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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322151/chronic-upregulation-of-cleaved-caspase-3-associated-with-chronic-myelin-pathology-and-microvascular-reorganization-in-the-thalamus-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#1
Andriy O Glushakov, Olena Y Glushakova, Tetyana Y Korol, Sandra A Acosta, Cesar V Borlongan, Alex B Valadka, Ronald L Hayes, Alexander V Glushakov
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with long-term disabilities and devastating chronic neurological complications including problems with cognition, motor function, sensory processing, as well as behavioral deficits and mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, personality change and social unsuitability. Clinical data suggest that disruption of the thalamo-cortical system including anatomical and metabolic changes in the thalamus following TBI might be responsible for some chronic neurological deficits following brain trauma...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30296430/long-term-deficits-in-risky-decision-making-after-traumatic-brain-injury-on-a-rat-analog-of-the-iowa-gambling-task
#2
Trinity K Shaver, Jenny E Ozga, Binxing Zhu, B A, Karen G Anderson, Kris M Martens, Cole Vonder Haar
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects 2.8 million people annually in the United States, with significant populations suffering from ongoing cognitive dysfunction. Impairments in decision-making can have major implications for patients and their caregivers, often enduring for years to decades, yet are rarely explored in experimental TBI. In the current study, the Rodent Gambling Task (RGT), an Iowa Gambling Task analog, was used to assess risk-based decision-making and motor impulsivity after TBI. During testing, rats chose between options associated with different probabilities of reinforcement (sucrose) or punishment (timeout)...
October 5, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294296/the-importance-of-inter-species-variation-in-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-alterations-of-microglial-axonal-interactions
#3
Karen M Gorse, Audrey D Lafrenaye
Interactions between microglia and neuronal components are important for normal CNS function. They are also associated with neuroinflammation and many pathological processes and several studies have explored these interactions in terms of phagocytic engulfment. Much progress has also been made in understanding the consequences of chronic neuroinflammatory changes following trauma. However, little is known about acute alterations to these physical non-phagocytic microglial-neuronal interactions following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and particularly to what degree these post-injury interactions may be influenced by the animal species utilized in pre-clinical models of TBI...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294256/andrographolide-alleviates-acute-brain-injury-in-a-rat-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-possible-involvement-of-inflammatory-signaling
#4
Li Tao, Li Zhang, Rong Gao, Feng Jiang, Jianbo Cao, Huixiang Liu
Neuroinflammation plays an important role in secondary injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata , has been demonstrated to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in neurodegenerative disorders. This study therefore aimed to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of Andro after TBI and explore the underlying mechanisms. In our study, we used a weight-dropped model to induce TBI in Sprague-Dawley rats, the neurological deficits were assessed using modified neurological severity scores, Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) staining were employed to examine neuronal degeneration and apoptosis after TBI, immunofluorescence was designed to investigate microglial activation...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30286390/convulsive-seizures-and-eeg-spikes-after-lateral-fluid-percussion-injury-in-the-rat
#5
Debbie Smith, Thomas Rau, Austin Poulsen, Ziven MacWilliams, David Patterson, William Kelly, David Poulsen
The rat lateral fluid-percussion injury (FPI) model has been used extensively to study post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE). Epidemiological studies have reported that the risk of PTE is higher after more severe injury. Adult, male Wistar rats subjected to different atmospheric pressures of injury during FPI showed great variability in injury severity when functional behavior was determined based on the Neurological Severity Score (NSS) assessment. When NSS was used to select rats with the most severe FPI-induced brain injury, 63% of rats experienced at least one convulsive seizure 2-5 weeks after FPI...
November 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30280938/hair-follicle-mirnas-a-novel-biomarker-for-primary-blast-induced-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Jing Zhang, Rosalinda Knight, Yushan Wang, Thomas W Sawyer, Christopher J Martyniuk, Valerie S Langlois
CONTEXT: Due to the wide use of improvised explosive devices during modern warfare, primary blast-derived mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has become a major medical condition in the military. With minimal visually identifiable symptoms, an effective molecular biomarker system is desirable. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the potential of mammalian hair follicle miRNAs as an mTBI biomarker. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Due to their well-established roles in mTBI molecular pathology, the expression level of miR-183, miR-26a, miR-181c, miR-29a, miR-34a, and miR-27b was determined using qRT-PCR in whisker hair follicles from rats subject to head-only exposure to a single pulse shock wave...
October 3, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30278249/diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-characterizes-brain-microstructural-changes-associated-with-cognitive-impairment-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Ming-Liang Wang, Meng-Meng Yu, Dian-Xu Yang, Ying-Liang Liu, Xiao-Er Wei, Wen-Bin Li
This study aims to investigate the value of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in assessing microstructural changes associated with cognitive impairment in chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI). At 7 months, six TBI rats and six control rats underwent Morris water maze (MWM) tests, followed by DKI examinations. DKI parameters were measured in bilateral cortex, hippocampus, and callosum. Brain immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of neuron [neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN)], astroglia [glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)], microglia [ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1)], and myelin [myelin basic protein (MBP)] was performed in the same area as DKI parameter...
