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Shenghua Zhang, Lizheng Guo, Kai Yang, Yin Zhang, Chengsong Ye, Sheng Chen, Xin Yu, Wei E Huang, Li Cui
A viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state of bacteria induced by disinfection in water treatment poses serious health risks because of possible resuscitation of VBNC cells during transportation. In this study, a setup using continuous-flow ultraviolet (UVC) irradiation ranging from 0 to 172.2 mJ cm-2 was designed to simulate real-world disinfection in both drinking water (SDW) and reclaimed water (SRW) treatment plants. A systematic investigation of UVC-induced VBNC bacteria, including occurrence, resuscitation, and time-dependent recovery of metabolic activity during post-incubation, was conducted...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
J R Goffin, G Nicholas, M Mates, D Tu, E Chen, S A Laurie, R Juergens, A Robinson, G Goss, M Reaume, S Sun, K Christink, C Maize, S MacFarlan, X Sun, H Ritter, L Seymour, P A Bradbury
Introduction Selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) is a potent inhibitor of MEK1/2, thereby inhibiting phosphorylation of ERK2. We investigated the toxicity and the recommended phase II dose of the combination of selumetinib with two platinum based first line chemotherapy combinations in non-small cell lung cancer. Methods This was a phase I trial of escalating doses of selumetinib with carboplatin (AUC 6), paclitaxel (200 mg/m2 ) (cohort 1) or pemetrexed (500 mg/m2 ) and cisplatin (75 mg/m2 ) (cohort 2) in patients with chemotherapy naïve, advanced or metastatic NSCLC...
October 13, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
L L Xiao, W W Yan, Y Liu, S Chen, B M Fu
The blood flow behaviors in the microvessels determine the transport modes and further affect the metastasis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Much biochemical and biological efforts have been made on CTC metastasis; however, precise experimental measurement and accurate theoretical prediction on its mechanical mechanism are limited. To complement these, numerical modeling of a CTC extravasation from the blood circulation, including the steps of adhesion and transmigration, is discussed in this chapter. The results demonstrate that CTCs prefer to adhere at the positive curvature of curved microvessels, which is attributed to the positive wall shear stress/gradient...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yoon-Tae Kang, Young Jun Kim, Tae Hee Lee, Young-Ho Cho, Hee Jin Chang, Hyun-Moo Lee
Circulating tumor cells have emerged as biomarkers for estimating the tumor burden and metastatic potential of cancer patients. However, to date, most of studies and applications of circulating tumor cells have been conducted and applied to epithelial cancers such as breast, colorectal, and prostate tumor. The only FDA-cleared method, CellSearch, makes use of antibody against epithelial surface protein expressed on CTCs, thus obstructing wide application for various cancers with non-epithelial and semi-epithelial characteristics including renal cell carcinoma...
October 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nan You, Hui Yao, Yun Wang, Hong-Tao Fan, Chang-Song Wang, Ting Sun
The pollution of antibiotics, including tetracyclines (TCs), in aquatic environments has become an issue of concern in recent years. Herein, an in situ sampling of TCs in pig breeding wastewater that utilizes the technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), based on commercial nanosized ZnO (nanoZnO) particles as the potential effective binding agent and a polyethersulfone (PES) membrane as the diffusion layer, was developed. The diffusion coefficients of tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) in a PES membrane at 25 °C were (1...
September 25, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Elisabeth Trapp, Wolfgang Janni, Christian Schindlbeck, Julia Jückstock, Ulrich Andergassen, Amelie de Gregorio, Marianna Alunni-Fabbroni, Marie Tzschaschel, Arkadius Polasik, Julian G Koch, Thomas W P Friedl, Peter A Fasching, Lothar Haeberle, Tanja Fehm, Andreas Schneeweiss, Matthias W Beckmann, Klaus Pantel, Volkmar Mueller, Brigitte Rack, Christoph Scholz
Background: The prognostic relevance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) at the time of primary diagnosis has been well established. However, little information is available regarding their prognostic relevance to follow-up care. Methods: The multicenter, open-label, phase III SUCCESS A trial compared two adjuvant chemotherapy regimens followed by 2 vs 5 years of zoledronate for early-stage, high-risk breast cancer patients. The presence of CTCs was assessed before and 2 years after chemotherapy using the FDA-approved CellSearch System...
October 11, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Sanne de Wit, Leonie L Zeune, T Jeroen N Hiltermann, Harry J M Groen, Guus van Dalum, Leon W M M Terstappen
In the CellSearch® system, blood is immunomagnetically enriched for epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) expression and cells are stained with the nucleic acid dye 4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), Cytokeratin-PE (CK), and CD45-APC. Only DAPI+/CK+ objects are presented to the operator to identify circulating tumor cells (CTC) and the identity of all other cells and potential undetected CTC remains unrevealed. Here, we used the open source imaging program Automatic CTC Classification, Enumeration and PhenoTyping (ACCEPT) to analyze all DAPI+ nuclei in EpCAM-enriched blood samples obtained from 192 metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and 162 controls...
