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Thaís F Araujo, André V Cordeiro, Diogo A A Vasconcelos, Kaio F Vitzel, Vagner R R Silva
White adipose tissue (WAT) regulates energy homeostasis by releasing adipokines and modulating cell maintenance. Nutrient excess affects adipocyte hypertrophy directly in WAT by increasing excessively the activity of autophagy systems, generating proinflammatory markers and increasing infiltration of macrophages, causing metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Evidences suggest that cathepsin B (CTSB), a papain-like cysteine peptidase protein, can modulate autophagy processes in adipocytes. This review will focus on the role of CTSB in autophagy under conditions of obesity...
August 11, 2018: Life Sciences
Minna Lahesmaa, Vesa Oikonen, Semi Helin, Pauliina Luoto, Mueez U Din, Alexander Pfeifer, Pirjo Nuutila, Kirsi A Virtanen
PURPOSE: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has emerged as a potential target to combat obesity and diabetes, but novel strategies to activate BAT are needed. Adenosine and A2A receptor (A2AR) agonism activate BAT in rodents, and endogenous adenosine is released locally in BAT as a by-product of noradrenaline, but physiological data from humans is lacking. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of exogenous adenosine on human BAT perfusion, and to determine the density of A2ARs in human BAT in vivo for the first time, using PET/CT imaging...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Patricia Seoane-Collazo, Juan Roa, Eva Rial-Pensado, Laura Liñares-Pose, Daniel Beiroa, Francisco Ruíz-Pino, Tania López-González, Donald A Morgan, José Ángel Pardavila, María Jesús Sánchez-Tapia, Noelia Martínez-Sánchez, Cristina Contreras, Miguel Fidalgo, Carlos Diéguez, Roberto Coppari, Kamal Rahmouni, Rubén Nogueiras, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Miguel López
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular gauge that is activated under conditions of low energy, increasing energy production and reducing energy waste. Current evidence links hypothalamic AMPK with the central regulation of energy balance. However, it is unclear whether targeting hypothalamic AMPK has beneficial effects in obesity. Here, we show that genetic inhibition of AMPK in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) protects against high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by increasing brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and subsequently energy expenditure...
August 13, 2018: Diabetes
Dimitrios C Karampinos, Dominik Weidlich, Mingming Wu, Houchun H Hu, Daniela Franz
The present review reports on the current knowledge and recent findings in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) of brown adipose tissue (BAT). The work summarizes the features and mechanisms that allow MRI to differentiate BAT from white adipose tissue (WAT) by making use of their distinct morphological appearance and the functional characteristics of BAT. MR is a versatile imaging modality with multiple contrast mechanisms as potential candidates in the study of BAT, targeting properties of 1 H, 13 C, or 129 Xe nuclei...
August 12, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Juan Jiang, PengZhou Li, Hao Ling, ZhouZhou Xu, Bo Yi, Shaihong Zhu
Obesity is associated with increased risks of diverse diseases; brown adipose tissue (BAT) can increase energy expenditure and protect against obesity by increasing the decomposition of white adipose tissue (WAT) to enhance the non-coupled oxidative phosphorylation of fatty acid in adipocytes and contributes to weight loss. However, BAT is abundant in only small rodents and newborn humans, but not in adults. PRDM16 is a key factor that induces the differentiation of skeletal muscle precursors to brown adipocytes and simultaneously inhibits myogenic differentiation...
August 10, 2018: Human Cell
Alba Serrano, Madhu Asnani, Ana M Rodríguez, Andreu Palou, Joan Ribot, M Luisa Bonet
SCOPE: Resveratrol (RSV) and nicotinamide riboside (NR) are food compounds with anti-obesity actions in adult rodents. Here we assessed the long-term effects of RSV and NR mild supplementation throughout lactation on adiposity-related parameters and the appearance of the beige phenotype in white adipose tissue (WAT) in adulthood. METHODS AND RESULTS: Newborn mice received orally RSV or NR from day 2 to 20 of life. Control littermates received the vehicle. All animals were weaned onto a chow diet on day 21...
August 10, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Hye Eun Lee, Gabsik Yang, Sin-Hee Han, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Tae-Jin An, Jae-Ki Jang, Joo Young Lee
The main function of brown adipose tissue is to dissipate surplus caloric intake into heat energy by thermogenesis, increasing energy expenditure. Inducible brown adipocytes can develop within white adipose tissue (WAT) through a process referred to as browning. Browning of white fat represents a promising strategy for treatment of obesity and the related complications. We investigated whether Glycyrrhiza uralensis and its ingredients modulated adipogenesis through adipocyte browning using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mice model...
