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Leishmania OR leishmaniasis

Abdelhafeiz Mahamoud, Yousif Awad, Hussam Ali Osman, Atif El Agib, Rubens Riscala Madi, Saul J Semiao-Santos, Abdallah El Harith
PURPOSE: Based on world-wide evaluation, the direct agglutination test (DAT) is now generally acknowledged as one of the leading diagnostics for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). To enhance more routine and mass application, but simultaneously ensure safety to both user and environment, further improvements need to be introduced. METHODOLOGY: In the current format, a two-sixfold titre decrease was observed due to using formaldehyde as an antigen preservative in DAT. Successful formaldehyde preservative exclusion was achieved by increasing its concentration to 3 % (wt/vol) for conserving promastigote status after β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME) treatment and repeating exposure of the parasite to the fixative after Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Touraj Miandoabi, Fariborz Bahrami, Vahideh Moein Vaziri, Soheila Ajdary
Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a serious public health problem in many tropical countries. The infection is caused by a protozoan parasite of Leishmania genus transmitted by Phlebotominae sandflies. In the present study, we constructed a eukaryotic expression vector to produce a fusion protein containing LmSTI1 from Leishmania major (L. major) and PpSP42 from Phlebotomus papatasi (Ph. papatasi) . In future studies we will test this construct as a DNA vaccine against zoonotic CL...
October 2018: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Nivea F Luz, Ricardo Khouri, Johan Van Weyenbergh, Dalila L Zanette, Paloma P Fiuza, Almerio Noronha, Aldina Barral, Viviane S Boaventura, Deboraci B Prates, Francis Ka-Ming Chan, Bruno B Andrade, Valeria M Borges
Leishmania braziliensis infection causes skin ulcers, typically found in localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL). This tissue pathology associates with different modalities of cell necrosis, which are subverted by the parasite as a survival strategy. Herein we examined the participation of necroptosis, a specific form of programmed necrosis, in LCL lesions and found reduced RIPK3 and PGAM5 gene expression compared to normal skin. Assays using infected macrophages demonstrated that the parasite deactivates both RIPK3 and MLKL expression and that these molecules are important to control the intracellular L...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Satish Chandra Pandey, Anubhuti Jha, Awanish Kumar, Mukesh Samant
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most devastating diseases of the tropical region caused by protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. So far, there is no effective drug and vaccine available against this fatal disease. The DEAD-box RNA helicase is quite essential for the RNA processing, amastigote differentiation and infectivity in Leishmania. In this study, L. donovani DEAD-box RNA helicase (LdHel-67) was evaluated as a potential drug target against VL. Using in-silico approach we have identified ligands that can specifically bind to this protein by using various application of Schrodinger (Maestro, version 10...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Felipe Dutra Rêgo, Getúlio Dornelles Souza, Luiz Fernando Pedroso Dornelles, José Dilermando Andrade Filho
Phlebotomine sand flies are hematophagous insect vectors of the protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania Ross, 1903 (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatida) that infect mammals, including humans, causing leishmaniasis. In Porto Alegre, Brazil, three autochthonous cases of human visceral leishmaniasis were reported in 2016 through 2017. We analyzed for the presence of Leishmania DNA in sand flies collected at the neighborhood of Agronomia, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Phlebotomine sand flies were collected at three sites from October 2014 to September 2015...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Prakash Ghosh, Md Golam Hasnain, Faria Hossain, Md Anik Ashfaq Khan, Rajashree Chowdhury, Khaledul Faisal, Moshtaq Ahmed Mural, James Baker, Rupen Nath, Debashis Ghosh, Shomik Maruf, Mohammad Sohel Shomik, Rashidul Haque, Greg Matlashewski, Shinjiro Hamano, Malcolm S Duthie, Dinesh Mondal
Background: Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a sequel to visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is found in VL-endemic countries including Bangladesh. Because of these enigmatic cases, the success of the National Kala-azar Elimination Program is under threat. To date, diagnostic methods for PKDL cases in endemic regions have been limited to clinical examination and rK39 test or microscopy, and a suitable and accurate alternative method is needed. In this study, we investigated the application of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a potential method for diagnosis of PKDL in comparison with microscopy...
