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Takeshi Yoneshiro, Ryuji Kaede, Kazuki Nagaya, Manami Saito, Julia Aoyama, Mohamed Elfeky, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Kazuhiro Kimura, Akira Terao
Dietary supplementation with melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed extract (MSE) has been proposed as an anti-obesity strategy. However, it remains unclear how MSE modulates energy balance. We tested the hypothesis that dietary MSE reduces energy intake and/or increases physical activity and metabolic thermogenesis in brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT) in mice. Twenty-four C57BL/6 J mice were provided with normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD with 1% MSE added, for 17 weeks. Food intake, spontaneous locomotor activity, hepatic triglyceride (TG) content, and blood parameters were examined...
October 2018: Nutrition Research
Paul Petrus, Niklas Mejhert, Patricia Corrales, Simon Lecoutre, Qian Li, Estela Maldonado, Agne Kulyté, Yamila Lopez, Mark Campbell, Juan R Acosta, Jurga Laurencikiene, Iyadh Douagi, Hui Gao, Concepción Martínez-Álvarez, Per Hedén, Kirsty L Spalding, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Gema Medina-Gomez, Peter Arner, Mikael Rydén
White adipose tissue (WAT) mass is determined by adipocyte size and number. While adipocytes are continuously turned over, the mechanisms controlling fat cell number in WAT upon weight changes are unclear. Herein, prospective studies of human subcutaneous WAT demonstrate that weight gain increases both adipocyte size and number, but the latter remains unaltered after weight loss. Transcriptome analyses associate changes in adipocyte number with the expression of 79 genes. This gene set is enriched for growth factors, out of which one, transforming growth factor-β3 (TGFβ3), stimulates adipocyte progenitor proliferation, resulting in a higher number of cells undergoing differentiation in vitro...
October 16, 2018: Cell Reports
Itay Ayalon, Hui Shen, Lauren Williamson, Keith Stringer, Basilia Zingarelli, Jennifer M Kaplan
Severe sepsis and septic shock are the biggest cause of mortality in critically ill patients. Obesity today is one of the world's greatest health challenges. Little is known about the extent of involvement of the white adipose tissue (WAT) in sepsis and how it is being modified by obesity. We sought to explore the involvement of the WAT in sepsis. We hypothesize that sepsis induces browning of the WAT and that obesity alters the response of WAT to sepsis. Six-week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomized to a high-fat diet to induce obesity (obese group) or control diet (nonobese group)...
November 2018: Shock
Lin Wang, Liyuan Chen, Zheran Liu, Yaofang Liu, Mao Luo, Ni Chen, Xin Deng, Yulin Luo, Jing He, Liping Zhang, Michael A Hill, Rong Li, Jianbo Wu
Background: Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 levels and activity are known to increase during metabolic syndrome and obesity. In addition, previous studies have implicated PAI-1 in adipose tissue (AT) expansion while also contributing to insulin resistance. As inflammation is also known to occur in AT during obesity, we hypothesized that in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model PAI-1 contributes to macrophage-mediated inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. Methods: Four- to five-weeks-old male C57B6/6J mice were fed a HFD (45%) for 14 weeks, while age-matched control mice were fed a standard laboratory chow diet (10% fat)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Keiichiro Kamura, Jihoon Shin, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Takaya Abe, Go Shioi, Atsunori Fukuhara, Hiroshi Sasaki
Obesity is characterized by an expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT) mass, which mainly consists of adipocytes. During the commitment and differentiation of adipocytes, PPARγ functions as a key transcriptional factor for adipogenesis, and is associated with its suppressive coregulator, TAZ. Previous studies have shown the importance of TAZ in adipogenesis using an in vitro model; however, the understanding of its role in adipogenesis in vivo remains limited. Here, we report a unique obese mouse model that is associated with TAZ downregulation, which arose from the overexpression of Yap, a Taz paralog...
October 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Eva B Nygaard, Cathrine Ørskov, Thomas Almdal, Henrik Vestergaard, Birgitte Andersen
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic regulator of energy and lipid metabolism. FGF21 is highly expressed in liver while FGF21 receptors (beta-klotho (KLB) and FGFR1c) are highly expressed in white adipose tissues (WATs). Plasma FGF21 has been shown to be increased after 7–10 days of fasting but oppositely plasma FGF21 is also increased in obesity. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of 60 h of fasting on plasma FGF21 levels in obese and lean subjects and to determine the gene expression of KLB and FGFR1c in the subcutaneous WAT before, during and after 60 h of fasting...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Wat Mitthamsiri, Panitan Pradubpongsa, Atik Sangasapaviliya, Tadech Boonpiyathad
PURPOSE: Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. However, the effect of allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) on ILCs remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of ILC subsets in allergic rhinitis (AR) patients in response to house dust mite (HDM)-specific immunotherapy. METHODS: We enrolled 37 AR patients undergoing AIT (16 responders and 11 non-responders) for 2 years, 35 HDM AR patients and 28 healthy subjects...
