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Kerrie A Davies, Tim Planche, Mark H Wilcox
BACKGROUND: Laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains unsettled, despite updated guidelines. We investigated the potential utility of quantitative data from a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) for C. difficile toxin gene (tg) for patient management. METHODS: Using data from the largest ever C. difficile diagnostic study (8853 diarrhoeal samples from 7335 patients), we determined the predicative value of C. difficile tgNAAT (Cepheid Xpert C...
2018: PloS One
Xinchun Duan, Yujie Zhu, Yong Cui, Zhenrong Yang, Shijie Zhou, Yi Han, Daping Yu, Ning Xiao, Xiaoqing Cao, Yunsong Li, Shuku Liu, Zitong Wang, Wen Zhang, Lin Feng, Kaitai Zhang, Jianzhong Shou, Zhidong Liu, Shaofa Xu
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that there are more circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the pulmonary vein (PV) than in the peripheral blood; however, it is unclear whether the CTC count changes in the PV after resection of a lung lobe. METHODS: Thirty-three lung cancer patients were recruited for the study, including 17 who underwent lobectomy via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and 16 via open thoracotomy. Sixty-six blood specimens were sampled from the PV before the PV was interrupted and after lobectomy...
December 4, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
H Skovierova, E Vidomanova, M Skoviera, B Tothova, E Halasova, J Strnadel
Metastasis development causes death in over 90% of cancer patients, and understanding the underlying biological features has long been hindered by difficulties in studying the widespread cancerous lesions and the absence of reliable methods of isolating and detecting viable metastatic cells during disease progression. These problems have an adverse impact on developing new agents capable of blocking cancer spread. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have a crucial role in carcinogenesis, and this review presents advanced understanding of the characteristics of CTCs and CTC cluster metastatic properties...
August 9, 2018: Neoplasma
Refaat I ElFayoumi, Magda M Hagras, Adel Abozenadaha, Mamdouh Gari, Ibrahim Abosoudah, Thoraia Shinawi, Talaat Mirza, Waleed Bawazir
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids play essential roles in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL); however, treatment with these agents can result in severe side-effects. This study, the first of its kind in a Saudi population, investigates associations of ABCB1 gene polymorphisms (pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic) with the development of toxicity and side effects (glucose abnormality, liver toxicity and infection) in a small population of Saudi children with ALL...
September 28, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Jacqueline Nolan, Dmitry A Nedosekin, Ekaterina I Galanzha, Vladimir P Zharov
Most cancer patients die from metastatic disease as a result of a circulating tumor cell (CTC) spreading from a primary tumor through the blood circulation to distant organs. Many studies have demonstrated the tremendous potential of using CTC counts as prognostic markers of metastatic development and therapeutic efficacy. However, it is only the viable CTCs capable of surviving in the blood circulation that can create distant metastasis. To date, little progress has been made in understanding what proportion of CTCs is viable and what proportion is in an apoptotic state...
December 3, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Jiamin Peng, Huiyu Xu, Yuan Chen, Wei Wang, Lifen Zhu, Yanfei Shao, Jianchao Wang
Tumor vessel normalization can increase pericyte coverage, perfusion efficiency and immune infiltration, while reducing hypoxia, vessel leakage, CTC and metastasis. In this study, we systemically presented the expression pattern of tumor angiogenesis gene signatures in 31 cancer types and its association with immune infiltration and cancer metastasis. Specifically, READ, COAD etc. have relatively similar expression patterns with low GPAGs and high PPAGs. Patients with this expression pattern may benefit from tumor vessel normalization...
November 29, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Tao Gao, Lingling Li, Tianshu Chen, Liu Shi, Yang Yang, Genxi Li
Metastasis of tumor is the major cause of death in cancer patients. The efficient detection of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) is found to be critical for the early warning of tumor metastasis. However, it is technically difficult to identify DTC among circulation tumor cells (CTCs). In this work, we have proposed a DNA-oriented shaping strategy to convert the metastasis-associated feature of CTC into a dominant signature, making DTCs discernible. In detail, by performing the in situ DNA rolling circle amplification, invasive biomarkers at cell surface are specifically labeled with large amount of biotin-incorporated DNA strands...
December 3, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jianzhe Ma, Yang Lei, Muhammad Asim Khan, Fengyun Wang, Yuting Chu, Wu Lei, Mingzhu Xia, Sidi Zhu
This paper describes a modification method of Na-montmorillonite (Na-Mt) with carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMC). The as-prepared samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface analyzer and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Two common tetracycline antibiotics, tetracycline (TET) and chlortetracycline (CTC), were selected as the represented pollutants and adsorbed by CMC-Mt under different experimental conditions. The intercalation of CMC obviously amplified the basal spacing of the interlayers confirmed by XRD measurements and improved the adsorption capacities of montmorillonite to some degree...
