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phytochemicals inflammation

A Kapinova, P Kubatka, O Golubnitschaja, M Kello, P Zubor, P Solar, M Pec
Cancerous tissue transformation developing usually over years or even decades of life is a highly complex process involving strong stressors damaging DNA, chronic inflammation, comprehensive interaction between relevant molecular pathways, and cellular cross-talk within the neighboring tissues. Only the minor part of all cancer cases are caused by inborn predisposition; the absolute majority carry a sporadic character based on modifiable risk factors which play a central role in cancer prevention. Amongst most promising candidates for dietary supplements are bioactive phytochemicals demonstrating strong anticancer effects...
August 9, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Ana C Silveira, Jane Pires Dias, Vanessa M Santos, Pedro Fontes Oliveira, Marco G Alves, Luis Rato, Branca M Silva
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two prevalent diseases in modern societies, which are caused mainly by current lifestyle, aging and genetic alterations. It has already been demonstrated that these two diseases are associated since individuals suffering from DM are prone to develop AD. Conversely, it is also known that individuals with AD are more susceptible to DM, namely type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Therefore, these two pathologies, although completely different in terms of symptomatology, end up sharing several mechanisms at the molecular level, being the most obvious the increase of oxidative stress and inflammation...
August 3, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Antônio Francisco Igor M De Matos, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Lenita M Stefani, Aleksandro S da Silva
Thymol is a phytochemical component present in many plants used as food additive in order to promote animal growth due to its several biological properties. However, possible side effects of thymol remain poorly known limited to few reports. In this sense, we evaluated the enzymes of the purinergic signaling such as, ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase), 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA), that play an important role on toxicity induced by excessive adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content in the extracellular environment...
July 31, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Fernando F Anhê, Renato T Nachbar, Thibault V Varin, Jocelyn Trottier, Stéphanie Dudonné, Mélanie Le Barz, Perrine Feutry, Geneviève Pilon, Olivier Barbier, Yves Desjardins, Denis Roy, André Marette
OBJECTIVE: The consumption of fruits is strongly associated with better health and higher bacterial diversity in the gut microbiota (GM). Camu camu ( Myrciaria dubia ) is an Amazonian fruit with a unique phytochemical profile, strong antioxidant potential and purported anti-inflammatory potential. DESIGN: By using metabolic tests coupled with 16S rRNA gene-based taxonomic profiling and faecal microbial transplantation (FMT), we have assessed the effect of a crude extract of camu camu (CC) on obesity and associated immunometabolic disorders in high fat/high sucrose (HFHS)-fed mice...
July 31, 2018: Gut
Yen-Chun Koh, Guliang Yang, Ching-Shu Lai, Monthana Weerawatanakorn, Min-Hsiung Pan
Macrophages can polarize into two different states (M1 and M2), which play contrasting roles during pathogenesis or tissue damage. M1 polarized macrophages produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators resulting in inflammation, while M2 macrophages have an anti-inflammatory effect. Secretion of appropriate cytokines and chemokines from macrophages can lead to the modification of the microenvironment for bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. Increasing evidence suggests that polarized macrophages are pivotal for disease progression, and the regulation of macrophage polarization may provide a new approach in therapeutic treatment of inflammation-related diseases, including cancer, obesity and metabolic diseases, fibrosis in organs, brain damage and neuron injuries, and colorectal disease...
