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Leishmania OR leishmaniasis

Clare Halliday, Karen Billington, Ziyin Wang, Samuel Dean, Jack Daniel Sunter, Richard John Wheeler
The kinetoplastids Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania mexicana are eukaryotes with a highly structured cellular organisation that is reproduced with great fidelity in each generation. The pattern of signal from a fluorescently tagged protein can define the specific structure/organelle that this protein localises to, and can be extremely informative in phenotype analysis in experimental perturbations, life cycle tracking, post-genomic assays and functional analysis of organelles. Using the vast coverage of protein subcellular localisations provided by the TrypTag project, an ongoing project to determine the localisation of every protein encoded in the T...
December 11, 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Andrés Uribe-Restrepo, Alexandra Cossio, Mayur M Desai, Diana Dávalos, María Del Mar Castro
BACKGROUND: Case management in children with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is mainly based on studies performed in adults. We aimed to determine the efficacy and harms of interventions to treat CL in children. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials and cohort studies, assessing treatments of CL in children (≤12 years old). We performed structured searches in PubMed, CENTRAL, LILACS, SciELO, Scopus, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), clinicaltrials...
December 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Nivea F Luz, Thiago DeSouza-Vieira, Waldione De Castro, Aislan Carvalho Vivarini, Lais Pereira, Riam Rocha França, Paulo S Silveira-Mattos, Diego L Costa, Clarissa Teixeira, Claudio Meneses, Viviane S Boaventura, Camila I de Oliveira, Ulisses Gazos Lopes, Naomi Aronson, Bruno B Andrade, Claudia I Brodskyn, Jesus G Valenzuela, Shaden Kamhawi, Valeria M Borges
Sand flies bite mammalian hosts to obtain a blood meal, driving changes in the host inflammatory response that support the establishment of Leishmania infection. This effect is partially attributed to components of sand fly saliva, which are able to recruit and activate leukocytes. Our group has shown that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) favors Leishmania survival in infected cells by reducing inflammatory responses. Here, we show that exposure to sand fly bites is associated with induction of HO-1 in vivo . Histopathological analyses of skin specimens from human volunteers experimentally exposed to sand fly bites revealed that HO-1 and Nrf2 are produced at bite sites in the skin...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
E Rojas Mora, A Garrido Ríos, B Echeverría García, J Borbujo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 10, 2018: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
Ali Medbouhi, Aura Tintaru, Claire Beaufay, Jean-Valère Naubron, Nassim Djabou, Jean Costa, Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq, Alain Muselli
The chemical composition of a hexanic extract of Eryngium campestre , obtained from its aerial parts, was investigated by GC-FID, GC/MS, HRMS, NMR and VCD analyses. The main compounds were germacrene D (23.6%), eudesma-4(15)-7-dien-1-β-ol (8.2%) and falcarindiol (9.4%), which are associated with a new uncommon and naturally found 17-membered ring lactone. This 17-membered ring features conjugated acetylenic bonds, named campestrolide (23.0%). The crude extract showed moderate antitrypanosomal ( Trypanosoma brucei brucei ), antileishmanial ( Leishmania mexicana mexicana ) and anticancer (cancerous macrophage-like murine cells) activities, and also displayed cytotoxicity, (human normal fibroblasts) in similar concentration ranges (IC50 = 3...
December 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Canjun Zheng, Jingying Fu, Zeng Li, Gang Lin, Dong Jiang, Xiao-Nong Zhou
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains a serious public health problem in China. To explore the temporal, spatial, and spatiotemporal characteristics of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the spatial and spatiotemporal clustering distribution and their relationships with the surrounding geographic environmental factors were analyzed. In this study, the average nearest-neighbor distance (ANN), Ripley's K-function and Moran's I statistics were used to evaluate spatial autocorrelation in the VL distribution of the existing case patterns...
December 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Richa Arya, Bhaskar Sharma, Chetna Dhembla, Ravi Kant Pal, Ashok Kumar Patel, Monica Sundd, Biplab Ghosh, Ravindra D Makde, Suman Kundu
Acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) play crucial roles in the biosynthesis of fatty acids, non-ribosomal polypeptides and polyketides. The three-dimensional NMR structure of Leishmania major holo-LmACP, belonging to the type II pathway, has been reported previously, but the structure of its apo-form and its conformational differences with the holo-form remain to be explored. Here we report the crystal structures of apo-LmACP (wild-type and S37A mutant) at 2.0 Å resolution and compare their key features with the structures of holo-LmACP (wild-type) and other type II ACPs from Escherichia coli and Plasmodium falciparum...