October 10, 2018: Cancers
Luman Qin, Wei Zhou, Shoukun Zhang, Boran Cheng, Shubin Wang, Songzhan Li, Yanqin Yang, Shengxiang Wang, Kan Liu, Nangang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: We have developed a novel simple wedge-shaped microfluidic device for high efficiently isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from cancer patient blood samples. METHODS: We used wet chemical etching and thermal bonding technologies to fabricate the wedge-shaped microdevice and performed optimization assays to obtain optimal capture parameters. Cancer cells spiked samples were used to evaluate the capture performance. Clinic assays were performed to isolate and identify CTCs from whole blood samples of patients with liver, breast, lung and gastric cancer...
October 10, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
James T Popko, Hyunkyu Sang, Jaemin Lee, Toshihiko Yamada, Yoichiro Hoshino, Geunhwa Jung
Sclerotinia homoeocarpa isolates were collected from golf courses in Japan and the United States (2016-2017). Japan isolates were collected during a monitoring study and the U.S. isolates were collected due to field failure. Five succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) active ingredients (boscalid, fluopyram, fluxapyroxad, isofetamid, and penthiopyrad) were examined using in vitro sensitivity assays to determine cross-resistance. Sequence analysis revealed a point mutation leading to an amino acid substitution (H267Y) and a silent mutation (CTT to CTC) at codon 181 in the SdhB subunit gene...
October 11, 2018: Plant Disease
Yue-Feng Wen, Tian-Tian Cheng, Xiao-Long Chen, Wen-Jin Huang, Hai-Hua Peng, Tong-Chong Zhou, Xiao-Dan Lin, Li-Si Zeng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic effects of combining serum circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) levels on patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy. METHODS: Ninety-nine patients with locally advanced cervical cancer ([FIGO] stage IIB-IVA) undergoing radiotherapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) were identified. The association between serum CTC level and clinicopathological parameters was examined...
2018: PloS One
Scott T Tagawa, Emmanuel S Antonarakis, Ada Gjyrezi, Giuseppe Galletti, Seaho Kim, Daniel Worroll, John Stewart, Atef Zaher, Ted P Szatrowski, Karla V Ballman, Katsuhiro Kita, Shinsuke Tasaki, Yang Bai, Luigi Portella, Brian J Kirby, Fred Saad, Mario A Eisenberger, David M Nanus, Paraskevi Giannakakou
PURPOSE: Biomarkers aiding treatment optimization in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) are scarce. Presence or absence of androgen receptor (AR) splice variants, AR-V7 and ARv567es, in mCRPC patient circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may be associated with taxane treatment outcomes. METHODS: A novel digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) assay assessed AR splice variant expression in patient CTCs receiving docetaxel or cabazitaxel in TAXYNERGY (NCT01718353)...
October 9, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Diako Ebrahimi, Christopher M Richards, Michael A Carpenter, Jiayi Wang, Terumasa Ikeda, Jordan T Becker, Adam Z Cheng, Jennifer L McCann, Nadine M Shaban, Daniel J Salamango, Gabriel J Starrett, Jairam R Lingappa, Jeongsik Yong, William L Brown, Reuben S Harris
Human APOBEC3H (A3H) is a single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminase that inhibits HIV-1. Seven haplotypes (I-VII) and four splice variants (SV154/182/183/200) with differing antiviral activities and geographic distributions have been described, but the genetic and mechanistic basis for variant expression and function remains unclear. Using a combined bioinformatic/experimental analysis, we find that SV200 expression is specific to haplotype II, which is primarily found in sub-Saharan Africa. The underlying genetic mechanism for differential mRNA splicing is an ancient intronic deletion [del(ctc)] within A3H haplotype II sequence...
October 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Qinzhen Fan, Gang Bai, Qing Liu, Ying Sun, Wei Yuan, Shuyao Wu, Xi-Ming Song, De-Zhi Zhao
The influence of ultrasonic irradiation on the tar-sand bitumen in the process of thermal cracking with an inert atmosphere was investigated thoroughly. The product distribution and coke characteristic produced by the conventional thermal cracking (CTC) and ultrasound thermal cracking (UTC) were invested at the following condition: ultrasound frequency 20 kHz, ultrasonic power 2000 W, reaction time 2 h, reaction temperature from 400 to 440 °C. The result of the liquid products distribution indicated that UTC can significantly increase gasoline yield and diesel yield, and dramatically reduce VGO (Vacuum Gas Oil) yield and residuum (greater than 500 °C) yield...
