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Combat Sports

Sally Bromley, Michael Drew, Scott Talpey, Andrew McIntosh, Caroline Finch
BACKGROUND: Electronic methods are increasingly being used to manage health-related data among sporting populations. Collection of such data permits the analysis of injury and illness trends, improves early detection of injuries and illnesses, collectively referred to as health problems, and provides evidence to inform prevention strategies. The Athlete Management System (AMS) has been employed across a range of sports to monitor health. Australian combat athletes train across the country without dedicated national medical or sports science teams to monitor and advocate for their health...
October 9, 2018: JMIR Human Factors
Joseph J Matthews, Edward N Stanhope, Mark S Godwin, Matthew E J Holmes, Guilherme G Artioli
Combat sport athletes typically engage in a process called making-weight, characterised by rapid weight loss (RWL) and subsequent rapid weight gain (RWG) in the days preceding competition. These practices differ across each sport, but no systematic comparison of the size of the changes in body mass exists. The aim was to determine the magnitude of RWL and RWG in combat sport athletes preparing for competition. The review protocol was preregistered with PROSPERO [CRD42017055279]. In eligible studies, athletes prepared habitually with a RWL period ≤7 days preceding competition...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Silvia I Brouwer, Leanne K Küpers, Lotte Kors, Anna Sijtsma, Pieter J J Sauer, Carry M Renders, Eva Corpeleijn
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is important in combating childhood obesity. Parents, and thus parental PA, could influence PA in young children. We examined whether the time spent at different intensities of PA and the type of parental PA are associated with the PA of children aged 4-7 years, and whether the associations between child-parent pairs were sex-specific. METHODS: All the participants were recruited from the Groningen Expert Center for Kids with Obesity (GECKO) birth cohort (babies born between 1 April 2006 and 1 April 2007 in Drenthe province, the Netherlands) and were aged 4-7 years during measurement...
August 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Nicholas J Lemme, Benjamin Johnston, Steven F DeFroda, Brett D Owens, Peter K Kriz
OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the incidence and characteristics of traumatic brain injuries [mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI)] presenting to the emergency department as a result of boxing, wrestling, and martial arts (MA). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study of MTBI in combat sport athletes who were evaluated in emergency departments in the United States. SETTING: Patient data were taken from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System...
August 13, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Franziska Lautenbach, Babett H Lobinger
Competitive taekwondo composes a high stress situation leading to an increase in the stress hormone cortisol. Little is known about cortisol's relation to outcome (winning vs. losing) and performance in taekwondo. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate cortisol relation to outcome, performance and whether cortisol can predict performance during a competition. Twenty taekwondo combatants (13 males; Mage = 15) provided four salivary samples (C1: 30 min prior, C2: during, C3: after, and C4: 30 min after competition) during an international competition...
July 27, 2018: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
John Neidecker, Nitin K Sethi, Randolph Taylor, Raymond Monsell, Don Muzzi, Bruce Spizler, Larry Lovelace, Edmund Ayoub, Rick Weinstein, Joseph Estwanik, Patricio Reyes, Robert C Cantu, Barry Jordan, Margaret Goodman, John W Stiller, Jonathan Gelber, Robert Boltuch, Domenic Coletta, Angela Gagliardi, Stephen Gelfman, Patrick Golden, Nicholas Rizzo, Paul Wallace, Allan Fields, Calvin Inalsingh
Various organisations and experts have published numerous statements and recommendations regarding different aspects of sports-related concussion including definition, presentation, treatment, management and return to play guidelines.1-7 To date, there have been no written consensus statements specific for combat sports regarding management of combatants who have suffered a concussion or for return to competition after a concussion. In combat sports, head contact is an objective of the sport itself. Accordingly, management and treatment of concussion in combat sports should, and must, be more stringent than for non-combat sports counterparts...
July 26, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Constantin Mayer, Falk Hilsmann, Gerald Julius Wiechmann, Christoph Zilkens, Rüdiger Krauspe, Christoph Schleich
OBJECTIVE: Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a combination of multiple combat sports. Acute injuries in MMA are well known and have been broadly described. However, there is little knowledge about degenerative changes in the musculoskeletal system. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of techniques used in MMA on the occurrence of degenerative changes in the hand and wrist in comparison to classical boxing. METHODS: 11 MMA fighters and 10 boxers with chronic wrist pain were clinically examined...
June 2018: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
Caroline Stephenson, Matthew E Rossheim
Limited research has systematically examined injuries resulting from Brazilian Jiu Jitsu (BJJ), Judo, and mixed martial arts (MMA), especially when compared to more well-known or -established martial arts. These three combative sports differ substantially regarding their rules and techniques. BJJ emphasizes ground positioning and submission, Judo rewards throwing an opponent on their back with submission ending the match, and MMA emphasizes knocking out or forcing the submission of one's opponent. We examined injuries, among people of any age, experienced from participation in BJJ, Judo, and MMA...