November 27, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Kazue Yoneda, Taiji Kuwata, Yasuhiro Chikaishi, Masataka Mori, Masatoshi Kanayama, Masaru Takenaka, Soichi Oka, Ayako Hirai, Naoko Imanishi, Koji Kuroda, Yoshinobu Ichiki, Takashi Ohnaga, Fumihiro Tanaka
Detection of rare tumor cells circulating in the blood (CTCs) presents technical challenges. The CellSearch, only approved system for clinical use, fails to capture EpCAM-negative CTCs such as malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). We have developed a novel microfluidic device (CTC-chip) in which any antibody to capture CTCs is conjugated. The CTC-chip was coated with an antibody against podoplanin that is abundantly expressed on MPM. CTC-detection performances were evaluated in experimental models in which MPM cells were spiked in blood sampled from a healthy volunteer and in clinical samples drawn from MPM patients...
November 30, 2018: Cancer Science
Paige J LeValley, Mark W Tibbitt, Ben Noren, Prathamesh Kharkar, April M Kloxin, Kristi S Anseth, Mehmet Toner, John Oakey
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play a central role in cancer metastasis and represent a rich source of data for cancer prognostics and therapeutic guidance. Reliable CTC recovery from whole blood therefore promises a less invasive and more sensitive approach to cancer diagnosis and progression tracking. CTCs, however, are exceedingly rare in whole blood, making their quantitative recovery challenging. Several techniques capable of isolating these rare cells have been introduced and validated, yet most suffer from low CTC purity or viability, both of which are essential to develop a clinically viable CTC isolation platform...
November 20, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
S Timme-Bronsert, P Bronsert, M Werner, B Kulemann, J Höppner
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a disease with a poor prognosis. PDAC shows characteristic mutations within codon 12/13. Circulating tumor cells (CTC) detected in blood samples of patients with cancer are hypothesized as the means of systemic tumor spread. But less is known about morphological/molecular characteristics or the pathophysiological meaning of PDAC CTC. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was a cytomorphological and genetic analysis of CTC from patients with PDAC followed by the correlation of the results with those of the corresponding tumor in the pancreas...
November 27, 2018: Der Pathologe
Xiaochen Zhang, Liyuan Wei, Jun Li, Jing Zheng, Shirong Zhang, Jianying Zhou
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are closely associated with cancer metastasis in preclinical models and patients with cancer. However, to the best of the authors knowledge, it remains unknown which type of CTCs may serve the key role in cancer metastasis. The present study investigated the association between the epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype of CTCs from the peripheral blood and distant metastasis in patients with non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Expression of EMT markers in CTCs from a cohort of patients was detected using Canpatrol™ CTC assays...
November 21, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Ramanathan Vaidyanathan, Ren Hao Soon, Pan Zhang, Kuan Jiang, Chwee Teck Lim
Technological advancements in research on circulating biomarkers from patient derived blood have enabled a less invasive means of diagnosing non-hematologic cancers. Considered a more practical way of real-time patient monitoring than traditional tumor biopsy, liquid biopsy markers including circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and extracellular vesicles (EVs) and exosomes certainly have the potential to change the dynamics of cancer management and treatment. Liquid biopsy essentially presents a snapshot of the disease from the primary and/or distant tumor locations and can be utilized for repeated sampling of tumor markers to adjust therapy according to the patient's response to treatment, also known as personalized or precision treatment...
November 27, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Sanne de Wit, Mariangela Manicone, Elisabetta Rossi, Rita Lampignano, Liwen Yang, Beate Zill, Alvera Rengel-Puertas, Marianne Ouhlen, Mateus Crespo, Anne Margreet Sofie Berghuis, Kiki Carlijn Andree, Riccardo Vidotto, Elisabeth Katharina Trapp, Marie Tzschaschel, Emeline Colomba, Gemma Fowler, Penelope Flohr, Pasquale Rescigno, Mariane Sousa Fontes, Rita Zamarchi, Tanja Fehm, Hans Neubauer, Brigitte Rack, Marianna Alunni-Fabbroni, Françoise Farace, Johann De Bono, Maarten Joost IJzerman, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie Terstappen
The presence of high expressing epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAMhigh ) circulating tumor cells (CTC) enumerated by CellSearch® in blood of cancer patients is strongly associated with poor prognosis. This raises the question about the presence and relation with clinical outcome of low EpCAM expressing CTC (EpCAMlow CTC). In the EU-FP7 CTC-Trap program, we investigated the presence of EpCAMhigh and EpCAMlow CTC using CellSearch, followed by microfiltration of the EpCAMhigh CTC depleted blood. Blood samples of 108 castration-resistant prostate cancer patients and 22 metastatic breast cancer patients were processed at six participating sites, using protocols and tools developed in the CTC-Trap program...
