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Stem cell treatments

Makoto Nakagawa, Shuhei Fujita, Takuo Katsumoto, Kazutsune Yamagata, Yoko Ogawara, Ayuna Hattori, Yuki Kagiyama, Daisuke Honma, Kazushi Araki, Tatsuya Inoue, Ayako Kato, Koichiro Inaki, Chisa Wada, Yoshimasa Ono, Masahide Yamamoto, Osamu Miura, Yasuharu Nakashima, Issay Kitabayashi
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable hematological malignancy caused by accumulation of abnormal clonal plasma cells. Despite the recent development of novel therapies, relapse of MM eventually occurs due to a remaining population of drug-resistant myeloma stem cells. Side population (SP) cells exhibit cancer stem cell-like characteristics in MM; thus targeting these cells is a promising strategy to completely cure this malignancy. Here, we showed that SP cells expressed higher levels of enhancer of zeste homolog (EZH) 1 and EZH2, which encode the catalytic subunits of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), than non-SP cells, suggesting that EZH1 as well as EZH2 contributes to the stemness maintenance of the MM cells and that targeting both EZH1/2 is potentially a significant therapeutic approach for eradicating myeloma stem cells...
October 21, 2018: Cancer Science
Sharath Belame Shivakumar, Dinesh Bharti, Raghavendra Baregundi Subbarao, Ju-Mi Park, Young-Bum Son, Imran Ullah, Yong-Ho Choe, Hyeong-Jeong Lee, Bong-Wook Park, Sung-Lim Lee, Gyu-Jin Rho
Following success of pancreatic islet transplantation in the treatment of Type I diabetes mellitus, there is a growing interest in using cell-based treatment approaches. However, severe shortage of donor islets-pancreas impeded the growth, and made researchers to search for an alternative treatment approaches. In this context, recently, stem cell-based therapy has gained more attention. The current study demonstrated that epigenetic modification improves the in vitro differentiation of Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) into pancreatic endocrine-like cells...
October 21, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Cecilia Granéli, Ryan Hicks, Gabriella Brolén, Jane Synnergren, Peter Sartipy
The global burden of diabetes has drastically increased over the past decades and in 2017 approximately 4 million deaths were caused by diabetes and cardiovascular complications. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a common complication of diabetes with early manifestations of diastolic dysfunction and left ventricular hypertrophy with subsequent progression to systolic dysfunction and ultimately heart failure. An in vitro model accurately recapitulating key processes of diabetic cardiomyopathy would provide a useful tool for investigations of underlying disease mechanisms to further our understanding of the disease and thereby potentially advance treatment strategies for patients...
October 20, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Francesca Palandri, Elena Sabattini, Margherita Maffioli
Myelofibrosis (MF) is a Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm associated with bone marrow fibrosis, splenomegaly, a high symptom burden, and poor prognosis. Treatment is based on a risk-adapted approach, with treatment guidelines generally recommending allogeneic stem cell transplant or drug-based therapy for patients with higher-risk or more advanced disease and recommending observation or the "watch-and-wait" strategy for those with lower-risk or early-stage MF. With the advent of targeted therapies, such as the Janus kinase inhibitors, many patients have experienced substantial clinical benefits, including reduction in splenomegaly and symptoms and, in some instances, improvement or stabilization of bone marrow fibrosis and reduction of JAK2 V617F allele burden...
October 20, 2018: Annals of Hematology
Ricardo Melendez-Munoz, Rachel Marchalik, Theresa Jerussi, Dimana Dimitrova, Veronique Nussenblatt, Andrea Beri, Khalid Rai, Jennifer S Wilder, A John Barrett, Minoo Battiwalla, Richard W Childs, Courtney D Fitzhugh, Daniel H Fowler, Terry J Fry, Ronald E Gress, Matthew M Hsieh, Sawa Ito, Elizabeth M Kang, Steven Z Pavletic, Nirali N Shah, John F Tisdale, Juan Gea-Banacloche, Christopher G Kanakry, Jennifer A Kanakry
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. Disruption of or weak reconstitution of virus-specific cellular immune function, such as with certain HCT approaches, poses significant risk for CMV-related complications. The incidence of and risk factors for CMV infection and the nature of CMV disease were evaluated retrospectively among 356 consecutive HCT recipients transplanted at the National Institutes of Health using all graft sources, including bone marrow, peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC), and umbilical cord blood (UCB), and a range of in vivo and ex vivo approaches for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis...
