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Health Technologies

Shirley V Wang, Sebastian Schneeweiss, Joshua J Gagne, Thomas Evers, Christoph Gerlinger, Rishi Desai, Mehdi Najafzadeh
Randomized controlled trials provide evidence for regulatory agencies, shape clinical practice, influence formulary decisions and have important implications for patients. However, many patient groups that are major consumers of drugs are underrepresented in randomized trials. We review 3 methods to extrapolate evidence from trial participants to different target populations following market approval and discuss how these could be implemented in practice to support regulatory and health technology assessment decisions...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Andrea Wilkinson, Tiffany Tong, Atefeh Zare, Marc Kanik, Mark Chignell
New technologies, such as serious games and ambient activities, are being developed to address problems of under-stimulation, anxiety, and agitation in millions of people living with dementia in long term care homes. Frequent interactions with instrumented versions of these technologies may not only be beneficial for long term care residents, but may also provide a valuable new set of multifaceted data relating to health status of residents over time. In this paper, we develop a model of health monitoring in healthcare environments and we report on two studies that show how medically relevant data can be collected from elderly residents and emergency department patients in an unobtrusive way...
August 9, 2018: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Alireza Ghods, Kathleen Caffrey, Beiyu Lin, Kylie Fraga, Roschelle Fritz, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe, Christopher Hundhausen, Diane J Cook
In order to meet the health needs of the coming "age wave", technology needs to be designed that supports remote health monitoring and assessment. In this study we design CIL, a clinician-in-the-loop visual interface, that provides clinicians with patient behavior patterns, derived from smart home data. A total of 60 experienced nurses participated in an iterative design of an interactive graphical interface for remote behavior monitoring. Results of the study indicate that usability of the system improves over multiple iterations of participatory design...
August 8, 2018: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Leslie E Wolf, Laura M Beskow
Certificates of Confidentiality ("Certificates") are a federal legal tool designed to protect sensitive, identifiable research data from compelled disclosure. Congress first authorized their use in 1970 to facilitate research on illegal drug use. The scope of their use was later expanded to cover mental health research and then again to apply broadly to identifiable, sensitive research data, regardless of topic. Certificates can be critical to enabling conduct of essential research on sensitive topics, such as effective interventions to curb the opioid epidemic or reduce HIV transmission among minority youth...
May 2018: American Journal of Law & Medicine
Patricia A Carney, George C Mejicano, Tracy Bumsted, Mark Quirk
BACKGROUND: Medical education is a dynamic process that will continuously evolve to respond to changes in the foundations of medicine, the clinical practice of medicine and in health systems science. PURPOSE: In this paper, we review how assessing learning in such a dynamic environment requires comprehensive flexible and adaptable methodological approaches designed to assess knowledge attainment and transfer, clinical skills/competency development, and ethical/professional behavior...
August 14, 2018: Medical Teacher
Paul A Sagel, Robert W Gerlach
PURPOSE: Recently, a unique two-step product was introduced that includes sequential use of a novel 0.454% stannous fluoride dentifrice followed by a 3% hydrogen peroxide whitening gel. The technology targeted advanced gingival health benefits plus esthetic benefits such as tooth whitening. The two-step sequence has unique brushing instructions to maximize the efficacy of each step; the stannous fluoride dentifrice is used for 1 minute of brushing followed by 1 minute of brushing with the hydrogen peroxide gel...
July 2018: American Journal of Dentistry
Katy C Norman, Bethany B Moore, Kelly B Arnold, David N O'Dwyer
The proteome is the study of the protein content of a definable component of an organism in biology. However, the tissue-specific expression of proteins and the varied post-translational modifications, splice variants and protein-protein complexes that may form, make the study of protein a challenging yet vital tool in answering many of the unanswered questions in medicine and biology to date. Indeed, the spatial, temporal and functional composition of proteins in the human body has proven difficult to elucidate for many years...