December 10, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Proteins and proteomics
Srinivasa P S Rao, Michael P Barrett, Glenn Dranoff, Christopher J Faraday, Claudio R Gimpelewicz, Asrat Hailu, Catherine L Jones, John M Kelly, Janis K Lazdins-Helds, Pascal Mäser, Jose Mengel, Jeremy C Mottram, Charles E Mowbray, David L Sacks, Phillip Scott, Gerald F Späth, Rick L Tarleton, Jonathan M Spector, Thierry T Diagana
Kinetoplastid parasites have caused human disease for millennia. Significant achievements have been made toward developing new treatments for leishmaniasis (particularly on the Indian subcontinent) and for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). Moreover, the sustained decrease in the incidence of HAT has made the prospect of elimination a tantalizing reality. Despite the gains, no new chemical or biological entities to treat kinetoplastid diseases have been registered in more than three decades, and more work is needed to discover safe and effective therapies for patients with Chagas disease and leishmaniasis...
December 13, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Serhat Sirekbasan, Erdal Polat
Background/aim: Leishmaniasis is a disease group carried by Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia sand flies infected with Leishmania and is mostly observed in rural areas. In this study, using high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA), we aim to identify the active types of leishmaniasis, which are inadequately identified by classical methods. Materials and methods: Samples of 85 patients were examined in the study. Six of the patients were suspected of having visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and 79 cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL)...
December 12, 2018: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Helen Ashwin, Karin Seifert, Sarah Forrester, Najmeeyah Brown, Sandy MacDonald, Sally James, Dimitris Lagos, Jon Timmis, Jeremy Mottram, Simon L Croft, Paul M Kaye
Background : Human visceral leishmaniasis, caused by infection with Leishmania donovani or L. infantum, is a potentially fatal disease affecting 50,000-90,000 people yearly in 75 disease endemic countries, with more than 20,000 deaths reported. Experimental models of infection play a major role in understanding parasite biology, host-pathogen interaction, disease pathogenesis, and parasite transmission. In addition, they have an essential role in the identification and pre-clinical evaluation of new drugs and vaccines...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Sita Nirupama Nishtala, Avish Arora, Jorge Reyes, Myles H Akabas
Infection with Plasmodium species parasites causes malaria. Plasmodium parasites are purine auxotrophic. They import purines via an equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT). In P. falciparum , the most virulent species, the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (PfENT1) represents the primary purine uptake pathway. This transporter is a potential target for the development of antimalarial drugs. In the absence of a high-resolution structure for either PfENT1 or a homologous ENT, we used the substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) to investigate the membrane-spanning domain structure of PfENT1 to identify potential inhibitor-binding sites...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Neoklis Apostolopoulos, Athanasia Mitropoulou, Nina Thom, Andreas Moritz
Canine leishmaniasis is an emerging infection with increasing importance because the main vector also exists in Germany and autochthonous infections have been described. In this article we present the latest information available regarding therapy and prevention of this disease. Allopurinol-resistant Leishmania infantum strains were isolated from dogs which experienced recurrent disease while being treated with allopurinol, highlighting the need for alternative treatment options. Differing results of long-term studies on the efficacy of miltefosine in combination with allopurinol in comparison to meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol can affect the selection of the treatment protocol...
October 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Guy Mollett, Bruno C Bremer Hinckel, Tapan Bhattacharyya, Tegwen Marlais, Om Prakash Singh, Pascal Mertens, Andrew K Falconar, Sayda El-Safi, Shyam Sundar, Michael A Miles
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by the Leishmania donovani complex, is a fatal neglected tropical disease that is targeted for elimination in India, Nepal and Bangladesh. Improved diagnostic tests are required for early case detection and for monitoring outcome of treatment. Previous investigations using Leishmania lysate antigen demonstrated that IgG1 response is a potential indicator of clinical status after chemotherapy. Methods: IgG1 or IgG ELISAs with rK39 or lysate antigens, and novel IgG1 rK39 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were assessed with Indian VL serum samples from the following clinical groups: paired pre- and post-chemotherapy (deemed cured); relapsed; other infectious diseases, and endemic healthy controls...
