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Anna Zielińska, Paweł Siwiński, Aleksandra Sobolewska-Włodarczyk, Maria Wiśniewska-Jarosińska, Jakub Fichna, Marcin Włodarczyk
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, immune system-mediated inflammatory disease affecting gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The pathogenesis of the intestinal lesions is not entirely explained and understood: excessive activation of the immune system may come as a result of the interaction of environmental, genetic and infectious factors and the mediation of abnormal intestinal flora. The main objective of the current study is to further identify the role of adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of CD. Alterations in body fat distribution, accumulation of intra-abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) and mesenteric obesity are well-known features of CD...
September 28, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Eleni Geladari, Panagiota Tsamadia, Natalia G Vallianou
Elevated plasma lipid levels are linked to atherosclerosis, a hallmark for coronary artery disease (CAD), documented by animal studies as well as angiographic and clinical studies. The ability to treat hyperlipidemia through lifestyle changes and lipid-lowering agents has been related to the slow progression of atherosclerosis and decreased incidence of major coronary events. Angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs) are a family of secreted glycoproteins expressed in the liver that share common domain characteristics with angiopoietins, the main regulators of angiogenesis...
November 30, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Dianli Zhang, Xiaoxue Ji, Zhen Meng, Wenzhe Qi, Kang Qiao
The compound 1,3-D (1,3-dichloropropene) is a potential candidate soil fumigant due to the restrictions on methyl bromide (MB). To date, little is known about the soil microbial community changes induced by 1,3-D fumigation. Therefore, soil properties, related soil enzymes, genes encoding the key enzymes of ammonia oxidation in both ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacterial diversity were investigated to assess the effects of 1,3-D fumigation on the soil microbial community...
November 28, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yuri Feito, Michael Giardina, Scotty Butcher, Gerald T Mangine
High-intensity functional training (HIFT) (i.e. CrossFit training) uses a combination of movements, and self-selected time periods of work and rest. However, little is known regarding the physiological responses to an acute bout of HIFT exercise or the physical parameters that distinguish performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological response to consecutive Wingate trials with short, active recovery periods in advanced CrossFit athletes. Twenty-nine advance level CrossFit trained athletes volunteered for this study...
November 30, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Vineet Meghrajani, Karan Wats, Abhinav Saxena, Bilal Malik
A 66-year-old female presented to the emergency room with an episode of chest pain that lasted for a few minutes before resolving spontaneously. Electrocardiogram showed a left bundle branch block, left ventricular hypertrophy, and T wave inversions in the lateral leads. Initial cardiac troponin level was 0.15 ng/ml, with levels of 4 ng/ml and 9 ng/ml obtained 6 and 12 hours later, respectively. The peak blood pressure recorded was 195/43 mmHg. Echocardiogram with DEFINITY showed a small left ventricular cavity with apical hypertrophy, and coronary angiogram showed no stenotic or occluding lesions in the coronary arteries...
2018: Case Reports in Cardiology
Yingkai Sun, Rui Wang, Shaoqian Zhao, Wen Li, Wen Liu, Lingyun Tang, Zhugang Wang, Weiqing Wang, Rui-Xin Liu, Guang Ning, Jiqiu Wang, Jie Hong
Browning of white adipose tissue has been proven to be a potential target to fight against obesity and its metabolic commodities, making the exploration of molecules involved in browning process important. Among those browning agents reported recently, FGF21 play as a quite promising candidate for treating obesity for its obvious enhancement of thermogenic capacity in adipocyte and significant improvement of metabolic disorders in both mice and human. However, whether other members of FGF family play roles in adipose thermogenesis and obese development is still an open question...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
S Moreno-Fernández, M Garcés-Rimón, J A Uranga, J Astier, J F Landrier, M Miguel
Nutritional compounds could be a safe and less expensive treatment for complications associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action and the target tissues of a pepsin egg white hydrolysate (EWH) which had previously been demonstrated to improve some obesity-related disorders on a high-fat/high-glucose rat model. Wistar rats were used and divided into 3 groups: Control group (C), High-fat/high-glucose diet (MS) and high-fat/high-glucose diet + EWH (MSH)...
