, Xiaoli DU, Zhigang Cui, Yibing Huang, Biao Kan
Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus are the most common species of Cronobacter , so it is necessary to detect the two species as soon as possible in surveillance programs. We developed a real-time PCR method for identifying C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus from the genus Cronobacter . In this study, the two pairs of primers and probes were designed, targeting 16S rRNA and fusA, respectively. The specificity of the real-time PCR assay was validated with 112 strains of Cronobacter , including 56 C...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218865/occurrence-of-ochratoxin-a-in-infant-foods-in-the-united-states
#3
Jack Cappozzo, Lauren Jackson, Hyun Jung Lee, Wei Zhou, Fadwa Al-Taher, Jerry Zweigenbaum, Dojin Ryu
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a possible human carcinogen and occurs frequently in cereal grain, soy, and other agricultural commodities. Infants and young children may be more susceptible to contaminants than adults because of their lower body weight, higher metabolic rate, reduced ability to detoxify food toxicants, and more restricted diet. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence and levels of OTA in infant formula and infant cereal products available in the U.S. market. In the present study, 98 powdered infant formula (milk- and soy-based) samples and 155 infant cereal (barley-, rice-, oat-, wheat-, and mixed grain-based) products were collected from different retail locations in the United States over a 2-year period...
February 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213210/comparison-of-sensitivity-to-artificial-spectral-errors-and-multivariate-lod-in-nir-spectroscopy-determining-the-performance-of-miniaturizations-on-melamine-in-milk-powder
#4
Raphael Henn, Christian G Kirchler, Maria-Elisabeth Grossgut, Christian W Huck
This study compared three commercially available spectrometers - whereas two of them were miniaturized - in terms of prediction ability of melamine in milk powder (infant formula). Therefore all spectra were split into calibration- and validation-set using Kennard Stone and Duplex algorithm in comparison. For each instrument the three best performing PLSR models were constructed using SNV and Savitzky Golay derivatives. The best RMSEP values were 0.28g/100g, 0.33g/100g and 0.27g/100g for the NIRFlex N-500, the microPHAZIR and the microNIR2200 respectively...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211341/food-protein-induced-enterocolitis-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
A Nowak-Węgrzyn, E Jarocka-Cyrta, Apb Moschione Castro
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-, cell-mediated food allergy of unknown prevalence and pathophysiology. Onset is typically during the first year of life; seafood-induced FPIES may start in adulthood. Acute FPIES manifests within 1-4 hours after ingestion with repetitive emesis, pallor, and lethargy progressing to dehydration and hypovolemic shock in 15% of cases. Chronic FPIES manifests with intermittent emesis, watery diarrhea, and poor growth progressing to dehydration and hypovolemic shock over a period of days to weeks...
2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197144/detection-and-enumeration-of-spore-forming-bacteria-in-powdered-dairy-products
#6
REVIEW
Aoife J McHugh, Conor Feehily, Colin Hill, Paul D Cotter
With the abolition of milk quotas in the European Union in 2015, several member states including Ireland, Luxembourg, and Belgium have seen year on year bi-monthly milk deliveries to dairies increase by up to 35%. Milk production has also increased outside of Europe in the past number of years. Unsurprisingly, there has been a corresponding increased focus on the production of dried milk products for improved shelf life. These powders are used in a wide variety of products, including confectionery, infant formula, sports dietary supplements and supplements for health recovery...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196329/breastfeeding-mode-and-risk-of-breast-cancer
#7
Mishel Unar-Munguía, Gabriela Torres-Mejía, M Arantxa Colchero, Teresita González de Cosío
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding reduces women's risk of breast cancer. Since exclusive breastfeeding has a stronger hormonal effect, it could theoretically result in a greater reduction in breast cancer risk than any breastfeeding mode. No meta-analysis has examined breast cancer risk by breastfeeding mode. Research aim: The authors conducted a meta-analysis for breast cancer risk in parous women who breastfed exclusively or in any mode versus parous women who formula fed their infants, and they estimated the summary dose-response association by the accumulated duration of any breastfeeding mode...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194211/enteral-nutrition-for-optimal-growth-in-preterm-infants
#8
REVIEW
Myo-Jing Kim
Early, aggressive nutrition is an important contributing factor of long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. To ensure optimal growth in premature infants, adequate protein intake and optimal protein/energy ratio should be emphasized rather than the overall energy intake. Minimal enteral nutrition should be initiated as soon as possible in the first days of life, and feeding advancement should be individualized according to the clinical course of the infant. During hospitalization, enteral nutrition with preterm formula and fortified human milk represent the best feeding practices for facilitating growth...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193420/reaction-kinetics-and-galactooligosaccharide-product-profiles-of-the-%C3%AE-galactosidases-from-bacillus-circulans-kluyveromyces-lactis-and-aspergillus-oryzae
#9
Huifang Yin, Jelle B Bultema, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Sander S van Leeuwen
β-Galactosidase enzymes are used in the dairy industry to convert lactose into galactooligosaccharides (GOS) that are added to infant formula to mimic the molecular sizes and prebiotic functions of human milk oligosaccharides. Here we report a detailed analysis of the clearly different GOS profiles of the commercial β-galactosidases from Bacillus circulans, Kluyveromyces lactis and Aspergillus oryzae. Also the GOS yields of these enzymes differed, varying from 48.3% (B. circulans) to 34.9% (K. lactis), and 19...