October 18, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Yu-Chieh Wen, Mao-Kuang Du, Meng-Wei Li, Yogi Cheng-Yo Hsuan, Yu-Chin Su, Willie Lin
OBJECTIVE: Previous study has demonstrated that EphA2 is a biomarker of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human placenta or umbilical cord and is able to distinguish MSCs from fibroblasts. In this study, we further examine the potential efficacy of EphA2+ human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hUC-MSCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: MSCs specific markers, EphA2 and CD146 expression on the surface of hUC-MSCs were determined by flow cytometry analysis. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction was used to examine pro-fibrotic gene expression of TGF-β1-stimulated lung fibroblast (MRC-5 cells)...
October 2018: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Cuihong Yang, Xiang Ni, Duo Mao, Chunhua Ren, Jinjian Liu, Yang Gao, Dan Ding, Jianfeng Liu
Ionizing radiation-induced skin injury is a common and severe side effect of radiotherapy suffered by cancer patients. Although the therapy using stem cells has been demonstrated to be effective, fully grasping their role in the repair of radiation-induced skin damage remains challenging owing to the lack of highly reliable cell trackers. Herein, we report the design and synthesis of a highly near-infrared emissive organic nanodots with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristic, which give excellent performance in seeing the fate and regenerative mechanism of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in treatment of radiation-induced skin injury...
October 11, 2018: Biomaterials
Gorka Orive, Edorta Santos-Vizcaino, Jose Luis Pedraz, Rosa Maria Hernandez, Julia E Vela Ramirez, Alireza Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Ali Khademhosseini, Nicholas A Peppas, Dwaine F Emerich
Millions of people worldwide suffer from debilitating, progressive, and often permanent loss of vision without any viable treatment options. The complex physiological barriers of the eye contribute to the difficulty in developing novel therapies by limiting our ability to deliver therapeutics in a sustained and controlled manner; especially when attempting to deliver drugs to the posterior eye or trying to regenerate the diseased retina. Cell-based therapies offer a significant potential advancement in these situations...
October 17, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Günter Päth, Nikolaos Perakakis, Christos S Mantzoros, Jochen Seufert
Diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2 have become a global epidemic with dramatically increasing incidences. Poorly controlled diabetes is associated with severe life-threatening complications. Beside traditional treatment with insulin and oral anti-diabetic drugs, clinicians try to improve patient's care by cell therapies using embryonic stem cells (ESC), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). ESC display a virtually unlimited plasticity, including the differentiation into insulin producing β-cells, but they raise ethical concerns and bear, like iPSC, the risk of tumours...
October 17, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Reyad Dada, Binyam Usman
OBJECTIVES: Relapsed cHL patients after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with treatment sensitive disease are potential candidates for curative allogeneic HSCT. However, there are some concerns around performing such procedure after checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs). METHODS: We collected published data of patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT after treatment with CPIs (cohort 1). Abstracts of recent conferences (2015-2017) (ASCO, ASH, EBMT, ASBMT) were also included...
October 20, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
Nasser Hashemi Goradel, Masoud Najafi, Eniseh Salehi, Bagher Farhood, Keywan Mortezaee
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is frequently expressed in many types of cancers exerting a pleiotropic and multifaceted role in genesis or promotion of carcinogenesis and cancer cell resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. COX-2 is released by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), macrophage type 2 (M2) cells, and cancer cells to the tumor microenvironment (TME). COX-2 induces cancer stem cell (CSC)-like activity, and promotes apoptotic resistance, proliferation, angiogenesis, inflammation, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Ying-Ju Lai, Wan-Nien Yu, Sheng-Chu Kuo, Chi-Tang Ho, Chao-Ming Hung, Tzong-Der Way, Chiung-Tong Chen
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide, especially in male. With poor prognosis, significant portions of patients with HNSCC die due to cancer recurrence and tumor metastasis after chemotherapy and targeted therapies. The HNSCC FaDu cell ectopic expression of Twist, a key transcriptional factor of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which triggers EMT and results in the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype, was used as the cell model. Our results demonstrated that treatment with newly synthesized 2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-5-methylnaphthyridin-4-one (CSC-3436), a flavonoid derivative, elicited changes in its cell morphology, upregulated E-cadherin messenger RNA and protein expression, downregulated N-cadherin, vimentin, and CD133 (a marker associated with tumor-initiating cells) in FaDu-pCDH-Twist cells...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Márcio Shigueaki Mito, Adriano Antonio Silva, Fernanda Lima Kagami, Jéssica Dario de Almeida, Gislaine Cristiane Mantovanelli, Mauro Cezar Barbosa, Kátia Aparecida Kern-Cardoso, Emy Luiza Ishii-Iwamoto
The exogenous applications of plant hormones and their analogues have been exploited to improve crop performance in the field. Protodioscin is a saponin whose steroidal moiety in its structure has some similarities with plant steroidal hormones brassinosteroids. To test the possibility that protodioscin acts as an agonist or antagonist of brassinosteroids or other plant growth regulator, in this work, we compared the responses of the weed species Bidens pilosa L. to treatment with protodioscin, brassinosteroids, auxins and abscisic acid (ABA)...
