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Arterial hypertension

N Kantaria, I Pantsulaia, I Andronikashvili, G Simonia
This investigation differentiates types of essential hypertension in a Georgian population as well as describes endogenous cardiotonic steroids in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant subjects. This case control study included 185 subjects: 94 cases with stage 1 essential hypertension (JNC7) naïve to antihypertensive treatment, and 91 controls. A salt-sensitivity test was used to dichotomize case and control groups into salt-sensitive and salt-resistant subgroups. Blood and urine samples were obtained to categorize participants as consuming high and low salt diets...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Lijiang Ma, Wendy K Chung
Group 1 pulmonary hypertension or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease characterized by proliferation and occlusion of small pulmonary arterioles, leading to progressive elevation of pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance, and right ventricular failure. Historically it has been associated with a high mortality rate, although over the last decade, treatment has improved survival. PAH includes idiopathic PAH (IPAH), heritable PAH (HPAH), and PAH associated with certain medical conditions...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Pathology
P X Kuan, P W Tan, A T Jobli, A R Norsila
INTRODUCTION: Differences in systolic blood pressure reading between arms are common but could signal trouble if the discrepancy is significant. Early detection of aortic dissection could invariably determine patient's survivability. Hence, a high index of suspicion with prompt diagnostic imaging is vital for accurate diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 35-year-old lady was referred from district hospital for hypertensive cardiomyopathy complicated by acute pulmonary oedema...
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Marty D Spranger, Jasdeep Kaur, Javier A Sala-Mercado, Abhinav C Krishnan, Rania Abu-Hamdah, Alberto Alvarez, Tiago M Machado, Robert A Augustyniak, Donal S O'Leary
Increases in myocardial oxygen consumption during exercise mainly occur via increases in coronary blood flow (CBF) as cardiac oxygen extraction is high even at rest. However, sympathetic coronary constrictor tone can limit increases in CBF. Increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) during exercise is, in part, a function of muscle metaboreflex activation (MMA). As SNA is heightened even at rest in subjects with hypertension (HTN), we tested whether HTN causes exaggerated coronary vasoconstriction during mild treadmill exercise with MMA (elicited by reducing hindlimb blood flow by ~60%) thereby limiting increases in CBF and ventricular performance...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Anne-Maree Kelly, Sharon Klim
BACKGROUND: To determine the rate of all cause and cardiac death, new myocardial infarction (MI) or coronary revascularisation at over three years from index visit in emergency department chest pain patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) at index presentation who had a negative electrocardiogram (ECG) and biomarker workup for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: An unplanned sub-study of a prospective observational study of consecutive adult patients presenting to the ED with atraumatic chest pain (or equivalents)...
September 13, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Yitao Zhang, Weijie Zeng, Shiyao Cheng, Zhichong Chen, Jiaojie Xue, Qing Wang, Maode Ou, Kanglin Cheng
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a serious disease, and treatment is a continuing challenge. Some in vitro and in vivo studies identified that statins were effective for PH. However, results of some randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been controversial. The objective of our study was to clarify whether statins are effective and safe for pulmonary hypertension. METHODS: We systematically searched for eligible RCTs from PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library during January 2016...
September 15, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Jaweed Haqparwar, Antonio Pepe, Klaus Fassbender, Ulrich Dillmann, Samer Ezziddin, Andrea Schaefer, Daniela Leppert, Jörg Spiegel
INTRODUCTION: Alpha-synuclein pathology (ASP) is a characteristic histopathological finding in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). The ASP involves not only the brain but also extracranial structures. In the present study we utilized MIBG scintigraphy to measure the sympathetic innervation of the major salivary glands. We were interested in whether MIBG uptake in the major salivary glands represents a potential biomarker for ASP in PD. METHODS: We investigated 77 PD patients (age 61 ± 10 years, mean ± SD), while 15 non-PD patients (age 58 ± 15 years) with arterial hypertension, who underwent MIBG scintigraphy to exclude pheochromocytoma, served as age-matched controls...
October 15, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
S Pscherer, A Nüssler, C Bahrs, M Reumann, C Ihle, U Stöckle, S Ehnert, T Freude, B G Ochs, I Flesch, P Ziegler
Background: The increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus is also reflected in the patient population of a trauma and orthopaedic centre. Diabetics also exhibit more comorbidities than non-diabetics. In addition to surgical problems in these patients, hospitalisation is often accompanied by complications, which can prolong treatment and increase costs. The aim of this retrospective study is to analyse hospitalisation of diabetics compared to non-diabetics, as well as differences in treatment costs, depending on associated age and comorbidities...
October 21, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Alessandro Mantovani, Lucia Mingolla, Riccardo Rigolon, Isabella Pichiri, Valentina Cavalieri, Giacomo Zoppini, Giuseppe Lippi, Enzo Bonora, Giovanni Targher
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggested that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 1 diabetes. We assessed whether NAFLD also predicts the risk of incident CVD events in type 1 diabetic adults. METHODS: We studied a retrospective cohort of 286 type 1 diabetic outpatients (mean age 43±14years; median duration of diabetes 17 [10-30] years) without secondary causes of chronic liver diseases, who were followed for a mean period of 5...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Finja Jockenhöfer, Katharina Herberger, Jörg Schaller, Katja Christina Hohaus, Maren Stoffels-Weindorf, Philipp Al Ghazal, Matthias Augustin, Joachim Dissemond
INTRODUCTION: Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare neutrophilic, ulcerative skin disease of largely unknown pathophysiology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, potentially relevant cofactors and comorbidities in patients with PG from three dermatological wound care centers in Germany were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 121 patients assessed, women (66.9 %) were more frequently affected than men. Patient age ranged from 18 to 96 years (mean 59...