June 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190990/the-translation-of-lipid-profiles-to-nutritional-biomarkers-in-the-study-of-infant-metabolism
#10
Animesh Acharjee, Philippa Prentice, Carlo Acerini, James Smith, Ieuan A Hughes, Ken Ong, Julian L Griffin, David Dunger, Albert Koulman
INTRODUCTION: Links between early life exposures and later health outcomes may, in part, be due to nutritional programming in infancy. This hypothesis is supported by observed long-term benefits associated with breastfeeding, such as better cognitive development in childhood, and lower risks of obesity and high blood pressure in later life. However, the possible underlying mechanisms are expected to be complex and may be difficult to disentangle due to the lack of understanding of the metabolic processes that differentiate breastfed infants compared to those receiving just formula feed...
2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188944/comparison-of-fecal-calprotectin-in-exclusively-breastfed-and-formula-or-mixed-fed-infants-in-the-first-six-months-of-life
#11
Masoumeh Asgarshirazi, Mamak Shariat, Fatemeh Nayeri, Hosein Dalili, Alireza Abdollahi
We conducted this study to compare fecal calprotectin between exclusively breastfed and formula or mixed fed infants aged one month and six months. Sixty term infants were enrolled from the labor ward of Valiasr Hospital between Oct 2011 and July 2015 and their fecal calprotectin was checked by the ELISA method and Hycult biotech kits. The enrolled infants had a birth weight of 2500-4000 g and no perinatal insults or hospitalization. Stool sampling was done at 1±1 week and at 6n±1 months. The six-month infants had no recent disease, antibiotic use or vaccination...
January 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188114/a-semi-quantitative-food-frequency-questionnaire-validated-in-hispanic-infants-and%C3%A2-toddlers-aged-0-to-24-months
#12
Cristina Palacios, Sona Rivas-Tumanyan, Eduardo J Santiago-Rodríguez, Olga Sinigaglia, Elaine M Ríos, Maribel Campos, Beatriz Diaz, Walter Willett
BACKGROUND: There are limited validated food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) for infants and toddlers, most of which were evaluated in Europe or Oceania, and the ones available for use in the United States have important limitations. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the validity of an FFQ developed for infants and toddlers. DESIGN: A semi-quantitative FFQ was developed that included 52 food items, their sources, and portion sizes. The FFQ inquired about diets over the previous 7 days...
February 7, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187880/-management-and-prevention-of-cow-s-milk-protein-allergy-contribution-of-community-pharmacists
#13
C Rouelle, A Arion, V Prevost
Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is a public health issue in children whose quality of life is strongly affected. The objective of this article is to review the present state of knowledge on the CMPA, and highlight some emerging alternatives in its management and in its prevention. Good knowledge in the appropriate infant formula, exclusion diets, the handling of the emergency treatment thanks to the use of epinephrine auto-injector pens, the use of personalized care project and accessibility to allergic patients' association are factors that secure the management...
February 7, 2017: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183151/power-and-sample-size-calculation-for-paired-recurrent-events-data-based-on-robust-nonparametric-tests
#14
Pei-Fang Su, Chia-Hua Chung, Yu-Wen Wang, Yunchan Chi, Ying-Ju Chang
The purpose of this paper is to develop a formula for calculating the required sample size for paired recurrent events data. The developed formula is based on robust non-parametric tests for comparing the marginal mean function of events between paired samples. This calculation can accommodate the associations among a sequence of paired recurrent event times with a specification of correlated gamma frailty variables for a proportional intensity model. We evaluate the performance of the proposed method with comprehensive simulations including the impacts of paired correlations, homogeneous or nonhomogeneous processes, marginal hazard rates, censoring rate, accrual and follow-up times, as well as the sensitivity analysis for the assumption of the frailty distribution...