August 13, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Erik Landfeldt, Niklas Zethraeus, Peter Lindgren
Costs of informal care account for a significant component of total societal costs for many chronic and disabling illnesses. Yet, costs associated with the provision of informal care is seldom included in economic evaluations of new health technologies, increasing the risk of suboptimal decisions on the allocation of resources from the perspective of society. Our objective was to propose a standardized questionnaire for the measurement, valuation, and estimation of caregiver indirect (productivity) and informal care costs as separate mutually exclusive subsets of total costs in cost-of-illness studies and as an input to economic evaluations from the societal perspective...
August 13, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Minye Yang, Ying Zhang, Meihui Cui, Yu Tian, Shufang Zhang, Kang Peng, Hongshuang Xu, Zhenyu Liao, Hanjie Wang, Jin Chang
The detection of mycotoxins in food is urgently needed because they pose a significant threat to public health. In this study, we developed a quantitative detection platform for mycotoxins by integrating multicolor upconversion nanoparticle barcode technology with fluorescence image processing using a smartphone-based portable device. The multi-colored upconversion nanoparticle encoded microspheres (UCNMs) were used as encoded signals for detecting different mycotoxins simultaneously. After indirect competitive immunoassays using UCNMs, images could be captured by the portable device and the camera of a smartphone...
August 14, 2018: Nanoscale
Ali Kemal Erenler, Murat Güzel, Ahmet Baydin
Preparedness for bioterrorist attacks and early recognition of specific agents are essential for public health. Emergency departments may play an important role in this field. The large spectrum of bioterrorism involves not only disastrous terrorism with mass casualties, but also microevents using low technology but producing civil unrest, disruption, disease, disabilities, and death. It aims not only to cause mortality and morbidity, but also to lead to social and political disruption. Preparedness appears to be the most potent defense against possible bioterrorist events...
2018: TheScientificWorldJournal
Yuri Álvarez López, Jacqueline Franssen, Guillermo Álvarez Narciandi, Janet Pagnozzi, Ignacio González-Pinto Arrillaga, Fernando Las-Heras Andrés
Radio frequency identification (RFID) has become a key technology in the logistics and management industry, thanks to distinctive features such as the low cost of RFID tags, and the easiness of the RFID tags' deployment and integration within the items to be tracked. In consequence, RFID plays a fundamental role in the so-called digital factory or 4.0 Industry, aiming to increase the level of automatization of industrial processes. In addition, RFID has also been found to be of great help in improving the tracking of patients, medicines, and medical assets in hospitals, where the digitalization of these operations improves their efficiency and safety...
August 13, 2018: Sensors
Ryan Chang Tseng, Ching-Chuen Chen, Sheng-Min Hsu, Han-Sheng Chuang
Rapid diagnosis and screening of diseases have become increasingly important in predictive and preventive medicine as they improve patient treatment strategies and reduce cost as well as burden on our healthcare system. In this regard, wearable devices are emerging as effective and reliable point-of-care diagnostics that can allow users to monitor their health at home. These wrist-worn, head-mounted, smart-textile, or smart-patches devices can offer valuable information on the conditions of patients as a non-invasive form of monitoring...
August 13, 2018: Sensors
Chen Xiong, Melissa Biscardi, Emily Nalder, Angela Colantonio
INTRODUCTION: While much is known about caregiving burden and its consequences on both caregivers and care recipients, reports on the sex and gender differences that may be present among family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) are lacking. Attention to and a synthesis of these sex and gender distinctions have direct implications on the planning and development of health services for this population. The current protocol outlines a strategy for a systematic review of the current evidence to identify and synthesise sex and gender distinctions in caregiving burden experienced by family caregivers of PWD...