November 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Shilpa Singh, Vijay Singh, Reiofeli A Salas-Perez, Muthukumar V Bagavathiannan, Amy Lawton-Rauh, Nilda Roma-Burgos
BACKGROUND: Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats) is one of the most common and troublesome weeds in the USA. Palmer amaranth resistance to ALS inhibitors is widespread in the USA as in Arkansas. The cross-resistance patterns and mechanism of resistance are not known. Experiments were conducted to (1) determine cross-resistance to ALS-inhibitors and (2) identify target-site mutations in 20 Palmer amaranth localities from 13 counties in Arkansas. RESULTS: All Palmer amaranth localities tested had plants cross-resistant to imazethapyr, flumetsulam, primisulfuron, pyrithiobac, and trifloxysulfuron...
October 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
Gwenaëlle Le Menn, Brigitte Sibille, Joseph Murdaca, Anne-Sophie Rousseau, Raphaëlle Squillace, Bastien Vergoni, Mireille Cormont, Isabelle Niot, Paul A Grimaldi, Isabelle Mothe-Satney, Jaap G Neels
The implication of αβ and γδ T cells in obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance (IR) remains uncertain. Mice lacking γδ T cells show either no difference or a decrease in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced IR, whereas partial depletion in γδ T cells does not protect from HFD-induced IR. αβ T-cell deficiency leads to a decrease in white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation and IR without weight change, but partial depletion of these cells has not been studied. We previously described a mouse model overexpressing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β (PPAR-β) specifically in T cells [transgenic (Tg) T-PPAR-β] that exhibits a partial depletion in αβ T cells and no change in γδ T-cell number...
October 4, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Niko Prasetyo, Philippe Henry Hünenberger, Thomas S Hofer
A recently proposed thermodynamic integration (TI) approach formulated in the framework of quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical molecular dynamics (QM/MM MD) simulations is applied to study the structure, dynamics and intrinsic single-ion hydration free energy Δs G°M+;wat of the Li+ ion at a correlated ab initio level of theory. Based on the results, the absolute intrinsic hydration free energy G°H+;wat of the proton, the surface electric potential jump Χ°wat upon entering bulk water, and the absolute redox potential V°H+;wat of the reference hydrogen electrode, are calculated to be -1099...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Hisashi Kato, Takuya Shibahara, Nazibur Rahman, Hisashi Takakura, Yoshinobu Ohira, Tetsuya Izawa
This study examined the association between changes in mRNA expression of development-related genes including those of the homeobox (Hox) family and growth-dependent increases in inguinal, mesenteric, and epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) at 4, 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age in rats. We also examined the effects of a 9-week exercise training regimen starting at 5 weeks of age on the mRNA levels of the genes of interest. HoxC8, HoxC9, Gpc4, Bmpr1a, Pparγ, Pgc1α, Adrb3, Hsl, leptin, and adiponectin in each type of WAT - except HoxA5, Gpc4, and Pgc1α in epididymal - showed a positive association between WAT weights and WAT mRNA levels; however, the slope of the regression lines exhibited fat depot-specific differences...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Eun-Young Kwon, Myung-Sook Choi
This study was to investigate the protective role of luteolin on inflammation-mediated metabolic diseases, focusing on the role of luteolin in the modulation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal, high-fat, or high-fat + 0.005% ( w / w ) luteolin diet for 16 weeks. Luteolin improved chronic low-grade inflammation by modulating the TLR signaling pathway, resulting in reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines and macrophage accumulation. A positive relationship was detected between gene expressions of Tlr5 , Map2k7 , Mapk12 , Mapk13 , and Mapk9 and lipogenesis in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) of luteolin-treated mice, which was linked to attenuation of hepatic lipotoxicity by increasing free fatty acid (FFA) flux to the WAT...
October 3, 2018: Nutrients
Sylvain Giroud, Gabrielle Stalder, Hanno Gerritsmann, Anna Kübber-Heiss, Jae Kwak, Walter Arnold, Thomas Ruf
Dietary lipids strongly influence patterns of hibernation in heterotherms. Increased dietary uptake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly of linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6), enables animals to reach lower body temperatures (Tb ), lengthens torpor bout duration, and results in lower energy expenditure during hibernation. Conversely, dietary n-3 PUFA impacts negatively on hibernation performance. PUFA in surrounding phospholipids (PLs) presumably modulate the temperature-dependent activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ ATPase 2 (SERCA2) and thus determine the threshold Tb still allowing proper heart function during torpor...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Rosario Pardo, Maria Vilà, Luis Cervela, Marina de Marco, Pau Gama-Pérez, Alba González-Franquesa, Lucia Statuto, Ramon Vilallonga, Rafael Simó, Pablo M Garcia-Roves, Josep A Villena
Calorie restriction (CR) exerts remarkable, beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis by mechanisms that are not fully understood. Given the relevance of white adipose tissue (WAT) in glucose homeostasis, we aimed at identifying the main cellular processes regulated in WAT in response to CR in a pathologic context of obesity. For this, a gene-expression profiling study was first conducted in mice fed ad libitum or subjected to 40% CR. We found that the gene network related to mitochondria was the most highly upregulated in WAT by CR...
