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phytochemicals inflammation

Chao Zhao, Chengfeng Yang, Sydney Tang Chi Wai, Yanbo Zhang, Maria P Portillo, Paolo Paoli, Yijing Wu, Wai San Cheang, Bin Liu, Christian Carpéné, Jianbo Xiao, Hui Cao
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most prevalent disease and becoming a serious public health threat worldwide. It is a severe endocrine metabolic disorder that has the ability to induce serious complications in all kinds of organs. Although mechanisms of anti-diabetics have been described before, we focus here on the cellular and physiological mechanisms involved in the modulation of insulin and glucose blood levels. As obesity and inflammation are intimately associated with the development of T2DM, their possible relationships are also described...
December 3, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Burak Oz, Ahmet Yildirim, Servet Yolbas, Zulfinaz Betul Celik, Ebru Onalan Etem, Gulnihal Deniz, Mustafa Akin, Zeynel Abidin Akar, Ahmet Karatas, Suleyman Serdar Koca
Resveratrol, a phytochemical, acts several cellular signaling pathways and has anti-inflammatory potentials. The purpose of this study is to research the therapeutic effect of resveratrol in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model in rats and whether resveratrol affects the activities of signaling pathways those are potent pathogenic actors of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis was induced by intradermal injection of chicken type II collagen combined with incomplete Freund's adjuvant in Wistar albino rats. One day after the onset of arthritis (day 14), resveratrol (20 mg/kg/day) was given via oral gavage, until day 29...
November 29, 2018: BioFactors
Nam-Hui Yim, Min Jung Gu, Hee Ra Park, Youn-Hwan Hwang, Jin Yeul Ma
BACKGROUND: Sagunja-tang (SGT) is widely used in traditional herbal medicine to treat immune system and gastrointestinal disorders and reportedly has protective effects against inflammation, cancer, and osteoporosis. In this study, we fermented SGT with different Latobacillus strains and investigated the change in phytochemical compositions in SGT and enhancement of it neuroprotective effects in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma. METHODS: Marker components, including ginsenoside Rg1 , glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, liquiritigenin, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide II, atractylenolide III, and pachymic acid, in SGT, were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
November 28, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Sandeep B Subramanya, Balaji Venkataraman, Mohamed Fizur Nagoor Meeran, Sameer N Goyal, Chandragouda R Patil, Shreesh Ojha
Acetaminophen (APAP), which is also known as paracetamol or N -acetyl- p -aminophenol is a safe and potent drug for fever, pain and inflammation when used at its normal therapeutic doses. It is available as over-the-counter drug and used by all the age groups. The overdose results in acute liver failure that often requires liver transplantation. Current clinical therapy for APAP-induced liver toxicity is the administration of N -acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a sulphydryl compound an approved drug which acts by replenishing cellular glutathione (GSH) stores in the liver...
November 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hong Mei Zhao, Zhi Wei Gao, Shou Xiang Xie, Xiang Han, Qing Song Sun
The molecular mechanism of how airway inflammation develops is not fully understood. Withaferin A (WA) is a natural phytochemical isolated from the plant Withania somnifera . It is a well-investigated bioactive compound that possesses a variety of health-promoting effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. In the present study, the effect of WA on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation in mice was investigated. The results indicated that pre-treatment with WA inhibited OVA-induced lung injury and fibrosis progression in mice...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Mario Allegra, Paola De Cicco, Giuseppe Ercolano, Alessandro Attanzio, Rosalia Busà, Giuseppe Cirino, Luisa Tesoriere, Maria A Livrea, Angela Ianaro
BACKGROUND: A strong, reciprocal crosstalk between inflammation and melanoma has rigorously been demonstrated in recent years, showing how crucial is a pro-inflammatory microenvironment to drive therapy resistance and metastasis. PURPOSE: We investigated on the effects of Indicaxanthin, a novel, anti-inflammatory and bioavailable phytochemical from Opuntia Ficus Indica fruits, against human melanoma both in vitro and in vivo. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The effects of indicaxanthin were evaluated against the proliferation of A375 human melanoma cell line and in a mice model of cutaneous melanoma...
