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Geriatric review

Anne-Julie Tessier, Stéphanie Chevalier
Aging is associated with sarcopenia and functional decline, leading to frailty and disability. As a modifiable risk factor, nutrition may represent a target for preventing or postponing the onset of these geriatric conditions. Among nutrients, high-quality protein, leucine, vitamin D, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( n -3 PUFA) are of particular interest for their demonstrated effects on skeletal muscle health. This narrative review aims to examine the recent observational and interventional evidence on the associations and the role of these nutrients in the muscle mass, strength, mobility, and physical function of free-living older adults, who are either healthy or at risk of frailty...
August 16, 2018: Nutrients
Liliana Vartolomei, Matteo Ferro, Vincenzo Mirone, Shahrokh F Shariat, Mihai Dorin Vartolomei
Background: Depression affects more than 300 million people of all ages worldwide. In patients with cancer the reported prevalence is up to 24%. Objective: To systematically review the literature to report the prevalence of depression and anxiety among patients with bladder cancer (BC). Methods: Web of Science, MEDLINE/PubMed, and The Cochrane Library were searched between January and March 2018 using the terms "bladder carcinoma OR bladder cancer AND depression OR anxiety"...
July 30, 2018: Bladder Cancer
Haydn Hoffman, Shelley S Bennett, Charles H Li, Piia Haakana, Daniel C Lu
Background Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is the most common indication for spine surgery among the geriatric population. Although decompressive surgery is effective, older patients do not benefit as much as younger patients, and they are frequently excluded from studies assessing postoperative physiotherapy. We sought to evaluate the long-term outcomes after surgery when a novel postoperative physiotherapy regimen was included. Methods We performed a retrospective review of patients with LSS greater than 70 years old who underwent lumbar decompressive surgery by the senior author over the past five years...
June 11, 2018: Curēus
Marinda Scrushy, April O'Brien, Shannon Glaser
Cholestatic liver disease encompasses a detrimental group of diseases that are non-discriminatory in nature. These diseases occur over every age range from infancy (biliary atresia) to geriatrics (hepatitis). They also cover both genders in the form of primary sclerosing cholangitis in men and primary biliary cholangitis in women. Oftentimes, owing to the disease progression and extensive scarring, the treatment of last resort becomes a liver transplant. In this review, we will briefly discuss and explore new avenues of understanding in the progression of cholestatic liver disease and possible therapeutic targets for intervention...
2018: F1000Research
Madeleine Liljegren, Maria Landqvist Waldö, Robert Rydbeck, Elisabet Englund
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the prevalence and recurrence of police interaction (PI) with patients diagnosed with dementia. We also aimed to study the reason behind the PI, the time of occurrence of PI, and potential consequences of the PI. METHODS: For this retrospective medical records' review, we included 281 cases with a neuropathologic dementia diagnosis from the Department of Pathology, Region Skane/Lund University, between 1967 and 2013...
August 8, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Sachiko Morita, Tasuku Matsuyama, Naoki Ehara, Nobuhiro Miyamae, Yohei Okada, Takaaki Jo, Yasuyuki Sumida, Nobunaga Okada, Makoto Watanabe, Masahiro Nozawa, Ayumu Tsuruoka, Yoshihiro Fujimoto, Yoshiki Okumura, Tetsuhisa Kitamura, Yasuyuki Hayashi
AIM: We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and outcomes of accidental hypothermia (AH) among elderly patients in Japan. METHODS: This was a multicenter chart review study of patients with AH (Japanese accidental hypothermia network registry; J-Point registry) that included patients with a body temperature ≤35 °C and those aged ≥18 years who visited the emergency department of 12 institutions in Japan from 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2016. The patients were classified into three groups: adult (aged 18-64 years), young-old (aged 65-79 years) and old-old (aged ≥80 years)...