October 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Erika Hoppela, Tove J Grönroos, Anne M Saarikko, Tomi V Tervala, Susanna Kauhanen, Pirjo Nuutila, Katri Kivinen, Pauliina Hartiala
Background: Fat grafting is commonly used when treating soft-tissue defects. However, much of the basic biology behind fat transfer is still uncovered. Adipocytes can be divided into energy storing white and energy burning brown adipose cells. It is now well known, that also adult humans have metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) within white adipose tissue (WAT). Previously our group showed that transfer of metabolically inactive WAT into a new environment increased the metabolic activity of the fat grafts to resemble the activity in the recipient site and that different WAT depots have variation in the metabolic activity...
June 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Young Jun Koh, Ju-Hee Lee, Sung Yun Park
Background: Obesity is a pathological condition associated with various diseases including diabetes, stroke, arthritis, infertility, and heart disease. Moxibustion is widely used to prevent and manage obesity in traditional Asian medicine. We tested our hypothesis that moxibustion-simulating bipolar radiofrequency (M-RF) can suppress total body and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight gain via induction of WAT browning in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Methods: We designed an M-RF device that could accurately adjust the depth and temperature at which heat stimulation was administered into the abdomen of DIO mice...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Yoshiko Igarashi, Allah Nawaz, Tomonobu Kado, Muhammad Bilal, Takahide Kuwano, Seiji Yamamoto, Masakiyo Sasahara, Xu Jiuxiang, Akiko Inujima, Keiichi Koizumi, Johji Imura, Naotoshi Shibahara, Isao Usui, Shiho Fujisaka, Kazuyuki Tobe
Beige adipocytes are an inducible form of thermogenic adipocytes that become interspersed within white adipose tissue (WAT) depots in response to cold exposure. Previous studies have shown that type 2 cytokines and M2 macrophages induce cold-induced browning in inguinal WAT (ingWAT) by producing catecholamines. Exactly how the conditional and partial depletion of CD206+ M2-like macrophages regulates the cold-induced browning of ingWAT, however, remains unknown. We examined the role of CD206+ M2-like macrophages in the cold-induced browning of WAT using genetically engineered CD206DTR mice, in which CD206+ M2-like macrophages were conditionally depleted...
October 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Magdalena Esteva, Mercedes Ruiz-Díaz, M Antonia Sánchez, Sonia Pértega, Salvador Pita-Fernández, Francesc Macià, Margarita Posso, Luis González-Luján, Marta M Boscá-Wats, Alfonso Leiva, Joana Ripoll
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Europe. Survival is poorer in patients admitted to hospitals through the emergency department than in electively admitted patients. Knowledge of factors associated with a cancer diagnosis through presentation at an emergency department may reduce the likelihood of an emergency diagnosis. This study evaluated factors influencing the diagnosis of CRC in the emergency department. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a cross-sectional study in 5 Spanish regions; subjects were incident cases of CRC diagnosed in 9 public hospitals, between 2006 and 2008...
2018: PloS One
Roberta S Santos, Aaron P Frank, Luciana A Fátima, Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
OBJECTIVES: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) and BAT-like adipose tissues, referred to as 'beige' adipose tissues uncouple respiration from ATP synthesis via uncoupling protein one (UCP-1). There is a sexual dimorphism with respect to beige and BAT tissues; pre-menopausal women have more BAT and are more sensitive to BAT activation than men or postmenopausal women. We hypothesized selective activation of adipose tissue estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) induces beiging of WAT through induction of lipolysis mediated by adipose tissue triglyceride lipase (ATGL)...
September 15, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Francisco Claro, Joseane Morari, Luciana R Moreira, Luis O Z Sarian, Licio A Velloso
Background: Fat grafting to the breast has a questionable oncologic risk according to laboratory reports on adipose tissue. One possible reason for this is the theoretical chronic inflammation due to adipokynes released by the grafted white adipose tissue (WAT). Objectives: Analyze inflammatory activity in lipofilled breast through proinflammatory markers. Methods: Fifty-four paired-breasts of female rats were divided into four groups (control, sham, breasts grafted with autologous WAT of subcutaneous - SC, and of omentum - OM)...
September 28, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
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