August 13, 2018: BMJ Open
Martin de Bock, Sybil A McAuley, Mary Binsu Abraham, Grant Smith, Jennifer Nicholas, Geoff R Ambler, Fergus J Cameron, Jan M Fairchild, Bruce R King, Elizabeth A Geelhoed, Elizabeth A Davis, David Norman O'Neal, Timothy W Jones
INTRODUCTION: Automated insulin delivery (also known as closed loop, or artificial pancreas) has shown potential to improve glycaemic control and quality of life in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Automated insulin delivery devices incorporate an insulin pump with continuous glucose monitoring(CGM) and an algorithm, and adjust insulin in real time. This study aims to establish the safety and efficacy of a hybrid closed-loop (HCL) system in a long-term outpatient trial in people with T1D aged 12 -<25 years of age, and compare outcomes with standard therapy for T1D as used in the contemporary community...
August 13, 2018: BMJ Open
Sara Rönnby, Oscar Lundberg, Kristina Fagher, Jenny Jacobsson, Bo Tillander, Håkan Gauffin, Per-Olof Hansson, Örjan Dahlström, Toomas Timpka
BACKGROUND: International middle- and long-distance running competitions attract millions of spectators in association with city races, world championships, and Olympic Games. It is therefore a major concern that ill health and pain, as a result of sports overuse, lead to numerous hours of lost training and decreased performance in competitive runners. Despite its potential for sustenance of performance, approval of mHealth self-report monitoring (mHSM) in this group of athletes has not been investigated...
August 13, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Deborah Money, Victoria M Allen
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence in the literature and to provide recommendations on the management of pregnant women in labour for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. The key revisions in this updated guideline include changed recommendations for regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis, susceptibility testing, and management of women with pre-labour rupture of membranes. OUTCOMES: Maternal outcomes evaluated included exposure to antibiotics in pregnancy and labour and complications related to antibiotic use...
August 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Gregory A L Davies, Cynthia Maxwell, Lynne McLeod
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence and provide recommendations for the counselling and management of obese parturients. OUTCOMES: Outcomes evaluated include the impact of maternal obesity on the provision of antenatal and intrapartum care, maternal morbidity and mortality, and perinatal morbidity and mortality. EVIDENCE: Literature was retrieved through searches of Statistics Canada, Medline, and The Cochrane Library on the impact of obesity in pregnancy on antepartum and intrapartum care, maternal morbidity and mortality, obstetrical anaesthesia, and perinatal morbidity and mortality...
August 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Valérie Désilets, Isabelle De Bie, François Audibert
OBJECTIVE: To describe the current investigation and management of non-immune fetal hydrops with a focus on treatable or recurring etiologies. OUTCOMES: To provide better counselling and management in cases of prenatally diagnosed non-immune hydrops. EVIDENCE: Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or MEDLINE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2017 using key words (non-immune hydrops fetalis, fetal hydrops, fetal therapy, fetal metabolism)...
August 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Nina Steinemann, Jens Kuhle, Pasquale Calabrese, Jürg Kesselring, Giulio Disanto, Doron Merkler, Caroline Pot, Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross, Stephanie Rodgers, Milo Alan Puhan, Viktor von Wyl
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most frequently observed neurological conditions in Switzerland, but data sources for country-wide epidemiological trend monitoring are lacking. Moreover, while clinical and laboratory MS research are generally well established, there is a gap in patient-centered MS research to inform care management, or treatment decisions and policy making not only in Switzerland but worldwide. METHODS: In light of these research gaps, the Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Society initiated and funded the Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Registry (SMSR) an open-ended, longitudinal and prospective, nationwide, patient-centered study...
August 13, 2018: BMC Neurology
Angelo Costa, Ester Martinez-Martin, Miguel Cazorla, Vicente Julian
The great demographic change leading to an ageing society demands technological solutions to satisfy the increasing varied elderly needs. This paper presents PHAROS, an interactive robot system that recommends and monitors physical exercises designed for the elderly. The aim of PHAROS is to be a friendly elderly companion that periodically suggests personalised physical activities, promoting healthy living and active ageing. Here, it is presented the PHAROS architecture, components and experimental results...
August 11, 2018: Sensors
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