July 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Aya N Talaat, Sherif S Ebada, Rola M Labib, Ahmed Esmat, Fadia S Youssef, Abdel Nasser B Singab
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Araucaria bidwillii Hook., the bunya pine, is an evergreen plant belonging to family Araucariaceae. Traditionally, its leaves and oleoresins have been used as herbal remedies to alleviate pain and inflammation. Based upon the frequent adverse effects accompanying synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs, this study will assess the anti-inflammatory activity of both the total methanol extract and the polyphenolic-rich fraction of A. bidwillii leaves. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in vitro using phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Andra-Diana Andreicut, Alina Elena Pârvu, Augustin Cătălin Mot, Marcel Pârvu, Eva Fischer Fodor, Adriana Florinela Cătoi, Vasile Feldrihan, Mihai Cecan, Alexandru Irimie
Oxidative stress and inflammation are interlinked processes. The aim of the study was to perform a phytochemical analysis and to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic Mahonia aquifolium flower (MF), green fruit (MGF), and ripe fruit (MRF) extracts. Plant extract chemical composition was evaluated by HLPC. A DPPH test was used for the in vitro antioxidant activity. The in vivo antioxidant effects and the anti-inflammatory potential were tested on a rat turpentine oil-induced inflammation, by measuring serum nitric oxide (NOx) and TNF-alpha, total oxidative status (TOS), total antioxidant reactivity (TAR), oxidative stress index (OSI), 3-nitrothyrosine (3NT), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total thiols (SH)...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Md Imamul Islam, Meena Afroze Shanta, Milon Mondal, Nazia Hoque, Senjuti Majumder, Taksim Ahmed, Md Sohel Rana
Background This study was designed to evaluate the free radical scavenging property of chloroform extract of the bark of Stereospermum chelonoides (SCBC) and to investigate its potential in Alzheimer's disease and inflammation, two oxidative stress related disorders. Methods Preliminary phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant potential of SCBC were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and total antioxidant capacity determination assay...
July 21, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Matías Hernández, Susana Wicz, Miguel H Santamaría, Ricardo S Corral
BACKGROUND: The anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective properties of curcumin (Cur), a natural polyphenolic flavonoid isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, are increasingly considered to have beneficial effects on the progression of Chagas heart disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of oral therapy with Cur on T. cruzi-mediated cardiovasculopathy in acutely infected mice and analyse the in vitro response of parasite-infected human microvascular endothelial cells treated with this phytochemical...
July 16, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Masutaka Furue, Akiko Hashimoto-Hachiya, Gaku Tsuji
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a chemical sensor that is expressed abundantly in epidermal keratinocytes. Oxidative AHR ligands induce the production of reactive oxygen species. However, antioxidant AHR ligands inhibit reactive oxygen species generation via activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2, which is a master switch for antioxidative signalling. In addition, AHR signalling accelerates epidermal terminal differentiation, but excessive acceleration by oxidative ligands, such as dioxins, may induce chloracne and inflammation...
July 4, 2018: Acta Dermato-venereologica
Wen-Chung Huang, Ling-Yu Wu, Sindy Hu, Shu-Ju Wu
Spilanthol a phytochemical derived from the Spilanthes acmella plant has antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. This study evaluated its effects on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and inflammation-related mediators in IL-1β-stimulated human lung epithelial A549 cells. Human lung epithelial A549 cells were pretreated with various concentrations of spilanthol (3-100 μM) followed by treatment with IL-1β to induce inflammation. The protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured using ELISA...
June 30, 2018: Inflammation
Farzaneh Mohammadi, Maryam Ghazi-Moradi, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Habibollah Esmaeili, Mohsen Moohebati, Maryam Saberi-Karimian, Hamideh Safarian, Shima Tavallaie, Gordon A Ferns, Amirhosein Sahebkar
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Inflammation and oxidant stress are features of MetS that can enhance the expression and release of heat shock proteins (Hsps), including the small heat shock protein, Hsp 27, and that may subsequently lead to the production of Hsp27 antibodies (anti-Hsp 27). Curcumin is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant phytochemical that may ameliorate these features of MetS. We investigated the effects of unformulated curcumin and phospholipidated curcumin on antibody titers to heat shock protein 27 (anti-Hsp 27) in patients with MetS...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Erica C Borresen, Lei Zhang, Indi Trehan, Nora Jean Nealon, Kenneth M Maleta, Mark J Manary, Elizabeth P Ryan
Background: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), frequently seen in rural Malawian children, causes chronic inflammation and increases the risk of stunting. Legumes may be beneficial for improving nutrition and reducing the risk of developing EED in weaning children. Objective: The objectives of this study were to determine the nutritional value, verify the food safety, and identify metabolite profiles of 3 legume-based complementary foods: common bean (CB), cowpea (CP), and traditional corn-soy blend (CSB)...