October 19, 2018: Plant Biology
Cancan Zhou, Weikun Qian, Jiguang Ma, Liang Cheng, Zhengdong Jiang, Bin Yan, Jie Li, Wanxing Duan, Liankang Sun, Junyu Cao, Fengfei Wang, Erxi Wu, Zheng Wu, Qingyong Ma, Xuqi Li
OBJECTIVES: Gemcitabine is a standard treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer patients but can cause chemoresistance during treatment. The chemoresistant cells have features of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Resveratrol has been reported to overcome the resistance induced by gemcitabine. However, the mechanism by which resveratrol enhances chemosensitivity remains elusive. Here, we explored the mechanism by which resveratrol enhanced chemosensitivity and the role of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) in gemcitabine-induced stemness...
October 19, 2018: Cell Proliferation
Gyeong Joon Moon, Ji Hee Sung, Dong Hee Kim, Eun Hee Kim, Yeon Hee Cho, Jeong Pyo Son, Jae Min Cha, Oh Young Bang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exert their therapeutic capability through a variety of bioactive substances, including trophic factors, microRNAs, and extracellular vesicles (EVs) in infarcted tissues. We therefore hypothesized that MSC-derived EVs (MSC-EVs) possess therapeutic molecules similar to MSCs. Moreover, given their nature as nanosized and lipid-shielded particles, the intravenous infusion of MSC-EVs would be advantageous over MSCs as a safer therapeutic approach. In this study, we investigated the biodistribution, therapeutic efficacy, and mode of action of MSC-EVs in a rat stroke model...
October 19, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Amandine Czajkowski, Anaïs Mounier, Laurence Delacroix, Brigitte Malgrange
Hearing loss is a common affection mainly resulting from irreversible loss of the sensory hair cells of the cochlea; therefore, developing therapies to replace missing hair cells is essential. Understanding the mechanisms that drive their formation will not only help to unravel the molecular basis of deafness, but also give a roadmap for recapitulating hair cells development from cultured pluripotent stem cells. In this review, we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in hair cell production from both human and mouse embryonic stem cells...
October 19, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
H Fu, Q Chen
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) treatment has emerged as an important adjunct therapy for heart failure. However, the use of MSC to treat heart failure has not been well established. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of MSC treatment for heart failure. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the influence of MSC treatment on cardiac function in heart failure were included in this analysis...
October 19, 2018: Herz
Yubao Liu, Rui Zou, Zhen Wang, Chuanyang Wen, Fan Zhang, Fuqing Lin
This study was designed to explore whether exosomal lncRNA-KLF3-AS1 derived from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can serve as a positive treatment for osteoarthritis (OA). hMSCs and MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-exo) were prepared for morphological observation and identification by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and flow cytometry. IL-1β-induced OA chondrocytes and collagenase-induced rat model of OA were established for the further experiments. Lentivirus mediated siRNA targeting KLF3-AS1 was transfected into MSCs for silencing KLF3-AS1...
October 19, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Tong Gao, Yi Yu, Qing Cong, Yisheng Wang, Mingming Sun, Liangqing Yao, Congjian Xu, Wei Jiang
BACKGROUND: The tumour microenvironment conferred by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) plays a key role in tumour development and progression. We previously determined that platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) was overexpressed in ovarian cancer cells (OCCs) and that PAF can promote ovarian cancer progression via PAF/PAFR-mediated inflammatory signalling pathways. Evidence suggests that MSCs can secrete high concentrations of PAF. Here, we investigated the role of PAF/PAFR signalling in the microenvironment mediated by MSCs and OCCs and its effect on cancer progression...
October 19, 2018: BMC Cancer
Rana Yadak, Max V Boot, Niek P van Til, Dominique Cazals-Hatem, Armin Finkenstedt, Elly Bogaerts, Irenaeus F de Coo, Marianna Bugiani
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal complications are the main cause of death in patients with mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE). Available treatments often restore biochemical homeostasis, but fail to cure gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODS: We evaluated the small intestine neuromuscular pathology of an untreated MNGIE patient and two recipients of hematopoietic stem cells, focusing on enteric neurons and glia. Additionally, we evaluated the intestinal neuromuscular pathology in a mouse model of MNGIE treated with hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy...
October 19, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
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