November 29, 2018: Food & Function
R Ringseis, J O Zeitz, A Weber, C Koch, K Eder
In dairy cows, administration of high dosages of niacin (nicotinic acid, NA) was found to cause antilipolytic effects, which are mediated by the NA receptor hydroxyl-carboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCAR2) in white adipose tissue (WAT), and thereby an altered hepatic lipid metabolism. However, almost no attention has been paid to possible direct effects of NA in cattle liver, despite evidence that HCAR2 is also expressed in the liver and is even more abundant than in WAT. Because of this, we hypothesized that feeding a high dosage of rumen-protected NA to dairy cows influences critical metabolic or signaling pathways in the liver by inducing changes in the hepatic transcriptome...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Surabhi Bhatia, YuHong Fu, Jen-Hsiang T Hsiao, Glenda M Halliday, Woojin Scott Kim
ATP-binding cassette A7 (ABCA7) is a genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). It belongs to a group of transporter genes that specializes in regulating lipid transport in the periphery as well as in the brain. ABCA7 has been implicated in a number of roles relating to AD pathology, including phagocytic clearance of amyloid-β peptides. We have discovered that deletion of ABCA7 in mouse causes a dramatic reduction in white adipose tissue (WAT) in female mice. WAT is important in AD context because it is the primary producer of leptin, which is a hormone that is known to modulate AD neuropathology...
December 16, 2017: JAD Reports
Masaki Kobayashi, Shunsuke Hoshino, Takuro Abe, Naoyuki Okita, Ryoma Tagawa, Wataru Nagai, Ryutaro Konno, Yuki Suzuki, Kazuhiro Furuya, Natsumi Ishikawa, Hitoshi Okado, Misako Oku, Machiko Iwamoto, Yuri Miura, Yuka Sudo, Yoshikazu Higami
White adipose tissue (WAT) is not only the main tissue for energy storage but also an endocrine organ that secretes adipokines. Obesity is the most common metabolic disorder and is related to alterations in WAT characteristics, such as chronic inflammation and increasing oxidative stress. WW domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (WWP1) is a HECT-type ubiquitin E3 ligase that has been implicated in various pathologies. In the present study, we found that WWP1 was upregulated in obese WAT in a p53-dependent manner...
November 22, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ricky Wat, Marco Mammi, Jose Paredes, Jordan Haines, Mohammed Alasmari, Aaron Liew, Victor M Lu, Omar Arnaout, Timothy R Smith, William B Gormley, Linda S Aglio, Rania A Mekary, Hasan Zaidi
BACKGROUND: The use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) to prevent early post-traumatic seizure (PTS) for patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is currently recommended, although published studies present contradictory results concerning the protective effect of AEDs. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantify the association between the use of prophylactic AEDs, particularly of the four main drugs of interest (phenytoin, levetiracetam, valproate, or carbamazepine) versus placebo or no treatment, and risk of early seizures following TBI...
November 19, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Young-Jin Seo, Kippeum Lee, Ji-Hyeon Song, Sungwoo Chei, Boo-Yong Lee
Obesity is caused by the expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores excess triacylglycerol (TG), this can lead to disorders including type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, metabolic diseases. Ishige okamurae extract (IOE) is prepared from a brown alga and has anti-oxidative properties. We investigated the detailed mechanisms of the anti-obesity activity of IOE. Treatment with IOE blocked lipid accumulation by reducing expression of key adipogenic transcription factors, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), in 3T3-L1 cells...
November 20, 2018: Nutrients
Bo-Ra Choi, Eun-Young Kwon, Hye-Jin Kim, Myung-Sook Choi
The effects of allulose and two probiotic species on diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were investigated. Lactobacillus sakei LS03 (10⁸ cfu/day) and Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 (10⁸ cfu/day) were used as probiotics, and allulose (AL) as a prebiotic. The synergistic effect of prebiotics and probiotics in improving obesity was evaluated. Orally fed Lactobacillus sakei LS03 (LS) or Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 (GJ), significantly decreased hepatic triglyceride (TG) and fatty acid (FA) compared to the high-fat diet (HFD) control...
November 19, 2018: Nutrients
Edward O List, Darlene E Berryman, Mathew Buchman, Caitlin Parker, Kevin Funk, Stephen Bell, Silvana Duran-Ortiz, Yanrong Qian, Jonathan A Young, Cody Wilson, Julie Slyby, Savannah McKenna, Elizabeth A Jensen, John J Kopchick
Global GH receptor null or "knockout" (GHRKO) mice have been extensively studied due to their unique phenotype (dwarf and obese but remarkably insulin sensitive and long-lived). To better understand the influence of adipose tissue (AT) on the GHRKO phenotype, we previously generated Fat-specific GHRKO (FaGHRKO) mice using the aP2 promoter driving Cre expression. Unlike global GHRKO mice, FaGHRKO mice are larger than control mice and have an increase in white AT (WAT) mass and adipocyte size as well as an increase in brown AT (BAT) mass...