October 2017: Current developments in nutrition
Iftikhar Alam, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hebert, Graham Pawelec, Anis Larbi
BACKGROUND: Little is known about associations between dietary inflammation, age and anthropometric measurements. OBJECTIVE: In this regard, we examine how DII is related to age, anthropometrics [weight, Body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR)] and other parameters of nutrition (energy, protein, fats and cholesterol intake, Net Endogenous Acid Production (NEAP) and Phytochemical Index (PI)) in a cross-sectional study in Pakistan. DESIGN: Only men ( n  = 651, age 54-95 years) participated in the study...
June 15, 2018: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
Imran Mahmud, Naznin Shahria, Sabina Yeasmin, Asif Iqbal, Emdadul Hasan Mukul, Sudipta Gain, Jamil Ahmad Shilpi, Md Khirul Islam
Ceriops decandra is a mangrove tree species, reputed for its folkloric uses in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, infection, snakebites, inflammation, and cancer. Different parts of the plant are rich with various phytoconstituents which include diterpenoids (ceriopsin A-G), triterpenoids (lupeol, α-amyrin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid), and phenolics (catechin, procyanidins).These phytoconstituents and their derivatives could form a new basis for developing new drugs against various diseases. The objective of the present study is to compile the phytochemical, ethnobotanical, biological, and pharmacological significance of the plant to provide directions for future research to find out therapeutically active lead compounds for developing new drugs against diseases of current interest including diabetes, inflammation, and cancer...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
Hanh T H Vu, Sarah M Hook, Scheyla D Siqueira, Anette Müllertz, Thomas Rades, Arlene McDowell
Rutin, a strong antioxidant, has been implicated in the prevention of liver inflammation. However, low solubility and permeability through the gut wall limit development of rutin as a therapeutic agent for oral administration. Phytosomes are described as lipid nanocarriers with a complexation between the phospholipid headgroups and entrapped phytochemicals. The aim of this research was to compare the structure of rutin liposomes to rutin phytosomes. FT-IR, DSC and NMR were employed to investigate the presence of any molecular interactions between the formulation components...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Antero Salminen, Kai Kaarniranta, Anu Kauppinen
Traditional herbal medicine has provided natural remedies against cancers and many age-related inflammatory diseases for thousands of years. Modern drug discovery techniques have revealed several active ingredients and their medicinal targets have been characterized. Concurrently, there has been great progress in understanding the pathological mechanisms underpinning cancers and inflammatory diseases. These studies have demonstrated that immature myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have a crucial role in the immune escape of cancer cells thus promoting tumor growth...
August 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Elahe Delshad, Mahdi Yousefi, Payam Sasannezhad, Hasan Rakhshandeh, Zahra Ayati
Background: Carthamus tinctorius L. , known as Kafesheh (Persian) and safflower (English) is vastly utilized in Traditional Medicine for various medical conditions, namely dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, postpartum abdominal pain and mass, trauma and pain of joints. It is largely used for flavoring and coloring purposes among the local population. Recent reviews have addressed the uses of the plant in various ethnomedical systems. Objective: This review was an update to provide a summary on the botanical features, uses in Iranian folklore and modern medical applications of safflower...
April 2018: Electronic Physician
Sharada H Sharma, Vinothkumar Rajamanickam, Sangeetha Nagarajan
p-CA is a naturally occurring phenolic acid present in most plants and in all commonly consumed vegetables and fruits. Here we demonstrated the anti-cancer effect of the food borne phytochemical p-CA both in vitro and in vivo models of colon cancer using growth rate and tumor incidence as endpoints. Glucose regulated protein (GRP78) induction and UPR activation plays a key role in oncogenic progression, therefore increased dependence of cancer cells on these UPR signaling pathways for survival can be exploited for anti-cancer research...
August 1, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Danielle Gomes Santana, Alan Santos Oliveira, Marília Trindade de Santana Souza, José Thiago do Carmo Santos, Neuza Mariko Aymoto Hassimotto, Ana Mara de Oliveira E Silva, Renata Grespan, Enilton Aparecido Camargo
We evaluated the effect of the hydroethanolic extract of fruits of Vaccinium macrocarpon (HEVm) in a model of acute pancreatitis (AP) in mice. AP was induced by two injections of L-arginine and animals were treated with HEVm (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle (saline) every 24 h, starting 1 h after the induction of AP. Phytochemical analysis of the extract and measurement of inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters, as well as abdominal hyperalgesia, were performed. Catechin, epicatechin, rutin, and anthocyanins were identified in HEVm...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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