August 10, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Heath Sl Adams, Srikkumar Ashokkumar, Andrew Newcomb, Andrew I MacIsaac, Robert J Whitbourn, Sonny Palmer
Severe aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common form of valvular heart disease in the developed world with a rising prevalence due to an ageing Australian population. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) offers a less invasive option for the treatment of severe AS with evidence supporting of TAVI compared to medical therapy in inoperable patients, and superior to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in high-risk patients. Equal outcomes have been observed in all-comer intermediate risk populations...
August 8, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Shin Takayama, Ryutaro Arita, Akiko Kikuchi, Minoru Ohsawa, Soichiro Kaneko, Tadashi Ishii
Frailty is defined as a state of increased vulnerability to poor resolution of homeostasis following stress, which increases the risk of adverse outcomes such as falls, delirium, and disability in the elderly. Recently in Japan, clinical practice guidelines (CPG) have recommended kampo treatment. We conducted a search for reports on Japanese CPG and kampo medicine in the treatment of symptoms in the elderly. The search was performed using the databases PubMed, Ichushi Web, J-Stage, Japan Medical Publishers Association, Medical Information Network Distribution Service, and CPG containing kampo products in Japan; reports from January 1st, 2012 to October 31st, 2017 were reviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Joanne K Taylor, Iain E Buchan, Sabine N van der Veer
Life-space mobility (LSM) is a holistic measure of resilience to physical decline and social isolation in later life. To promote its use as an outcome in geriatric studies and in clinical practice, this review paper explains the concept of LSM; outlines available questionnaires for LSM assessment, provides an overview of associations between LSM and other outcomes, and discusses emerging methods to measure LSM using wearable sensors. Based on performed activity around a central geographical anchor, LSM aims to quantify the observed contraction of daily activities associated with ageing...
August 4, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Tiago José Silveira Teófilo, Rafaella Felix Serafim Veras, Valkênia Alves Silva, Nilza Maria Cunha, Jacira Dos Santos Oliveira, Selene Cordeiro Vasconcelos
INTRODUCTION: Empathy is a complex human experience that involves the subjective intersection of different individuals. In the context of nursing care in the geriatric setting, the benefits of empathetic relationships are directly related to the quality of the practice of nursing. OBJECTIVE: Analyze scientific production on the benefits of empathy in the nurse-patient relationship in the geriatric care setting. METHODS: An integrative review of the literature was performed using the PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases...
August 3, 2018: Nursing Ethics
Ariana Barkley, Mike Liquori, Amy Cunningham, John Liantonio, Brooke Worster, Susan Parks
PURPOSE: Advance care planning (ACP) is theorized to benefit both the patient and their family when end of life is near as well as earlier in the course of serious illness. However, ACP remains underutilized, and little is known about the nature of ACP documentation in geriatrics practices. The study investigated the prevalence and nature of ACP documentation within a geriatric primary care clinic. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted on a randomly selected sample of electronic medical record (EMR) charts...
August 2, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
John A Batsis, Dennis T Villareal
The prevalence of obesity in combination with sarcopenia (the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength or physical function) is increasing in adults aged 65 years and older. A major subset of adults over the age of 65 is now classified as having sarcopenic obesity, a high-risk geriatric syndrome predominantly observed in an ageing population that is at risk of synergistic complications from both sarcopenia and obesity. This Review discusses pathways and mechanisms leading to muscle impairment in older adults with obesity...
September 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Åsa Gransjön Craftman, Åke Grundberg, Margareta Westerbotn
AIM: The aim was to describe home care assistants' (HCA) experiences of providing social care in older people's own homes. BACKGROUND: With the increase in average life expectancy and related growth of the elder population, addressing geriatric care needs has become an increasingly vital issue. However, the frontline workforce faces major challenges in meeting these needs, including a lack of trained professionals entering the field. DESIGN: A qualitative inductive design was used...