October 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Laura Antonio-Herrera, Oscar Badillo-Godinez, Oscar Medina-Contreras, Araceli Tepale-Segura, Alberto García-Lozano, Lourdes Gutierrez-Xicotencatl, Gloria Soldevila, Fernando R Esquivel-Guadarrama, Juliana Idoyaga, Laura C Bonifaz
CD4+ T cells are major players in the immune response against several diseases; including AIDS, leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, influenza and cancer. Their activation has been successfully achieved by administering antigen coupled with antibodies, against DC-specific receptors in combination with adjuvants. Unfortunately, most of the adjuvants used so far in experimental models are unsuitable for human use. Therefore, human DC-targeted vaccination awaits the description of potent, yet nontoxic adjuvants. The nontoxic cholera B subunit (CTB) can be safely used in humans and it has the potential to activate CD4+ T cell responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Michael Afolayan, Radhakrishnan Srivedavyasasri, Olayinka T Asekun, Oluwole B Familoni, Abayomi Orishadipe, Fazila Zulfiqar, Mohamed A Ibrahim, Samir A Ross
Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redhead. (Leguminosae) is used for various medicinal purposes in African countries. Phytochemical investigation of P. thonningii yielded two compounds newly isolated from natural sources, 2 β -methoxyclovan-9 α -ol ( 1 ), and methyl- ent -3 β -hydroxylabd-8(17)-en-15-oate ( 2 ), along with 14 known compounds ( 3 - 16 ). Compounds 1 and 4 (alepterolic acid) showed potential selectivity towards Trypanosoma brucei brucei with IC50 7.89 and 3.42 μM, respectively. Compound 2 showed activity towards T...
October 2018: Medicinal Chemistry Research
Abhishek Subramanian, Ram Rup Sarkar
The hurdles in drug and vaccine development pipelines for leishmaniasis, a complex, multifaceted disease, are largely due to the digenetic lifecycle, differential clinical manifestations of the parasite, and the incomplete understanding of its adaptations within its hosts. Here, we discuss the distinct computational and experimental techniques employed to identify the species and stage-specific adaptive mechanisms at different levels of biological organization, the progress made so far, and limitations in comprehending leishmaniasis as a systems biology disease...
October 11, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Jay Prakash, Sunita Yadav, Gundappa Saha, Adarsh Kumar Chiranjivi, Suresh Kumar, Santanu Sasidharan, Prakash Saudagar, Vikash Kumar Dubey
Trypanothione based redox metabolism is unique to the Trypanosomatida family. Despite extensive studies on redox metabolism of Leishmania parasites, a prominent question of why Leishmania adopt this unique redox pathway remains elusive. We have episomally expressed human glutathione reductase (HuGR) in Leishmania donovani (LdGR+) and investigated its effect. LdGR+ strain has slower growth compared to the wild type (Ld) indicating decreased survival ability of the strain. Further, LdGR+ strain showed enhanced accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and more sensitivity to the anti-leishmanial drug, Miltefosine, inferring increased stress level...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Vahid Ajamein, Gilda Eslami, Salman Ahmadian, Ali Khamesipour, Mourad Elloumi
Cutaneous leishmaniosis (CL) is treated with pentavalent antimony (SbV) as a first-line drug, while amphotericin B and paromomycin are potential alternatives in antimonial- resistant isolates. However, the mechanisms of drug resistance remain unclear. The present study analyses the gene expression of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and J-binding protein 1 (JBP1), and J-binding protein 2 (JBP2) in Leishmania major after exposure to drugs in vitro. L. major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) promastigotes were exposed to various concentrations of glucantime, paromomycin and amphotericin B for 72 hours...
