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Health Technologies

Colin D Butler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To combine evolutionary principles of competition and co-operation with limits to growth models, generating six principles for a new sub-discipline, called "planetary epidemiology." Suggestions are made for how to quantify four principles. RECENT FINDINGS: Climate change is one of a suite of threats increasingly being re-discovered by health workers as a major threat to civilization. Although "planetary health" is now in vogue, neither it nor its allied sub-disciplines have, as yet, had significant impact on epidemiology...
October 13, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Atanu Adak, Mojibur R Khan
Gut microbiota has evolved along with their hosts and is an integral part of the human body. Microbiota acquired at birth develops in parallel as the host develops and maintains its temporal stability and diversity through adulthood until death. Recent developments in genome sequencing technologies, bioinformatics and culturomics have enabled researchers to explore the microbiota and in particular their functions at more detailed level than before. The accumulated evidences suggest that though a part of the microbiota is conserved, the dynamic members vary along the gastrointestinal tract, from infants to elderly, primitive tribes to modern societies and in different health conditions...
October 13, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Molly Finnerty, Elizabeth Austin, Qingxian Chen, Deborah Layman, Edith Kealey, Daisy Ng-Mak, Krithika Rajagopalan, Kimberly Hoagwood
Electronic shared-decision making programs may provide an assistive technology to support physician-patient communication. This mixed methods study examined use of a web-based shared decision-making program (MyCHOIS-CommonGround) by individuals receiving specialty mental health services, and identified qualitative factors influencing adoption during the first 18 months of implementation in two Medicaid mental health clinics. T-tests and χ2 analyses were conducted to assess differences in patient use between sites...
October 13, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
Asrul Akmal Shafie, Annushiah Vasan Thakumar, Ching Jou Lim, Nan Luo
PURPOSE: To determine the psychometric properties and performance of Malay and English versions of the EQ-5D-5L descriptive instrument in the general Malaysian population. METHODS: 1137 members of the Malaysian general public were sampled in this national study. Respondents were recruited by quota sampling of urbanicity, gender, age, and ethnicity. In face-to-face interviews, respondents first answered the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire administered using the EQ-Valuation Technology software, and then completed the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire on paper...
October 13, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Nicole Sussman, Sandra M DeJong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adolescents' use of digital technologies is constantly changing and significantly influences and reflects their mental health and development. Technology has entered the clinical space and raises new ethical dilemmas for mental health clinicians. After an update on this shifting landscape, including a brief review of important literature since 2014, this article will demonstrate how core ethical principles may be applied to clinical situations with patients, using vignettes for illustration...
October 13, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Mor Peleg, Wojtek Michalowski, Szymon Wilk, Enea Parimbelli, Silvia Bonaccio, Dympna O'Sullivan, Martin Michalowski, Silvana Quaglini, Marc Carrier
Poor patient compliance to therapy results in a worsening condition that often increases healthcare costs. In the MobiGuide project, we developed an evidence-based clinical decision-support system that delivered personalized reminders and recommendations to patients, helping to achieve higher therapy compliance. Yet compliance could still be improved and therefore building on the MobiGuide project experience, we designed a new component called the Motivational Patient Assistant (MPA) that is integrated within the MobiGuide architecture to further improve compliance...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Kelly A Aschbrenner, John A Naslund, Amy A Gorin, Kim T Mueser, Emily A Scherer, Mark Viron, Allison Kinney, Stephen J Bartels
BACKGROUND: Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder face a higher risk of early death due to cardiovascular disease and other preventable chronic illnesses. Young adulthood is a critical window of development for lifestyle interventions to improve the long-term health and quality of life in this population. Fit Forward is an NIH-funded randomized clinical trial examining the effectiveness of a group lifestyle intervention (PeerFIT) enhanced with mobile health technology compared to one-on-one mobile lifestyle coaching with Basic Education in fitness and nutrition supported by a wearable Activity Tracking device (BEAT) in achieving clinically significant weight loss and improved cardiorespiratory fitness in young adults with SMI...
October 11, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Hsien-Chang Lin, Zhi Wang, Linda Simoni-Wastila, Carol Boyd, Anne Buu
All fifty states have implemented prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) to reduce misuse and diversion of controlled drugs. Interstate PDMP data sharing has been called for by clinical practitioners, but evidence to support the effectiveness of PDMP data sharing is lacking. This study examined whether PDMP interstate data sharing with bordering states was associated with prescriptions of opioids. This was a cross-sectional study that included patients with non-cancer chronic pain from the 2014 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (weighted N = 66,198,751; unweighted N = 2846)...
October 11, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Ignacio Niizawa, Brenda Y Espinaco, Susana E Zorrilla, Guillermo A Sihufe
Nowadays, consumers are more conscious about healthier products consumption benefits. Astaxanthin obtained from the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis represents a natural ingredient for the nutraceutical and functional food industries. It is claimed that astaxanthin has much stronger antioxidant activity than vitamin E and β-carotene, providing different health benefits. However, the unstable structure of the molecule limits its application in functional foods development. Therefore, the present study evaluates the effect of five independent formulation and process variables for natural astaxanthin oleoresin encapsulation using an external ionic gelation technique...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Alessio Cecchinato, Tania Bobbo, Pamela L Ruegg, Luigi Gallo, Giovanni Bittante, Sara Pegolo
The aim of this study was to investigate in Holstein cows the genetic basis of blood serum metabolites [i.e., total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin:globulin ratio (A:G), and blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB)], a set of milk phenotypes related to udder health, milk quality technological characteristics, and genetic relationships among them. Samples of milk were collected from 498 Holstein cows belonging to 28 herds. All animal welfare and milk phenotypes were assessed using standard analytical methodology. A set of Bayesian univariate and bivariate animal models was implemented via Gibbs sampling, and statistical inference was based on the marginal posterior distributions of parameters of concern...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
A Makady, A van Veelen, A de Boer, H Hillege, O H Klungel, W Goettsch
BACKGROUND: Conditional financing (CF) of expensive hospital drugs was applied in the Netherlands between 2006 and 2012; a 4-year coverage with evidence development (CED) framework for expensive hospital drugs. This study aims to evaluate the CF framework, focusing on Health Technology Assessment (HTA) procedures. METHODS: Using a standardised data extraction form, researchers independently extracted information on procedural, methodological and decision-making aspects from HTA reports of drugs selected for CF...