November 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Hitender Sharma, Pushpander Kumar, Rahul R Deshmukh, Anupam Bishayee, Sunil Kumar
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a combination of dysregulated cardiometabolic risk factors characterized by dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, inflammation, obesity as well as hypertension. These factors are tied to the increased risk for type-II diabetes and cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction in patients with metabolic syndrome. PURPOSE: To review the proposed molecular mechanisms of pentacyclic triterpenes for their potential use in the metabolic syndrome...
November 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Paolo Governa, Maddalena Marchi, Veronica Cocetta, Bianca De Leo, Philippa T K Saunders, Daniela Catanzaro, Elisabetta Miraldi, Monica Montopoli, Marco Biagi
Inflammatory bowel diseases, which consist of chronic inflammatory conditions of the colon and the small intestine, are considered a global disease of our modern society. Recently, the interest toward the use of herbal therapies for the management of inflammatory bowel diseases has increased because of their effectiveness and favourable safety profile, compared to conventional drugs. Boswellia serrata Roxb. and Curcuma longa L. are amongst the most promising herbal drugs, however, their clinical use in inflammatory bowel diseases is limited and little is known on their mechanism of action...
November 20, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Sergio Davinelli, Antonia Trichopoulou, Graziamaria Corbi, Immaculata De Vivo, Giovanni Scapagnini
The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a gold standard for nutrition and the most evidence-based diet to delay the onset of age-associated pathologies. Telomeres are the heterochromatic repeat regions found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, whose length is considered a reliable hallmark of biological ageing. Telomere shortening is, at least in part, a modifiable factor and there is evidence that adherence to the MD is associated with longer telomeres. Data from several studies indicate an association between "inflammatory/oxidative status" and telomere length (TL)...
November 15, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Camila Camponogara, Rosana Casoti, Indiara Brusco, Mariana Piana, Aline A Boligon, Daniela Almeida Cabrini, Gabriela Trevisan, Juliano Ferreira, Cássia Regina Silva, Sara Marchesan Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Tabernaemontana catharinensis, popularly known as snake skin, has been empirically used as an anti-inflammatory to treat cutaneous skin disorders. However, no study proves its effectiveness as a topical anti-inflammatory. STUDY DESIGN: We investigated the topical anti-inflammatory effect of T.catharinensis leaves crude extract (TcE) in irritant contact dermatitis models in mice and its preliminary toxicity profile. METHODS: The topical anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by ear thickness measurement, inflammatory cell infiltration (MPO activity measurement and histological procedure) and cytokines levels...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Emmanuel Mfotie Njoya, Jacobus N Eloff, Lyndy J McGaw
BACKGROUND: Croton species (Euphorbiaceae) are distributed in different parts of the world, and are used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments including cancer, inflammation, parasitic infections and oxidative stress related diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties of different extracts from three Croton species. METHODS: Acetone, ethanol and water leaf extracts from C. gratissimus, C. pseudopulchellus, and C...
November 14, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Natália A Campos, Marcela S B da Cunha, Sandra F Arruda
Oxidative and inflammatory responses play an important role in the development and prevention of cancer, with both responses being modulated by phytochemical compounds. This study investigated the chemopreventive effect of tucum-do-cerrado fruit in rats treated with azoxymethane. Wistar rats were treated for 12 weeks with: a control diet (CT); a control diet + AOM (CT/DR); a control diet + 15% tucum-do-cerrado (TU); or a control diet + 15% tucum-do-cerrado + AOM (TU/DR). The association of tucum-do-cerrado and AOM (TU/DR) increased glutathione-S-transferase activity, decreased MDA levels, increased levels of COX2, TNFα and BAX, and decreased Bcl2/Bax ratio, compared to the CT/DR group...
2018: PloS One
Berrak Caglayan, Ertugrul Kilic, Arman Dalay, Serdar Altunay, Mehmet Tuzcu, Fusun Erten, Cemal Orhan, Mehmet Yalcin Gunal, Burak Yulug, Vijaya Juturu, Kazim Sahin
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in young adults and children in the industrialized countries; however, there are presently no FDA approved therapies. TBI results in oxidative stress due to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and overwhelming of the endogenous antioxidant mechanisms. Recently, it has been reported that antioxidants including phytochemicals have a protective role against oxidative damage and inflammation after TBI. To analyze the effects of a naturally occurring antioxidant molecule, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), on the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways in TBI, a cryogenic injury model was induced in mice...