August 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Brian S Finlin, Hasiyet Memetimin, Amy L Confides, Ildiko Kasza, Beibei Zhu, Hemendra J Vekaria, Brianna Harfmann, Kelly A Jones, Zachary R Johnson, Philip M Westgate, Caroline M Alexander, Patrick G Sullivan, Esther E Dupont-Versteegden, Philip A Kern
BACKGROUND: The induction of beige adipocytes in s.c. white adipose tissue (WAT) depots of humans is postulated to improve glucose and lipid metabolism in obesity. The ability of obese, insulin-resistant humans to induce beige adipose tissue is unknown. METHODS: We exposed lean and obese research participants to cold (30-minute ice pack application each day for 10 days of the upper thigh) or treated them with the β3 agonist mirabegron. We determined beige adipose marker expression by IHC and quantitative PCR, and we analyzed mitochondrial bioenergetics and UCP activity with an Oxytherm system...
August 9, 2018: JCI Insight
Rushita A Bagchi, Bradley S Ferguson, Matthew S Stratton, Tianjing Hu, Maria A Cavasin, Lei Sun, Ying-Hsi Lin, Dianxin Liu, Pilar Londono, Kunhua Song, Maria F Pino, Lauren M Sparks, Steven R Smith, Philipp E Scherer, Sheila Collins, Edward Seto, Timothy A McKinsey
Little is known about the biological function of histone deacetylase 11 (HDAC11), which is the lone class IV HDAC. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of HDAC11 in mice stimulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) formation and beiging of white adipose tissue (WAT). Consequently, HDAC11-deficient mice exhibit enhanced thermogenic potential and, in response to high-fat feeding, attenuated obesity, improved insulin sensitivity, and reduced hepatic steatosis. Ex vivo and cell-based assays revealed that HDAC11 catalytic activity suppresses the BAT transcriptional program, in both the basal state and in response to β-adrenergic receptor signaling, through a mechanism that is dependent on physical association with BRD2, a bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) acetyl-histone-binding protein...
August 9, 2018: JCI Insight
Katsutaka Oishi, Chiaki Hashimoto
Feeding at unusual times of the day is thought to be associated with obesity and metabolic disorders in both experimental animals and humans. We previously reported that time-imposed feeding during the sleep phase (daytime feeding, DF) induces obesity and metabolic disorders compared with mice fed only during the active phase (nighttime feeding, NF). The present study aimed to determine whether leptin resistance is caused by DF, and whether it is involved in the underlying mechanisms of DF-induced obesity in mice, since leptin plays an essential role in regulating energy expenditure and adiposity in addition to food intake...
August 7, 2018: Chronobiology International
Sahar I Daas, Balsam R Rizeq, Gheyath K Nasrallah
Cancer cachexia is a complex disorder that is driven by inflammation and metabolic imbalances, resulting in extreme weight loss. Adipose tissue, a main player in cancer cachexia, is an essential metabolic and secretory organ consisting of both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue. Its secretory products, including adipokines and cytokines, affect a wide variety of central and peripheral organs, such as the skeletal muscle, brain, pancreas, and liver. Therefore, a combination of metabolic alterations, and systemic inflammation dysregulation of both anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory modulators contribute toward adipose tissue wasting in cancer cachexia...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Eva B Nygaard, Cathrine Ørskov, Thomas P Almdal, Henrik Vestergaard, Birgitte Andersen
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic regulator of energy and lipid metabolism. FGF21 is highly expressed in liver while FGF21 receptors (Beta-klotho (KLB) and FGFR1c) are highly expressed in white adipose tissues (WAT). Plasma FGF21 has been shown to be increased after 7-10 days of fasting but oppositely plasma FGF21 is also increased in obesity. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of 60 hours of fasting on plasma FGF21 levels in obese and lean subjects and to determine the gene expression of KLB and FGFR1c in the subcutaneous WAT before, during and after 60 hours of fasting...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Na Chen, Jiqiu Wang
Obesity has become epidemic worldwide, which triggers several obesity-associated complications. Obesity is characterized by excess fat storage mainly in the visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT), subcutaneous WAT (sWAT), and other tissues. Myriad studies have demonstrated the crucial role of canonical Wnt/β-catenin cascade in the development of organs and physiological homeostasis, whereas recent studies show that genetic variations/mutations in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway are associated with human metabolic diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Steve C N Hui, Simon K H Wong, Qiyong Ai, David K W Yeung, Enders K W Ng, Winnie C W Chu
OBJECTIVES: To study the change in brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT), as well as fat content in the liver and pancreas, in patients with morbid obesity before and after bariatric surgery. METHODS: Twelve patients with morbid obesity (F=8, M=4, age: 45.4 years (38.4-51.2), BMI: 35.2 kg/m2 (32.5-38.6)) underwent pre-op MRI at baseline and two post-op scans at 6-month and 12-month intervals after bariatric surgery. Co-registered water, fat, fat-fraction and T2* image series were acquired...
