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Circadian depression

Changjiu Zhao, Stephen C Gammie
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (Nr1d1) (also known as Rev-erb alpha) has been linked to circadian rhythm regulation, mood-related behavior, and disorders associated with social deficits. Recent work from our laboratory found striking decreases in Nr1d1 in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the maternal condition and indirect evidence that Nr1d1 was interacting with numerous addiction and reward-related genes to modulate social reward. In this study, we applied our insights from the maternal state to non-parental adult mice to determine whether decreases in Nr1d1 expression in the NAc via adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors and short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene knockdown were sufficient to modulate social behaviors and mood-related behaviors...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Rébecca Robillard, Joanne S Carpenter, Naomi L Rogers, Sarah Fares, Ashlee B Grierson, Daniel F Hermens, Sharon L Naismith, Sharon J Mullin, Kristy-Lee Feilds, Nick Glozier, Elizabeth M Scott, Ian B Hickie
Abnormalities in circadian rhythms have been reported in people with mood disorders, but these abnormalities are marked by considerable inter-individual variability. This study aimed to identify pathophysiological subgroups on the basis of circadian markers and evaluate how these subgroups relate to psychiatric profiles. Thirty-five young adults (18-31 years old) receiving clinical care for unipolar depressive disorders and 15 healthy controls took part to this study. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Young Mania rating scale were used to evaluate the severity of mood symptoms in participants with depressive disorders...
October 9, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Lale Gönenir Erbay, İsmail Reyhani, Süheyla Ünal, Cemal Özcan, Tuba Özgöçer, Cihat Uçar, Sedat Yıldız
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the effects of psychodrama group therapy on the level of stress, anxiety and depression of the group members, and the biological markers of stress. The aim of this study test cortisol level as a biological reflection of some mental characteristics gained by the psychodrama method in coping with stress. METHODS: Depressive patients aged between 18 and 65 years, who diagnosed with depression according to DSM-5, without psychiatric comorbidity, who do not use drugs and were available for psychodrama were enrolled into the study...
October 11, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Fanny Söderquist, Isak Sundberg, Mia Ramklint, Rebecka Widerström, Per M Hellström, Janet L Cunningham
OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is not completely understood, although we do know that patients with IBS have a high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity (mainly depression and anxiety disorders). Melatonin, produced in the gastrointestinal tract, influences gut motility. Psychiatric conditions are associated with circadian disturbances in peripheral melatonin levels. This study aimed to investigate associations between daytime salivary melatonin and gastrointestinal symptoms in young adult psychiatric patients...
October 6, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
O Scheyer, A Rahman, H Hristov, C Berkowitz, R S Isaacson, R Diaz Brinton, L Mosconi
Along with advanced age and apolipoprotein E (APOE)-4 genotype, female sex is a major risk factor for developing late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Considering that AD pathology begins decades prior to clinical symptoms, the higher risk in women cannot simply be accounted for by their greater longevity as compared to men. Recent investigation into sex-specific pathophysiological mechanisms behind AD risk has implicated the menopause transition (MT), a midlife neuroendocrine transition state unique to females...
2018: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
Yang Yang, I-Wen Wang, Mark Turrentine, Meijing Wang
BACKGROUND: Cardioprotection provided by estrogen has been recognized for many years. It is noteworthy that most of these studies employ a means of preinjury application in experimental research and the preventive usage in clinical studies. Compared to pretreatment, postischemic administration of estrogen will be more practical in treating myocardial ischemia. On the other hand, defect in circadian clock gene period2 (Per2) has been shown to aggravate ischemia-induced heart damage. Given that Per2 expression decreases as a consequence of menopause, in this study, we aim to determine (1) potential improvement of myocardial function by postischemic administration of 17β-estradiol (E2) using an in vivo mouse myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model and (2) the role of E2 in regulating myocardial Per2 expression following I/R...