December 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Sandra González-de la Fuente, Esther Camacho, Ramón Peiró-Pastor, Alberto Rastrojo, Fernando Carrasco-Ramiro, Begoña Aguado, Jose M Requena/
Leishmania braziliensis is the etiological agent of American mucosal leishmaniasis, one of the most severe clinical forms of leishmaniasis. Here, we report the assembly of the L. braziliensis (M2904) genome into 35 continuous chromosomes. Also, the annotation of 8395 genes is provided. The public availability of this information will contribute to a better knowledge of this pathogen and help in the search for vaccines and novel drug targets aimed to control the disease caused by this Leishmania species.
December 10, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Annhymariet Torrellas, Elizabeth Ferrer, Israel Cruz, Héctor de Lima, Olinda Delgado, José Carrero Rangel, José Arturo Bravo, Carmen Chicharro, Ivonne Pamela Llanes-Acevedo, Michael A Miles, María Dora Feliciangeli
BACKGROUND The transmission routes for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) are in flux, so studies examining its transmission in humans, mammalian hosts, and sand fly vectors are urgently needed. OBJECTIVES The aim of this work was understand the epidemiological cycles of Leishmania spp., which causes ACL in the Andean Region of Venezuela, by identifying the Leishmania and the sand fly species involved in human and dog infections. METHODS Thirty-one biopsies from patients in Mérida and Táchira states with suspected ACL were studied by both parasitological tests (cultures and hamster inoculation) and a molecular test [Internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)]...
December 6, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Pamela Martínez-Orellana, Sara Montserrat-Sangrà, Paulina Quirola-Amores, Noemí González, Laia Solano-Gallego
Activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) has been shown to play an important role in leishmaniosis by enhancing the parasite specific immune responses to control infection. However, the role of TLR agonists has not been studied in detail in dogs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of TLR3, TLR4, and TLR7 agonists (TLR3a, TLR4a, and TLR7a) alone or in combination with Leishmania infantum antigen (LSA) on TNF- α and IL-6 production in blood from dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis (CanL)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Dawit Gebremichael
Leishmaniasis is one of the growing public health challenges in Ethiopia and estimated over 7,000 and 50,000 new cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) per year, respectively. The aim of the review is to address zoonotic impact and epidemiological changes of leishmaniasis in Ethiopia. VL is caused by L. donovani and it is endemic in many parts of the country with one third of the country's landmass is highly suitable for VL. CL is principally caused by L. aethiopica . CL is endemic and widespread in the highland of Ethiopia...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
Saeedeh Farajzadeh, Rahim Ahmadi, Saman Mohammadi, Abbas Pardakhty, Maryam Khalili, Mahin Aflatoonian
Current treatment modalities in cutaneous leishmaniasis have low efficacy and high toxicity as well as high rate of resistance to treatment. In this study, for the first time we decided to evaluate efficacy of intralesional Glucantime plus niosomal zinc sulphate in comparison with intralesional Glucantime plus cryotherapy in the treatment of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis. This is a case-control study on 64 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kerman-Iran. Patients were categorized in 2 groups A and B whom were treated with weekly intralesional meglumine antimonite plus twice daily niosomal topical zinc sulphate versus weekly intralesional Glucantime plus every other week cryotherapy, respectively...
December 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Mojtaba Salimi, Nahid Jesri, Mohammad Javanbakht, Leyli Zanjirani Farahani, Mohammad Reza Shirzadi, Abedin Saghafipour
Geographic information system (GIS) nowadays is one of the most helpful epidemiological tools for identifying the high risk areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). This study was conducted to determine the spatio-temporal distribution of CL in Qom province during 2009-2017. In a cross-sectional study, for the survey of spatial dispersion of CL in the study region, the incidence rate of disease was calculated in all of 23 villages during 2009-2017. Then, spatial analysis of the infection was performed using two methods: spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I) in order to determine the special distribution pattern of disease and Kriging method to reveal high risk areas for disease...
December 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Mohsen Kalantari, Mohammad Hossein Motazedian, Qasem Asgari, Zahra Soltani, Aboozar Soltani, Kourosh Azizi
Phlebotominae sand flies are involved in human diseases, such as leishmaniasis, and cause a considerable number of deaths every year. Besides, some of them have been identified as allergen sources or the potential mechanical vectors related to nosocomial infections. The present study aimed to assess the monthly activity, fauna, and detection of protozoan agents in phlebotomine sand flies using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in re-emerging zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis foci of Shiraz and Kharameh in Fars province, southern Iran during 2016-2017...
December 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
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