September 28, 2018: Health Policy
Leonard M Fleck
CHAT has its limits. It is a three-hour exercise. However, the real world problems of healthcare rationing and priority-setting are too complex for a three-hour exercise. What is needed, as a supplement, are sustained processes of rational democratic deliberation that can address the challenges to healthcare justice posed by costly emerging medical technologies, such as these targeted cancer therapies.
July 28, 2018: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Alexandra Beletsi, Vassiliki Koutrafouri, Eleftheria Karampli, Elpida Pavi
OBJECTIVES: To examine and compare the use of health technology assessment (HTA) for the reimbursement of new medicines in selected European Union member states with decades of experience in the use of HTA and in countries that have used it regularly since 2000. METHODS: The selected countries were categorized into "earlier" adopters (group A: England, Germany, France, and Sweden) and more "recent" adopters (group B: Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania)...
October 10, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Julia Han, Andrew Rabley, Alex Vlasak, Shahab Bozorgmehri, Vincent Bird, Louis Moy
OBJECTIVE: To survey the characteristics, career goals, and practice preferences of current urology applicants. METHODS: An anonymous survey was emailed to applicants pursuing a residency position at the University of Florida for the 2017-2018 academic year Urology Match. The survey included questions on demographics, motivating factors to pursue urology, plans for fellowship training, and anticipated and desired practice patterns. RESULTS: 151 of 295 applicants completed the survey, mean age 26...
October 10, 2018: Urology
Ajay Pillarisetti, Manpreet Gill, Tracy Allen, Sathish Madhavan, Arun Dhongade, Makarand Ghorpade, Sudipto Roy, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Sanjay Juvekar, Kirk R Smith
Conditional cash transfers (CCTs)-cash payments provided to households or specific household members who meet defined conditions or fulfill certain behaviors-have been extensively used in India to encourage antenatal care, institutional delivery, and vaccination. This paper describes the social design and technical development of a low-cost, meal-counting stove use monitor (the Pink Key) that enables a CCT based on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) usage and presents pilot data from its testing and the initial deployment...
October 12, 2018: EcoHealth
James D Pleuss, Kevin Talty, Steven Morse, Patrick Kuiper, Michael Scioletti, Steven B Heymsfield, Diana M Thomas
A long-standing question in nutrition and obesity research involves quantifying the relationship between body fat and anthropometry. To date, the mathematical formulation of these relationships has relied on pairing easily obtained anthropometric measurements such as the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, or hip circumference to body fat. Recent advances in 3D body shape imaging technology provides a new opportunity for quickly and accurately obtaining hundreds of anthropometric measurements within seconds, however, there does not yet exist a large diverse database that pairs these measurements to body fat...
October 12, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Nathalie Lydié, Leila Saboni, Arnaud Gautier, Cécile Brouard, Stéphane Chevaliez, Francis Barin, Christine Larsen, Florence Lot, Delphine Rahib
BACKGROUND: Despite substantial screening for HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in France, a great number of infected persons remain undiagnosed. In this context, Santé publique France experimented with a new screening approach for HBV, HCV, and HIV infection, based on home self-sampling using dried blood spot (DBS) for blood collection. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the BaroTest study were to assess the acceptability and feasibility of this approach and to update the prevalence estimates of HBV, HCV, and HIV infections in the general population...
October 12, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Fredrick Dermawan Purba, Joke A M Hunfeld, Reinier Timman, Aulia Iskandarsyah, Titi Sahidah Fitriana, Sawitri S Sadarjoen, Jan Passchier, Jan J V Busschbach
OBJECTIVES: To explore the test-retest reliability of the composite time trade-off (C-TTO) and discrete choice experiment (DCE) used in the Indonesian five-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) valuation study. METHODS: A representative sample aged 17 years and older was recruited from the Indonesian general population by stratified quota sampling with respect to residence, sex, and age. Trained interviewers conducted computer-assisted face-to-face interviews using the EuroQol valuation technology...
October 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Han-I Wang, Eve Roman, Simon Crouch, Eline Aas, Cathy Burton, Russell Patmore, Alexandra Smith
OBJECTIVES: To use real-world data to develop a flexible generic decision model to predict cost, life expectancy, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for follicular lymphoma (FL) in the general patient population. METHODS: All patients newly diagnosed with FL in the UK's population-based Haematological Malignancy Research Network ( between 2004 and 2011 were followed until 2015 (N = 740). Treatment pathways, QALYs, and costs were incorporated into a discrete event simulation to reflect patient heterogeneity, including age and disease management...
October 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Michelle E H Thompson, Manish N Raizada
Silks are the long threads at the tips of maize ears onto which pollen land and sperm nuclei travel long distances to fertilize egg cells, giving rise to embryos and seeds; however fungal pathogens also use this route to invade developing grain, causing damaging ear rots with dangerous mycotoxins. This review highlights the importance of silks as the direct highways by which globally important fungal pathogens enter maize kernels. First, the most important silk-entering fungal pathogens in maize are reviewed, including Fusarium graminearum , Fusarium verticillioides , and Aspergillus flavus , and their mycotoxins...
October 11, 2018: Pathogens
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