September 29, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30266292/the-impact-of-enoxaparin-administration-in-relationship-to-hemorrhage-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Teena Dhir, Eric Weiss, Katarzyna Wolanin, Simran Randhawa, Solomon Samuel, Corrado Minimo, Griffin Becker, Brian McGreen, Chase Kriza, Niki Patel, Mark Kaplan, Pak Leung
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in the general trauma population is well established. However, risk of increased intracranial hemorrhage in traumatic brain injury (TBI) population is of concern. The aim for this study is to identify a reproducible model of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), evaluated by clinical and histological markers and test the hypothesis that enoxaparin increases the risk of spontaneous brain hemorrhage. METHODS: 40 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups: group 1 (sham) with no TBI along with 4 groups comparing mTBI with and without pharmacological intervention using enoxaparin at 24 h and 72 h respectively...
September 14, 2018: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30255425/blood-based-glutamate-scavengers-reverse-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-synaptic-plasticity-disruption-by-decreasing-glutamate-level-in-hippocampus-interstitial-fluid-but-not-cerebral-spinal-fluid-in-vivo
#9
Dainan Zhang, Meng Xiao, Long Wang, Wang Jia
Excessive glutamate release has been implicated as a major contributor to multiple post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) deficits, including neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. Prior to the presence of behavior change, synaptic plasticity is rapidly and potently disrupted by TBI, which is believed to be relevant to inappropriately increased extracellular glutamate concentration and glutamatergic receptor activation. Acutely promoting brain glutamate clearance with a blood-based scavenging system, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), prevents the delayed inhibition of LTP post-TBI...
September 25, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30246455/inhibitory-role-of-lentivirus-mediated-aquaporin-4-gene-silencing-in-the-formation-of-glial-scar-in-a-rat-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Ya-Xiong Yong, Yu-Ming Li, Jia Lian, Chuan-Ming Luo, De-Xia Zhong, Ke Han
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), an acute degenerative pathology of the central nervous system, is a leading cause of death and disability. As the glial scar is a mechanical barrier to nerve regeneration, inhibitory molecules in the forming scar and methods to overcome them have suggested molecular modification strategies to allow neuronal growth and functional regeneration. Herein, we aim to investigate the effects of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) gene silencing on the glial scar formation after TBI by establishing rat models...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30236814/proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-h1-mrs-study-of-the-ketogenic-diet-on-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-adolescent-rats-and-its-effect-on-neurodegeneration
#11
Fengchen Zhang, Hui Wu, Yichao Jin, Xiaohua Zhang
OBJECTIVE: A ketogenic diet (KD) improves cellular metabolism and functional recovery after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury. Here, we evaluated the changes of neurochemical metabolites after KD therapy for repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) and its possible role in neurodegeneration. METHODS: Postnatal day 35 rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham, control, and KD groups. Rats in control and KD groups were given 3 rmTBI by a fluid percussion traumatic brain injury device 24 hours apart...
September 17, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30236124/moderate-hypothermia-inhibits-microglial-activation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-by-modulating-autophagy-apoptosis-and-the-myd88-dependent-tlr4-signaling-pathway
#12
Fengchen Zhang, Haiping Dong, Tao Lv, Ke Jin, Yichao Jin, Xiaohua Zhang, Jiyao Jiang
BACKGROUND: Complex mechanisms participate in microglial activation after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI can induce autophagy and apoptosis in neurons and glial cells, and moderate hypothermia plays a protective role in the acute phase of TBI. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of TBI and moderate hypothermia on microglial activation and investigated the possible roles of autophagy/apoptosis and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). METHODS: The TBI model was induced with a fluid percussion TBI device...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234712/the-promising-effects-of-transplanted-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-the-treatment-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Lifeng Qi, Xinhong Xue, Jijun Sun, Qingjian Wu, Hongru Wang, Yan Guo, Baoliang Sun
Many studies have reported the recovery ability of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) for neural diseases. In this study, the authors explored the roles of UC-MSCs to treat the traumatic brain injury. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from healthy neonatal rat umbilical cord immediately after delivery. The traumatic brain injury (TBI) model was formed by the classical gravity method. The authors detected the behavior changes and measured the levels of inflammatory factors, such as interleukin-lβ and tumor necrosis factor-α by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks after transplantation between TBI treated and untreated with UC-MSCs...