September 29, 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Q Feng, J R Zhao, A X Zhang, S L Li
Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of lobaplatin (LBP) plus S-1 for advanced gastric cancer (AGC) and determine the potential role of circulating tumor cells (CTC) for predicting the therapeutic response and prognosis. Methods: From January 2014 to February 2015, 64 consecutive patients with AGC received lobaplatin plus S-1 chemotherapy in Liaocheng People's Hospital. The clinical features, clinical response, adverse effects, prognosis and CTC pre- and post-treatment were retrospectively analyzed...
September 23, 2018: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
K L Olden, R G Kavanagh, K James, M Twomey, F Moloney, N Moore, K Carey, K P Murphy, T M Grey, P Nicholson, R Chopra, M M Maher, O J O'Connor
INTRODUCTION: Optimization of image quality and patient radiation dose is achieved in part by positioning the patient at the isocenter of the CT gantry. The aim of this study was to establish whether there was increased isocenter misalignment (IM) in CT colonography (CTC) scans by comparing patient position during the prone part of a CTC to patient position during renal stone protocol CT (CT-KUB) and patient position during the supine part of a CTC to patient position during abdominopelvic CT (CT-AP)...
November 2018: Radiography
Jessica L Holmes, Brendan F Abrahams, Anna Ahveninen, Berin A Boughton, Timothy A Hudson, Richard Robson, Dinaiz Thinagaran
A robust, nano-sized covalent cage, of composition, [(PhSi)6(ctc)4]6- (H6ctc = cyclotricatechylene) has been prepared in a simple reaction in good yield. The tetrahedral anionic cage is stable in both the solid and solution state and exhibits an affinity for Cs+ ions which bind to the internal surface of the cage.
October 4, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Eric P Kaldjian, Arturo B Ramirez, Yao Sun, Daniel E Campton, Jeffrey L Werbin, Paulina Varshavskaya, Steven Quarre, Tad George, Anup Madan, C Anthony Blau, Ronald Seubert
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can reliably be identified in cancer patients and are associated with clinical outcome. Next-generation "liquid biopsy" technologies will expand CTC diagnostic investigation to include phenotypic characterization and single-cell molecular analysis. We describe here a rare cell analysis platform designed to comprehensively collect and identify CTCs, enable multi-parameter assessment of individual CTCs, and retrieve single cells for molecular analysis. The platform has the following four integrated components: 1) density-based separation of the CTC-containing blood fraction and sample deposition onto microscope slides; 2) automated multiparameter fluorescence staining; 3) image scanning, analysis, and review; and 4) mechanical CTC retrieval...
October 2, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Sarah F Jauch, Sabine Riethdorf, Martin R Sprick, Florian Schütz, Birgitt Schönfisch, Sara Y Brucker, Thomas M Deutsch, Juliane Nees, Massimo Saini, Lisa M Becker, Barbara Burwinkel, Peter Sinn, Frederik Marmé, Klaus Pantel, Dirk Jäger, Christof Sohn, Andreas Trumpp, Markus Wallwiener, Andreas Schneeweiss
PURPOSE: Serial longitudinal enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has shown its prognostic value on progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) in patients with stage IV breast cancer. This study prospectively evaluated the role of CTCs as a prognostic marker during further progression of metastatic breast cancer (MBC). METHODS: Among 476 MBC patients recruited between 2010 and 2015, the 103 patients with a known CTC status at baseline (CTCBL ) and within 4 weeks of tumor progression (CTCPD ) were included...
October 1, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Anna Woestemeier, Tarik Ghadban, Sabine Riethdorf, Katharina Harms-Effenberger, Leonie Konczalla, Faik G Uzunoglu, Jakob R Izbicki, Klaus Pantel, Maximilian Bockhorn, Matthias Reeh
BACKGROUND/AIM: The clinical significance of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in non-metastatic esophageal cancer (EC) remains controversial and the cellular and molecular characteristics of CTCs are poorly understood. Especially the frequency and oncological impact of HER2 expression in CTCs in patients with EC have not been evaluated until now. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-center, prospective study, peripheral blood samples were obtained preoperatively from 45 patients who were diagnosed with resectable EC...
October 2018: Anticancer Research
Tomoyuki Satake, Atsushi Suetsugu, Miki Nakamura, Takahiro Kunisada, Masahito Shimizu, Shigetoyo Saji, Hisataka Moriwaki, Robert M Hoffman
BACKGROUND/AIM: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may initiate metastasis. Some studies show that the number of CTCs and existence of CTC clusters can be prognostic. In the present study, our color-coded imaging nude mouse model of metastatic lymphoma was utilized to investigate the microenvironment of CTC clusters using fluorescent-protein imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EL-4 mouse lymphoma cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) were injected into the spleen of transgenic C57B/6-green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice...
October 2018: Anticancer Research
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