2018: Annals of Parasitology
S Sabzevari, G Razmi, A Naghibi, J Khoshnegah
Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania infantum (L. infantum),and its major reservoir hosts are domestic dogs, most of which are asymptomatic. This study aimed to detect L. infantum spp. in asymptomatic stray dogs by molecular and serological methods in Mashhad, Iran, during 2011-12. In this study, 94 asymptomatic stray dogs were randomly selected and their blood samples were collected for indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Furthermore, tissue samples from all the L. infantum seropositive stray dogs were examined using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
December 2017: Archives of Razi Institute
Arijit Bhattacharya, Marc Ouellette
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2018: EBioMedicine
Maria C Ferrufino-Schmidt, Francisco Bravo Puccio, Braulio M Valencia, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Andrea K Boggild, Philip E LeBoit
We read with great interest the article by Sundharkrishnan and North1 in which they compare the expression of CD1a between Old World and New World Leishmania species, and we would like to share our experience and thoughts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 12, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Rita Velez, Tatiana Spitzova, Ester Domenech, Laura Willen, Jordi Cairó, Petr Volf, Montserrat Gállego
BACKGROUND: Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is an important zoonotic parasitic disease, endemic in the Mediterranean basin. In this region, transmission of Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of CanL, is through the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. Therefore, monitoring host-vector contact represents an important epidemiological tool, and could be used to assess the effectiveness of vector-control programmes in endemic areas. Previous studies have shown that canine antibodies against the saliva of phlebotomine sand flies are specific markers of exposure to Leishmania vectors...
October 11, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Danielle H Demers, Matthew A Knestrick, Renee Fleeman, Rahmy Tawfik, Ala Azhari, Ashley Souza, Brian Vesely, Mandy Netherton, Rashmi Gupta, Beatrice L Colon, Christopher A Rice, Mario A Rodríguez-Pérez, Kyle H Rohde, Dennis E Kyle, Lindsey N Shaw, Bill J Baker
There is an acute need for new and effective agents to treat infectious diseases. We conducted a screening program to assess the potential of mangrove-derived endophytic fungi as a source of new antibiotics. Fungi cultured in the presence and absence of small molecule epigenetic modulators were screened against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the ESKAPE panel of bacterial pathogens, as well as two eukaryotic infective agents, Leishmania donovani and Naegleria fowleri . By comparison of bioactivity data among treatments and targets, trends became evident, such as the result that more than 60% of active extracts were revealed to be selective to a single target...
October 10, 2018: Marine Drugs
Alexei Yu Kostygov, Anzhelika Butenko, Vyacheslav Yurchenko, Mohammad Hossein Motazedian
We would like to draw the attention of the research community to a recently published paper on identification of monoxenous trypanosomatids of the genus Crithidia from lesions of immunocompetent patients with suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran (1). We disagree with the authors' interpretation of the data and posit an alternative explanation. Their study does not contain enough information to justify the conclusions they arrive at in their paper. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
October 11, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Genimar R Julião, Shênia P C Novo, Claudia M Ríos-Velásquez, Sylvain J M Desmoulière, Sérgio L B Luz, Felipe A C Pessoa
Roads and highways can affect the spread of insect-borne diseases by limiting or amplifying the spatiotemporal distribution of vectors, pathogens, and hosts, which can, in turn, lead to the creation of a nidus of infection. The aim of this study was to compare the diversity (richness and abundance) of phlebotomine sand flies in household and forest edge environments found along two different segments of an Amazonian highway. Sampling was conducted along the northern and southern portions of highway BR-319, in Amazonas State, Brazil...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Cristian José da Silva, Cristiane Batista Mattos, Kátia Paula Felipin, Hélen Paula de Jesus Silva, Lilian Motta Cantanhêde, Renato Porrozzi, Jansen Fernandes Medeiros, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos Ferreira
This report describes the first autochthonous case of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Rondônia, northern Brazil. A canine resident of the municipality of Cacoal, with clinical signs and symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis, was treated by a veterinarian. Samples were analyzed by a reference laboratory. Dual-path platform (DPP) assay, indirect immunofluorescence technique (IIT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), isolation in a culture medium, and direct parasitological analysis were performed...
September 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Raizza Barros Sousa Silva, Maurina Lima Porto, Werona de Oliveira Barbosa, Heitor Cândido de Souza, Nedja Fernanda Dos Santos Pinto Marques, Sérgio Santos Azevedo, Paulo Paes de Andrade, Marcia Almeida de Melo
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with canine visceral leishmaniasis in Paraíba State. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 411 dogs in four municipalities of Paraíba State. The seroprevalence was assessed by using ELISA. RESULTS: The seroprevalence ranged from 7.2% to 20%. The risk factors that were associated with the disease were the presence of ticks and contact with other animals...
September 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
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