November 8, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Camila Camponogara, Rosana Casoti, Indiara Brusco, Mariana Piana, Aline A Boligon, Daniela Almeida Cabrini, Gabriela Trevisan, Juliano Ferreira, Cássia Regina Silva, Sara Marchesan Oliveira
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tabernaemontana catharinensis, popularly known as snakeskin, is used in traditional medicine to treat skin inflammatory disorders. To confirm the topical anti-inflammatory effect of T. catharinensis leaves, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of crude extract (TcE) and its different fractions on irritant contact dermatitis model in mice and verified its anti-inflammatory action mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The qualitative phytochemical analysis of TcE and its dichloromethane, n-butanol and ethyl acetate fractions was performed by UHPLC-ESI-HRMS...
November 4, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Shreya Dubey, Monika Kallubai, Arijit Sarkar, Rajagopal Subramanyam
Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is an efficient medicinal plant known in Ayurveda and Chinese medicine since ancient times, whose extracts are consumed orally as food supplement or as a health tonic owing to its several restorative properties for various CNS disorders, inflammation, tumour, stress, rheumatism etc. In this study, we have analyzed the binding interaction of four derivatives of Withania somnifera (Withanolide A, Withanolide B, Withanoside IV and Withanoside V) with HSA because of their important pharmacological properties...
2018: PloS One
Jintang Wang, Yuetao Song, Zheng Chen, Sean X Leng
Oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neuroinflammation are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), and a substantial portion of elderly population at risk of these diseases requires nutritional intervention to benefit health due to lack of clinically relevant drugs. To this end, anti-inflammatory mechanisms of several phytochemicals such as curcumin, resveratrol, propolis, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and ginsenosides have been extensively studied...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
M T Lee, W C Lin, T T Lee
Phytochemicals which exist in various plants and fungi are non-nutritive compounds that exert numerous beneficial bioactive actions for animals. In recent years following the restriction of antibiotics, phytochemicals have been regarded as a primal selection when dealing with the challenges during the producing process in the poultry industry. The selected fast-growing broiler breed was more fragile when confronting the stressors in their growing environments. The disruption of oxidative balance that impairs the production performance in birds may somehow be linked to the immune system since oxidative stress and inflammatory damage are multi-stage processes...
October 26, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Zacharias E Suntres
Paraquat dichloride, a herbicide used for weed and grass control, is extremely toxic to humans and animals. The mechanisms of toxicity involve the redox cycling of paraquat resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species and the depletion of the cellular NADPH. The major cause of death in paraquat poisoning is respiratory failure due to its specific uptake by and oxidative insult to the alveolar epithelial cells and inflammation with subsequent obliterating fibrosis. Paraquat also causes selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, reproducing an important pathological feature of Parkinson disease...
October 23, 2018: Fitoterapia
Xian Li, Tian Tian
Spearmint ( Mentha spicata L.) is normally used as a vegetable flavoring herb. It also has several pharmacological activities against fever, cough, infection, and inflammation. The current study presents an untargeted comparative metabolomics approach utilizing HPLC-QTOF-MS high-throughput analytical technology to provide insights into the effect of the drying process on the examined spearmint species. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of compositional differences among fresh and dried spearmint leaves determined via a metabolomic approach to reveal that dried leaves are a better source of bioactive metabolites...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Lisa Tremmel, Okkyung Rho, Thomas J Slaga, John DiGiovanni
Prevention remains an important strategy to reduce the burden of cancer. One approach to prevent cancer is the use of phytochemicals in various combinations as safe and effective cancer preventative agents. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the combination of ursolic acid (UA) and curcumin (Curc) for potential combinatorial inhibition of skin tumor promotion using the mouse two-stage skin carcinogenesis model. In short-term experiments, the combination of UA + Curc given topically prior to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) significantly inhibited activation of epidermal EGFR, p70S6K, NF-κB p50, Src, c-Jun, Rb, and IκBα...
October 22, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
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