October 2016: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Markus Zutt, Hagen Rudolph, Kjell Matthias Kaune, Werner Wosniok, Ulrich Gärtner, Rainer Linke
BACKGROUND: In recent years, cardiac comorbidities in psoriasis patients have increasingly moved into the focus of clinical research. The objective of the present study was to evaluate myocardial scintigraphy as a screening method in patients with psoriasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Assessment of various comorbidities in 50 psoriasis patients without clinical symptoms of cardiac disease. Myocardial scintigraphy was employed to detect cardiac risk/exercise-induced ischemia...
October 2016: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Katarina E A Nostell, Sanna S Lindåse, Johan T Bröjer
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) in humans is related to hypertension and impaired vasodilation. Insulin administration has been shown to lower blood pressure both in insulin resistant as well as in insulin sensitive individuals. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between insulin sensitivity and alterations in blood pressure in healthy horses before and after a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC). A 3-h EHC was performed in 13 healthy horses (11 mares, 2 geldings)...
October 20, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Debjani S Goswami, Tanuja P Manohar
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases are becoming the major cause of morbidity and mortality in most of the developing countries including India. Cardiometabolic risk factors play a vital role in causation of coronary artery disease. Present study was carried out to investigate the role of various risk factors in the occurrence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in population from Central India. SETTING AND DESIGN: This was a hospital-based age and sex matched case-control study, carried out at Lata Mangeshkar Hospital, Nagpur...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Joseph M Blankush, Robbie Freeman, Joy McIlvaine, Trung Tran, Stephen Nassani, I Michael Leitman
Modified Early Warning Scores (MEWS) provide real-time vital sign (VS) trending and reduce ICU admissions in post-operative patients. These early warning calculations classically incorporate oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, and temperature but have not previously included end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2), more recently identified as an independent predictor of critical illness. These systems may be subject to failure when physiologic data is incorrectly measured, leading to false alarms and increased workload...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
José L de Brito Alves, Vanessa P de Sousa, Marinaldo P Cavalcanti Neto, Marciane Magnani, Valdir de Andrade Braga, João H da Costa-Silva, Carol G Leandro, Hubert Vidal, Luciano Pirola
Arterial hypertension (AH) is one of the most prevalent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CD) and is the main cause of deaths worldwide. Current research establish that dietary polyphenols may help to lower blood pressure (BP), thus contributing to the reduction of cardiovascular complications. In addition, the health benefits of probiotics on BP have also attracted increased attention, as probiotics administration modulates the microbiota, which, by interacting with ingested polyphenols, controls their bioavalability...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Anukul Ghimire, Mads Andersen, Lindsay M Burrowes, James Christopher Bouwmeester, Andrew D Grant, Israel Belenkie, Nowell M Fine, Barry A Borlaug, John V Tyberg
Using the reservoir-wave approach (RWA) we previously characterized pulmonary vasculature mechanics in a normal canine model. We found reflected backward-travelling waves that decrease pressure and increase flow in the proximal pulmonary artery (PA). These waves decrease right ventricular (RV) afterload and facilitate RV ejection. With pathological alterations to the pulmonary vasculature, these waves may change and impact RV performance. Our objective in this study was to characterize PA wave reflection and the alterations in RV performance in cardiac patients, using the RWA...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Vlad Ratziu, Dominique Valla, Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Aart Mookhoek, Kapil Krishnan, Sam Chitsaz, Heide Kuang, Liang Ge, Paul H Schoof, Ad J J C Bogers, Johanna J M Takkenberg, Elaine E Tseng
BACKGROUND: Progressive autograft dilatation after a Ross operation suggests that remodeling does not effectively reproduce native aortic root biomechanics. In the first of this two-part series, we compared mechanical properties of explanted autografts to pulmonary roots at pulmonary pressures. The goal of this study was to compare mechanical properties of explanted autografts to native aortic roots at systemic pressures. METHODS: Autograft specimens were obtained from patients undergoing reoperation after Ross operation...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Leslie A Blair, April K Haven, Natalie N Bauer
BACKGROUND: Microparticles (MPs) stimulate inflammatory adhesion molecule expression in systemic vascular diseases, however it is unknown whether circulating MPs stimulate localized ICAM-1 expression in the heterogeneically distinct pulmonary endothelium during pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Pulmonary vascular lesions with infiltrating inflammatory cells in PAH form in the pulmonary arteries and arterioles, but not the microcirculation. Therefore, we sought to determine whether circulating MPs from PAH stimulate pulmonary artery endothelial cell-selective ICAM-1 expression...
October 20, 2016: Respiratory Research
Rafael O Alvim, Andréa R V R Horimoto, Camila M Oliveira, Luiz A Bortolotto, José E Krieger, Alexandre C Pereira
BACKGROUND: Increased arterial stiffness is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. In addition, it has been recognized that arterial stiffness has familial aggregation; however, there are no studies involving Brazilian families. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the heritability of arterial stiffness in a Brazilian population. METHODS: In this study, 1675 eligible individuals (both sexes and aged 18-102 years) were distributed in 125 families resident in the municipality of Baependi, a city located in the southeast of Brazil...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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