November 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Beatrix Feigl, Govinda Ojha, Leanne Hides, Andrew J Zele
Background: Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells (ipRGCs) signal non-imaging forming effects of environmental light for circadian phoentrainment, the pupil light reflex, and mood regulation. In seasonal affective disorder, ipRGC dysfunction is thought to cause abberant transmission of the external illumination for photoentrainment. It is not known if patients with non-seasonal depression have abnormal melanospin mediated signaling and/or irregular environmental light exposure...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Jeremy Boo, Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Michiko Ueda
BACKGROUND: Previous research on hourly diurnal variation in suicide frequency has often suffered from geographical and time-span limitations in the data. We studied diurnal and daily variations of suicide by analyzing a large dataset based on the national death registry in Japan between 1974 and 2014. METHODS: The diurnal and daily patterns of 873,268 suicide deaths over 41 years were examined by sex and age group through Poisson regression and visual inspection...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jessica R Lunsford-Avery, Matthew M Engelhard, Ann Marie Navar, Scott H Kollins
Sleep disturbances, including insufficient sleep duration and circadian misalignment, confer risk for cardiometabolic disease. Less is known about the association between the regularity of sleep/wake schedules and cardiometabolic risk. This study evaluated the external validity of a new metric, the Sleep Regularity Index (SRI), among older adults (n = 1978; mean age 68.7 ± 9.2), as well as relationships between the SRI and cardiometabolic risk using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)...
September 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Massimo Fioranelli, Anna G Bottaccioli, Francesco Bottaccioli, Maria Bianchi, Miriam Rovesti, Maria G Roccia
Recent findings have deeply changed the current view of coronary heart disease, going beyond the simplistic model of atherosclerosis as a passive process involving cholesterol build-up in the subintimal space of the arteries until their final occlusion and/or thrombosis and instead focusing on the key roles of inflammation and the immune system in plaque formation and destabilization. Chronic inflammation is a typical hallmark of cardiac disease, worsening outcomes irrespective of serum cholesterol levels. Low-grade chronic inflammation correlates with higher incidence of several non-cardiac diseases, including depression, and chronic depression is now listed among the most important cardiovascular risk factors for poor prognosis among patients with myocardial infarction...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Eunsoo Moon, Byeong-Moo Choe, Je-Min Park, Young In Chung, Byung Dae Lee, Jae-Hong Park, Young Min Lee, Hee Jeong Jeong, YongJun Cheon, Yoonmi Choi, Jeonghyun Park
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies reported the delayed recovery group after circadian rhythm disruption in mice showed higher quinpiroleinduced locomotor activity. This study aimed to compare not only Protein Kinase C (PKC) activities in frontal, striatal, hippocampus and cerebellum, but also relative PKC activity ratios among brain regions according to recovery of circadian rhythm. METHODS: The circadian rhythm disruption protocol was applied to eight-week-old twenty male Institute Cancer Research mice...
September 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Yu-Er Wu, Ryosuke Enoki, Yoshiaki Oda, Zhi-Li Huang, Ken-Ichi Honma, Sato Honma
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock in mammals, sends major output signals to the subparaventricular zone (SPZ) and further to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the neural mechanism of which is largely unknown. In this study, the intracellular calcium levels were measured continuously in cultured hypothalamic slices containing the PVN, SPZ, and SCN. We detected ultradian calcium rhythms in both the SPZ-PVN and SCN regions with periods of 0.5-4.0 hours, the frequency of which depended on the local circadian rhythm in the SPZ-PVN region...
October 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Stephen P Becker, Jessica A Lienesch
OBJECTIVE: This study examined nighttime media use in relation to sleep problems and anxiety/depression symptoms in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Participants were 81 adolescents (69% male) ages 13-17 with ADHD. Adolescents completed measures assessing pubertal development, nighttime media use, circadian preference, and daytime sleepiness. Both adolescents and parents completed measures of sleep duration, sleep problems, and internalizing symptoms...