February 9, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176308/fluid-restriction-for-treatment-of-preterm-infants-with-chronic-lung-disease
#15
REVIEW
Keith J Barrington, Etienne Fortin-Pellerin, Thomas Pennaforte
BACKGROUND: Fluid restriction is often recommended as part of the management of infants with early or established bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). OBJECTIVES: To determine whether fluid restriction as part of the therapeutic intervention for early or established BPD improves clinical outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 1) in the Cochrane Library (searched 16 February 2016), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 16 February 2016), Embase (1980 to 16 February 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to 16 February 2016)...
February 8, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174037/observed-infant-food-cue-responsivity-associations-with-maternal-report-of-infant-eating-behavior-breastfeeding-and-infant-weight-gain
#16
Elizabeth Buvinger, Katherine Rosenblum, Alison L Miller, Niko A Kaciroti, Julie C Lumeng
Infant obesity and the rate of weight gain during infancy are significant public health concerns, but few studies have examined eating behaviors in infancy. Food cue responsivity has been described as a key contributor to obesity risk in school age children and adults, but has been rarely examined during infancy. The purpose of the current study was to test among 30 infants aged 6-12 months the hypotheses that infants would show greater interest in food versus non-food stimuli, and that greater birth weight, greater rate of weight gain during infancy, greater mother-reported food responsiveness, being formula versus breastmilk fed, and higher maternal body mass index, would each be associated with greater interest in the food versus non-food stimulus...
February 4, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167344/unexpected-widespread-hypophosphatemia-and-bone-disease-associated-with-elemental-formula-use-in-infants-and-children
#17
Luisa F Gonzalez Ballesteros, Nina S Ma, Rebecca J Gordon, Leanne Ward, Philippe Backeljauw, Halley Wasserman, David R Weber, Linda A DiMeglio, Julie Gagne, Robert Stein, Declan Cody, Kimber Simmons, Paul Zimakas, Lisa Swartz Topor, Sungeeta Agrawal, Andrew Calabria, Peter Tebben, Ruth Faircloth, Erik A Imel, Linda Casey, Thomas O Carpenter
OBJECTIVE: Hypophosphatemia occurs with inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, increased renal excretion, or shifts between intracellular and extracellular compartments. We noticed the common finding of amino-acid based elemental formula [EF] use in an unexpected number of cases of idiopathic hypophosphatemia occurring in infants and children evaluated for skeletal disease. We aimed to fully characterize the clinical profiles in these cases. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of children with unexplained hypophosphatemia was performed as cases accumulated from various centres in North America and Ireland...
February 4, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166850/a-fermented-milk-concentrate-and-a-combination-of-short-chain-galacto-oligosaccharides-long-chain-fructo-oligosaccharides-pectin-derived-acidic-oligosaccharides-protect-suckling-rats-from-rotavirus-gastroenteritis
#18
Mar Rigo-Adrover, Teresa Pérez-Berezo, Sara Ramos-Romero, Kees van Limpt, Karen Knipping, Johan Garssen, Jan Knol, Àngels Franch, Margarida Castell, Francisco J Pérez-Cano
Human milk contains bioactive compounds that confer a protective role against gastrointestinal infections. In order to find supplements for an infant formula able to mimic these benefits of breast-feeding, two different concepts were tested. The products consisted of the following: (1) a Bifidobacterium breve- and Streptococcus thermophilus-fermented formula and (2) a combination of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides/long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides with pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides. A rotavirus infection suckling rat model was used to evaluate improvements in the infectious process and in the immune response of supplemented animals...
February 7, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160787/legislation-policies-and-guidelines-related-to-breastfeeding-and-the-baby-friendly-health-initiative-in-australia-a-document-analysis
#19
Anahita Esbati, Margaret Barnes, Amanda Henderson, Jane Taylor
Objectives The aim of the present study was to assess the extent to which publicly available legislation, policy and guidelines related to breastfeeding and the Baby Friendly Health Initiative (BFHI) underpin and support the uptake and implementation of the BFHI in Australia.Methods Altheide's document analysis model (sample, data collection, data organisation, data analysis and report) was used to source and analyse publicly available legislation, policies and guidelines in Australia that were related to breastfeeding and the BFHI at national, state and professional organisational levels...
February 6, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159208/the-importance-of-human-milk-for-immunity-in-preterm-infants
#20
REVIEW
Erin D Lewis, Caroline Richard, Bodil M Larsen, Catherine J Field
The immune system of preterm infants is immature, placing them at increased risk for serious immune-related complications. Human milk provides a variety of immune protective and immune maturation factors that are beneficial to the preterm infant's poorly developed immune system. The most studied immune components in human milk include antimicrobial proteins, maternal leukocytes, immunoglobulins, cytokines and chemokines, oligosaccharides, gangliosides, nucleotides, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
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