October 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232232/administration-of-dexmedetomidine-inhibited-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-microglial-cell-activities-in-hippocampus-of-traumatic-brain-injury-rats
#14
Bin Zheng, Shuncai Zhang, Yanlu Ying, Xinying Guo, Hengchang Li, Lixin Xu, Xiangcai Ruan
The abnormally high nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activity is a typical characteristic of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Dexmedetomidine (Dex) is a highly selective α-2 adrenergic receptor agonist that inhibits the activation of NLRP3. Thus, it was hypothesized that Dex could attenuate TBI by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activity in hippocampus. Rats were subjected to controlled cortical impact method to induce TBI, and treated with Dex...
October 31, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213663/frontal-brain-injury-chronically-impairs-timing-behavior-in-rats
#15
Taylor L Scott, Cole Vonder Haar
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects over 2.8 million people annually, and has been shown to increase motor impulsivity in both humans and animals. However, the root cause of this behavioral disinhibition is not fully understood. The goal of the current study was to evaluate whether timing behavior is disrupted after TBI, which could potentially explain increases in impulsive responding. Twenty-one male three-month old Long-Evans rats were trained on a fixed interval-18 s schedule. Following training, rats were placed on the Peak Interval Procedure, with intermittent peak trials...
January 1, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211852/blood-purification-by-non-selective-hemoadsorption-prevents-death-after-traumatic-brain-injury-and-hemorrhagic-shock-in-rats
#16
Todd O McKinley, Zhigang Lei, Yannik Kalbas, Fletcher A White, Zhongshang Shi, Fan Wu, Zao C Xu, Richard B Rodgers
BACKGROUND: Patients who sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI) and concomitant hemorrhagic shock (HS) are at high risk of high-magnitude inflammation which can lead to poor outcomes and death. Blood purification by hemoadsorption (HA) offers an alternative intervention to reduce inflammation after injury. We tested the hypothesis that HA would reduce mortality in a rat model of TBI and HS. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to a combined injury of a controlled cortical impact (CCI) to their brain and pressure-controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS)...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194744/comparison-of-the-detrimental-features-of-microglia-and-infiltrated-macrophages-in-traumatic-brain-injury-a-study-using-a-hypnotic-bromovalerylurea
#17
Naoki Abe, Mohammed E Choudhury, Minori Watanabe, Shun Kawasaki, Tasuku Nishihara, Hajime Yano, Shirabe Matsumoto, Takehiro Kunieda, Yoshiaki Kumon, Toshihiro Yorozuya, Junya Tanaka
Microglia and blood-borne macrophages in injured or diseased brains are difficult to distinguish because they share many common characteristics. However, the identification of microglia-specific markers and the use of flow cytometry have recently made it easy to discriminate these types of cells. In this study, we analyzed the features of blood-borne macrophages, and activated and resting microglia in a rat traumatic brain injury (TBI) model. Oxidative injury was indicated in macrophages and neurons in TBI lesions by the presence of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)...
September 8, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30187543/novel-graded-traumatic-brain-injury-model-in-rats-induced-by-closed-head-impacts
#18
Hao Wang, Xiyan Zhu, Zhikang Liao, Hongyi Xiang, Mingliang Ren, Minhui Xu, Hui Zhao
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Due to the heterogeneity of human TBI, none of the available animal models can reproduce the entire spectrum of TBI. This study was designed to develop a novel-graded TBI rat model which is induced by closed head impacts (CHI) with reproducible brain damage and neurological dysfunction. A total of 75 male Sprague-Dawley rats (200 ± 20 g) were randomly equally divided into five groups: the Sham, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8 MPa groups...
October 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30180518/effects-of-electric-cortical-stimulation-ecs-and-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-on-rats-with-a-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Ki Pi Yu, Yong-Soon Yoon, Jin Gyeong Lee, Ji Sun Oh, Jeong-Seog Lee, Taeyong Seog, Han-Young Lee
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of electric cortical stimulation (ECS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on motor and cognitive function recovery and brain plasticity in focal traumatic brain injury (TBI) of rats model. METHODS: Forty rats were pre-trained to perform a single pellet reaching task (SPRT), rotarod test (RRT), and Y-maze test for 14 days, then a focal TBI was induced by a weight drop model on the motor cortex. All rats were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: anodal ECS (50 Hz and 194 μs) (ECS group), tDCS (0...
August 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30178321/resuscitation-fluid-with-drag-reducing-polymer-enhances-cerebral-microcirculation-and-tissue-oxygenation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-complicated-by-hemorrhagic-shock
#20
D E Bragin, D A Lara, O A Bragina, M V Kameneva, E M Nemoto
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently accompanied by hemorrhagic shock (HS) which significantly worsens morbidity and mortality. Existing resuscitation fluids (RF) for volume expansion inadequately mitigate impaired microvascular cerebral blood flow (mvCBF) and hypoxia after TBI/HS. We hypothesized that nanomolar quantities of drag reducing polymers in resuscitation fluid (DRP-RF), would improve mvCBF by rheological modulation of hemodynamics. METHODS: TBI was induced in rats by fluid percussion (1...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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