November 19, 2018: Endocrinology
Sunhye Shin, Kolapo M Ajuwon
Fatty acids are involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses in obesity. However, despite being the largest dietary fatty-acid class, effects of 18-carbon fatty acids with different degrees of saturation on inflammatory, metabolic, and thermogenic markers have not been well studied. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test if diets with different 18-carbon fatty-acid profiles differentially regulate inflammatory and metabolic genes. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed one of the four different diets: a control diet (CON) containing 5...
September 2018: Lipids
Man-Young Jung, Myung-Suk Kang, Ki-Eun Lee, Eun-Young Lee, Soo-Je Park
The novel Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterial strain DCR-13T was isolated from a native plant belonging to the genus Campanula on Dokdo, an island in the Republic of Korea. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that this strain is closely related to Paraburkholderia peleae PP52-1T (98.43% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Paraburkholderia oxyphila NBRC 105797T (98.42%), Paraburkholderia sacchari IPT 101T (98.28%), Paraburkholderia mimosarum NBRC 106338T (97.80%), Paraburkholderia denitrificans KIS30-44T (97...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Thomas Silou, Samuel Nsikabaka, Jayneureuse P Nombault Nienzy, Andeouene Baou, Thérèse Eliane Biassala, Gilles Figuérédo, Jean Claude Chalchat
Cymbopogon flexuosus var. flexuosus (citral chemotype) was introduced in a local plantation in 2006 at "Plateau des Cataractes", Congo-Brazzaville, to remedy the difficult adaptation and low production of essential oil of C. citratus, a source of citral. After some 10 years of acclimatization, C. flexuosus had adapted perfectly, with a very high biomass and essential oil production. In addition, a citronella chemotype (Cymbopogon flexuosus var. albescens) was unexpectedly identified among lemongrass in the field and grown in a local experimental citronella plot covering 0...
November 18, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Jialing Cao, Xiuliang Yu, Zeyuan Deng, Yao Pan, Bing Zhang, Rong Tsao, Hongyan Li
Lotus seed epicarp (LSE) and lotus seed pot (LSP) were characterized, and a total of 5 and 7 proanthocyanidins (PAs) were identified in purified LSE and LSP extract, respectively. Purified LSE and LSP PAs significantly suppressed the body weight and weight gain of white adipose tissue (WAT) and decreased the WAT cell size in high-fat diet-induced obese mice regardless of the daily food intake. LSE or LSP administration significantly lowered the serum leptin level and improved the serum and liver lipid profiles (including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels), increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione transferase (GST)) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, and suppressed lipid peroxidation in hepatic tissue...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sara A Beddow, Arijeet K Gattu, Daniel F Vatner, Lauren Paolella, Abdulelah Alqarzaee, Nedda Tashkandi, Violeta Popov, Christopher Church, Matthew Rodeheffer, Gary Cline, John Geisler, Sanjay Bhanot, Varman T Samuel
The increase in hepatic gluconeogenesis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often ascribed to increased transcription of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (cytosolic form, PEPCK1) though increasing evidence questions this attribution. To assess the metabolic role of PEPCK1, we treated regular chow (RC) fed and high-fat fed (HFF) male Sprague-Dawley rats with a 2'-O-methoxyethyl chimeric antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) against PEPCK1 and compared them to control ASO treated rats. PEPCK1 ASO effectively decreased PEPCK1 expression in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT)...
November 15, 2018: Endocrinology
Roberto Baldassarre, Massimo Sacchetti, Federica Patrizio, Andrea Nicolò, Alessandro Scotto di Palumbo, Marco Bonifazi, Maria Francesca Piacentini
The aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of carbohydrate (CHO) feeding supplemented every 2.5-km, as in official races, on the performance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and glycaemia during a 10-km intermittent training workout in elite open-water swimmers. A randomized crossover design was used. Participants completed two 10-km intermittent training sessions (20 × 500-m). The relative velocity was expressed in percentage of a single 500-m. Glycaemia was monitored by continuous glucose monitoring...
November 14, 2018: Sports
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