July 29, 2018: Sleep Medicine
E M McGlashan, L S Nandam, P Vidafar, D R Mansfield, S M W Rajaratnam, S W Cain
RATIONALE: Disturbances of the circadian system are common in depression. Though they typically subside when depression is treated with antidepressants, the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Despite being the most commonly prescribed class of antidepressants, the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on the human circadian clock is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of the SSRI citalopram (30 mg) on the sensitivity of the human circadian system to light...
September 15, 2018: Psychopharmacology
S K Tahajjul Taufique, Abhilash Prabhat, Vinod Kumar
Artificial light at night induces circadian disruptions and causes cognitive impairment and mood disorders; yet very little is known about the neural and molecular correlates of these effects in diurnal animals. We manipulated the night environment and examined cellular and molecular changes in hippocampus, the brain region involved in cognition and mood, of Indian house crows (Corvus splendens) exposed to 12 h light (150 lux): 12 h darkness (0 lux). Diurnal corvids are an ideal model species with cognitive abilities at par with mammals...
September 15, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Kwo Wei David Ho, Shizhong Han, Jakob V Nielsen, Dubravka Jancic, Benjamin Hing, Jess Fiedorowicz, Myrna M Weissman, Douglas F Levinson, James B Potash
Family and twin studies have shown a genetic component to seasonal affective disorder (SAD). A number of candidate gene studies have examined the role of variations within biologically relevant genes in SAD susceptibility, but few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed to date. The authors aimed to identify genetic risk variants for SAD through GWAS. The authors performed a GWAS for SAD in 1380 cases and 2937 controls of European-American (EA) origin, selected from samples for GWAS of major depressive disorder and of bipolar disorder...
September 14, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Shuangwu Liu, Dongchao Shen, Hongfei Tai, Ning Su, Qingyun Ding, Hanhui Fu, Kang Zhang, Zhili Wang, Mingsheng Liu, Yan Huang, Liying Cui
Objective: To evaluate the frequency and clinical features of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in a group of Chinese patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: 109 Patients included in this study fulfilled the revised El Escorial diagnostic criteria for clinically definite, probable and lab-supported probable ALS, and a group of 109 control subjects was matched for age and sex to the ALS group. Disease severity was assessed by the revised ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R). The diagnosis of RLS was made according to the criteria of the International RLS Study Group...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Hiroshi Kawai, Natsumi Kodaira, Chika Tanaka, Takuya Ishibashi, Naomi Kudo, Yoichi Kawashima, Atsushi Mitsumoto
The pathogenesis and therapeutics of depression are linked to the operation of the circadian system. Here, we studied the chronopharmacological action of a tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine. Male adult Wistar-Hannover rats were administered imipramine acutely or chronically in the morning or in the evening. The antidepressant action of imipramine was analyzed using the forced swim test (FST). A single dose of imipramine (30 mg/kg) in the morning, but not in the evening, reduced immobility and increased climbing in the FST...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Circadian Rhythms
Ramanujam Karthikeyan, David Warren Spence, Gregory M Brown, Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal
In recent years, there has been an increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and depression across the world. This growing public health problem has produced an increasing socioeconomic burden to the populations of all affected countries. Despite an awareness by public health officials and medical researchers of the costs associated with these diseases, there still remain many aspects of how they develop that are not understood. In this article, we propose that the circadian clock could be a factor that coordinates both the neurobehavioral and metabolic processes that underlie depression and T2DM...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Circadian Rhythms
Elaine M Boland, Kassondra Bertulis, Shirley H Leong, Michael E Thase, Philip R Gehrman
BACKGROUND: The presence of insomnia in the context of depression is linked to a number of poor outcomes including reduced treatment response, increased likelihood of relapse, and greater functional impairment. Given the frequent co-occurrence of depression and insomnia, research into systems and processes relevant to both disorders, specifically reward processing and circadian rhythm disruption, may help parse this complex comorbidity. METHODS: A pilot study was conducted on a sample of 10 veterans with clinically significant depression and insomnia symptoms...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
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