November 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Emma E van der Toom, Haley D Axelrod, Jean J de la Rosette, Theo M de Reijke, Kenneth J Pienta, Kenneth C Valkenburg
Despite improvements in early detection and advances in treatment, patients with prostate cancer continue to die from their disease. Minimal residual disease after primary definitive treatment can lead to relapse and distant metastases, and increasing evidence suggests that circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and bone marrow-derived disseminated tumour cells (BM-DTCs) can offer clinically relevant biological insights into prostate cancer dissemination and metastasis. Using epithelial markers to accurately detect CTCs and BM-DTCs is associated with difficulties, and prostate-specific markers are needed for the detection of these cells using rare cell assays...
November 27, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
Kiichi Niitsu, Taiki Nakanishi, Shunya Murakami, Maya Matsunaga, Atsuki Kobayashi, Nissar Mohammad Karim, Jun Ito, Naoya Ozawa, Tetsunari Hase, Hiromasa Tanaka, Mitsuo Sato, Kondo Hiroki, Kenji Ishikawa, Hidefumi Odaka, Yoshinori Hasegawa, Masaru Hori, Kazuo Nakazato
A fully-integrated CMOS circuit based on a vector network analyzer (VNA) and a transmission-line-based detection window for circulating tumor cell (CTC) and exosome analysis is presented for the first time. We have introduced a fully-integrated architecture, which eliminates the undesired parasitic components and enables high-sensitivity, to analyze extremely low concentration CTC in blood. The detection window was designed on the high-sensitive coplanar waveguide (CPW) line. To validate the operation of the proposed system, a test chip was fabricated using 65-nm CMOS technology...
November 20, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Anna Yordanova, Paula Linden, Stefan Hauser, Michael Meisenheimer, Stefan Kürpig, Georg Feldmann, Florian C Gaertner, Markus Essler, Hojjat Ahmadzadehfar
BACKGROUND: Data are sparse regarding the feasibility of radioligand therapy (RLT) with [177 Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 as a retreatment. We aimed to assess the outcome and safety of rechallenge PSMA-RLT in patients with progressive prostatic cancer who previously benefited from this therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who received rechallenge therapy at our department from January 2015 to March 2018 were assessed. Non-haematological and haematological adverse events were evaluated from laboratory data and clinical reports and were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v...
November 24, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Weirong Chen, Juncheng Zhang, Lijian Huang, Lin Chen, Yanling Zhou, Dongjiang Tang, Yingming Xie, Hong Wang, Chuoji Huang
BACKGROUND: Most previous studies of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are based on the CellSearch platform, but CellSearch has a number of limitations. This study aimed to use the LiquidBiopsy system and immunofluorescence to test the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status of CTCs in patients with breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The LiquidBiopsy system was used to detect HER2-positive (HER2+ ) cells in whole blood by microfluidic immunomagnetic bead screening and immunofluorescence assay, according to the manufacturer;s instructions...
November 1, 2018: Clinical Breast Cancer
Marcus Vetter, Julia Landin, Barbara Maria Szczerba, Francesc Castro-Giner, Sofia Gkountela, Cinzia Donato, Ilona Krol, Ramona Scherrer, Catharina Balmelli, Alexandra Malinovska, Alfred Zippelius, Christian Kurzeder, Viola Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Walter Paul Weber, Christoph Rochlitz, Nicola Aceto
BACKGROUND: The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in patients with breast cancer correlates to a bad prognosis. Yet, CTCs are detectable in only a minority of patients with progressive breast cancer, and factors that influence the abundance of CTCs remain elusive. METHODS: We conducted CTC isolation and enumeration in a selected group of 73 consecutive patients characterized by progressive invasive breast cancer, high tumor load and treatment discontinuation at the time of CTC isolation...
November 20, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Raquel Villanueva, Silvia Romero-Tamayo, Ruben Laplaza, Juan Martínez-Oliván, Adrian Velazquez-Campoy, J Sancho, Patricia Ferreira, Milagros Medina
AIMS: The Human apoptosis-inducingfactor (hAIF) supports OXPHOS biogenesis and programmed cell death, with missense mutations producing neurodegenerative phenotypes. hAIF senses the redox environment of cellular compartments, stabilizing a charge-transfer complex (CTC) dimer that modulates the protein interaction network. In this context we aimed to evaluate the subcellular pH, CTC formation, and pathogenic mutations effects on hAIF stability, and a thermal denaturation high-throughput screening (HTS) assay to discover AIF binders...
November 18, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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