July 30, 2018: European Radiology
Allah Nawaz, Arshad Mehmood, Yukiko Kanatani, Tomonobu Kado, Yoshiko Igarashi, Akiko Takikawa, Seiji Yamamoto, Keisuke Okabe, Takashi Nakagawa, Kunimasa Yagi, Shiho Fujisaka, Kazuyuki Tobe
Sirt1 plays an important role in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in obese animal models. Impaired adipose tissue angiogenesis in the obese state decreases adipogenesis and thereby contributes to glucose intolerance and lipid metabolism. However, the mechanism by which Sirt1 activation affects obesity-associated impairments in angiogenesis in the adipose tissue is not fully understood. Here, we show that SRT1720 treatment induces angiogenic genes in cultured 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and ex vivo preadipocytes...
July 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wenyan Fu, Yang Liu, Christina Sun, Hang Yin
Aging of white adipose tissue (WAT) is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity, which contributes to whole-body glucose intolerance. WAT aging in mice impairs cold-induced beige adipocyte recruitment (beiging), which has been attributed to the senescence of adipose progenitor cells. Tumor suppressor p53 has also been implicated in WAT aging. However, whether p53-related cellular aging in mature white adipocytes is causative of age-impaired WAT beiging remains unknown. It is also unclear whether transient p53 inhibition can rescue WAT beiging...
July 27, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Sandra A Rebuffat, Emmanuelle Sidot, Caroline Guzman, Jacqueline Azay-Milhau, Bernard Jover, Anne-Dominique Lajoix, Sylvie Peraldi-Roux
Inflammatory factors produced and secreted by adipose tissue, in particular peri-pancreatic adipose tissue (P-WAT), may influence pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Using the ZDF Rat model of diabetes, we show the presence of infiltrating macrophage (ED1 staining) on pancreatic tissue and P-WAT in the pre-diabetes stage of the disease. Then, when the T2D is installed, infiltrating cells decreased. Meanwhile, the P-WAT conditioned-medium composition, in terms of inflammatory factors, varies during the onset of the T2D...
July 23, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Georgios K Paschos, Soon Yew Tang, Katherine N Theken, Xuanwen Li, Ioannis Verginadis, Damien Lekkas, Lindsay Herman, Weili Yan, John Lawson, Garret A FitzGerald
Previous studies using genetic mouse models have implicated COX-2 in the browning of white adipose tissues (WATs) in mice during cold exposure. However, COX-2 is important during development, and conventional knockouts (KOs) exhibit many defects, conditioned by genetic background. Similarly, the physiological relevance of transgenic overexpression of COX-2 is questionable. In the present study, we utilized mice in which COX-2 was deleted postnatally, bypassing the consequences of enzyme deficiency during development...
July 24, 2018: Cell Reports
Xue Han, Jielong Guo, Yilin You, Manwen Yin, Juan Liang, Chenglong Ren, Jicheng Zhan, Weidong Huang
Anthocyanins have a positive effect on resistant obesity; however they cannot usually be absorbed directly but, instead, are metabolized by gut microbiota. This study will examine the effects and the mechanism of vanillic acid on the prevention of obesity induced by diet, which is one of the anthocyanin metabolites. We fed C57BL/6J mice vanillic acid supplements in a high fat and high fructose diet for 16 weeks. Body weight, fat pat weight, and food and water intake were monitored. Glucose homeostasis was assessed with a glucose or insulin tolerance test...
July 25, 2018: Food & Function
Eliete Dalla Corte Frantz, Eliza Prodel, Igor Dutra Braz, Isabele Gomes Giori, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, D'Angelo Carlo Magliano, Antonio Claudio Lucas Nobrega
Overactivation of the renin-angiotensin (Ang) system (RAS) increases the classical arm (Ang-converting enzyme (ACE)/Ang II/Ang type 1 receptor (AT1R)) to the detriment of the protective arm (ACE2/Ang 1-7/Mas receptor (MasR)). The components of the RAS are present locally in white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle, which act co-operatively, through specific mediators, in response to pathophysiological changes. In WAT, up-regulation of the classical arm promotes lipogenesis and reduces lipolysis and adipogenesis, leading to adipocyte hypertrophy and lipid storage, which are related to insulin resistance and increased inflammation...
July 31, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
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