July 31, 2018: International Journal of Older People Nursing
Thomas Haider, Jakob Schnabel, Julian Hochpöchler, Gerald E Wozasek
INTRODUCTION: Aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and extent of femoral shortening in non-geriatric patients after internal fixation of femoral neck fractures in relation to the clinical outcome at mid-term follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Reviewing our admission data, we identified non-geriatric patients (18-65 years) with femoral neck fractures treated with either dynamic hip screw or cancellous screws between 2007 and 2015. Patients were then contacted and invited to a follow-up clinical investigation including whole-leg standing X-rays...
July 27, 2018: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Johanna Freyer, Lysann Kasprick, Ralf Sultzer, Susanne Schiek, Thilo Bertsche
Background Drug-related problems (DRPs) endanger geriatric patients' safety. Especially a follow-up treatment with increased number of care transitions is a critical time for patients. Objective This study aimed at optimising medication therapy and the transfer of medication-related information to ambulatory care in geriatric rehabilitation patients. Setting German geriatric rehabilitation centre (GRC). Method A prospective, controlled intervention study was performed. Patients in the control group (CG) received standard care, those in the intervention group (IG) an additional dual pharmaceutical intervention: (i) medication review to optimise in-hospital medication and (ii) improvement of discharge letters for optimising transfer of medication-related information...
July 26, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
U Anido-Herranz, N Fernández-Núñez, J Afonso-Afonso, L Santomé-Couto, A Medina-Colmenero, O Fernández-Calvo, M Lázaro-Quintela, S Vázquez
Administration of chemotherapy in prostate cancer depends on patient fitness. In unfit patients, physiological impairment determines the optimum treatment. Although no consensus on assessing patient fitness currently exists, this article proposes an algorithm combining the available information for administering chemotherapy, and in particular docetaxel, in unfit patients. It was constructed by reviewing factors that can influence treatment, such as performance status, taxane-related comorbidities and nutritional status...
July 26, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Anton De Spiegeleer, David Beckwée, Ivan Bautmans, Mirko Petrovic
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia, defined as the pathological decline in muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance with aging, has become one of the geriatric giants because of its increasing prevalence and devastating health effects. The Belgian Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics (BSGG) is currently developing evidence-based guidelines for the prevention and therapy of sarcopenia for use in broad clinical practice. This systematic review summarizes the results of the Working Group on Pharmacology...
August 2018: Drugs & Aging
Timothy H M To, Wee Kheng Soo, Heather Lane, Adnan Khattak, Christopher Steer, Bianca Devitt, Haryana M Dhillon, Anne Booms, Jane Phillips
INTRODUCTION: Geriatric assessment (GA) is a multidimensional health assessment of the older person to evaluate their physical and cognitive function, comorbidities, nutrition, medications, psychological state, and social supports. GA may help oncologists optimise care for older patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to explore the views of Australian medical oncologists regarding the incorporation of geriatric screening tools, GA and collaboration with geriatricians into routine clinical practice...
July 21, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
Elise Deluche, Sophie Leobon, Francois Lamarche, Nicole Tubiana-Mathieu
INTRODUCTION: Management of glioblastoma, with a very poor prognosis, remains a challenge in older patients because of coexisting comorbidities and the increased risk of toxic treatment effects. The use of screening tools to identify vulnerable patients is essential. This study was performed to establish whether the G8 scale can be used for screening older patients with glioblastoma. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the files of patients assessed by the G8 scale and diagnosed with glioblastoma at a single center from January 2010 to July 2017...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
David A Nace, Subashan K Perera, Joseph T Hanlon, Stacey Saracco, Gulsum Anderson, Steven J Schweon, Michele Klein-Fedyshin, Charles B Wessel, Mary Mulligan, Paul J Drinka, Christopher J Crnich
OBJECTIVES: To identify a set of signs and symptoms most likely to indicate uncomplicated cystitis in noncatheterized nursing home residents ≥65 years of age using consensus-based methods informed by a literature review. DESIGN: Literature review and modified Delphi survey with strict inclusion criteria. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Expert panel of 20 physicians certified in geriatric medicine and/or medical direction, actively practicing in post-acute and long-term care settings...
July 20, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
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