October 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Louise M Burke, Graeme L Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P Morton, Adam S Tenforde
Low energy availability (LEA) is a key element of the Female Athlete Triad. Causes of LEA include failure to match high exercise energy expenditure (unintentional) or pathological behaviors of disordered eating (compulsive) and overzealous weight control programs (misguided but intentional). Recognition of such scenarios in male athletes contributed to the pronouncement of the more inclusive Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) syndrome. This commentary describes the insights and experience of the current group of authors around the apparently heightened risk of LEA in some populations of male athletes: road cyclists, rowers (lightweight and open weight), athletes in combat sports, distance runners, and jockeys...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Rossano Diniz, Fabrício B Del Vecchio, Gustavo Z Schaun, Henrique B Oliveira, Elisa G Portella, Edson S da Silva, Andressa Formalioni, Paula C C Campelo, Leonardo A Peyré-Tartaruga, Stephanie S Pinto
Diniz, R, Del Vecchio, FB, Schaun, GZ, Oliveira, HB, Portella, EG, da Silva, ES, Formalioni, A, Campelo, PCC, Peyré-Tartaruga, LA, and Pinto, SS. Kinematic comparison of the roundhouse kick between taekwondo, karate, and muaythai. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The roundhouse kick (RHK) is frequently executed in taekwondo, karate, and muaythai because of its high technical effectiveness during combat. The purpose of this study was to compare kinematic characteristics during RHK performance between taekwondo, karate, and muaythai athletes...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Kadhiresan R Murugappan, Michael N Cocchi, Somnath Bose, Sara E Neves, Charles H Cook, Todd Sarge, Shahzad Shaefi, Akiva Leibowitz
Rapid weight loss or "weight cutting" is a dangerous practice that is ubiquitous in modern combat sports yet underrepresented in the medical literature. We present a case of exertional rhabdomyolysis in a mixed martial artist with sickle cell trait to illustrate the hazards of weight cutting and ensuing critical illness. Sickle cell trait is known to predispose patients to exertional rhabdomyolysis, and multiple fatal cases have been reported in the setting of strenuous exercise. Dehydration and consequent electrolyte abnormalities make combat sport athletes with sickle cell trait particularly vulnerable to this entity...
September 11, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Reidar P Lystad, Stephen J Strotmeyer
BACKGROUND: Muay Thai kickboxing is a full-contact combat sport with a high incidence of head trauma, yet little is known about these athletes' concussion knowledge and attitudes. This study aims to describe and quantify concussion knowledge, attitudes, and reporting intention among adult competitive Muay Thai kickboxing athletes. RESULTS: This cross-sectional study comprised 193 competitive Muay Thai kickboxing athletes aged ≥18 years registered with the Thai Boxing Association Sanctioning Authority...
June 11, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Drazen Čular, Vladimir Ivančev, Alessandro M Zagatto, Mirjana Milić, Tea Beslija, Maha Sellami, Johnny Padulo
Cycling test such Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) is used to measure anaerobic power (AP), but not anaerobic capacity (AC, i.e., the metabolic energy demand). However, in sports that do not involve cycling movements (Karate), the continuous jump for 30 s (vertical jumps for 30 s) has been extensively used to measure anaerobic performance in all young athletes. Limited information's are available concerning its validity and reliability especially in children. As such, the current study aimed to test validity and reliability of a continuous jumps test (the CJ30s), using WAnT as a reference...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Krzysztof Durkalec-Michalski, Emilia Ewa Zawieja, Tomasz Podgórski, Bogna Ewa Zawieja, Patrycja Michałowska, Igor Łoniewski, Jan Jeszka
Gastrointestinal side effects are the main problem with sodium bicarbonate (SB) use in sports. Therefore, our study assessed the effect of a new SB loading regimen on anaerobic capacity and wrestling performance. Fifty-eight wrestlers were randomized to either a progressive-dose regimen of up to 100 mg∙kg-1 of SB or a placebo for 10 days. Before and after treatment, athletes completed an exercise protocol that comprised, in sequence, the first Wingate, dummy throw, and second Wingate tests. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-exercise...
May 30, 2018: Nutrients
Victor S Coswig, Paulo Gentil, João C A Bueno, Bruno Follmer, Vitor A Marques, Fabrício B Del Vecchio
Background: Among combat sports, Judo and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) present elevated physical fitness demands from the high-intensity intermittent efforts. However, information regarding how metabolic and neuromuscular physical fitness is associated with technical-tactical performance in Judo and BJJ fights is not available. This study aimed to relate indicators of physical fitness with combat performance variables in Judo and BJJ. Methods: The sample consisted of Judo ( n  = 16) and BJJ ( n  = 24) male athletes...
2018: PeerJ
Kevin M Kniffin, Dylan Palacio
Among the extra-physical aspects of team sports, the ways in which players talk to each other are among the more colorful but understudied dimensions of competition. To contribute an empirical basis for examining the nature of "trash talk," we present the results of a study of 291 varsity athletes who compete in the top division among US universities. Based on a preliminary review of trash-talk topics among student-athletes, we asked participants to indicate the frequency with which they have communicated or heard others talk about opposing players' athleticism, playing ability, physical appearance, boyfriends, girlfriends, sexual behavior, parents, and home institution during competitions...
September 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Wagner Rodrigues Martins, Juscelino Castro Blasczyk, Saulo Soares, Wagner Diniz de Paula, Martim Bottaro, Paulo Gentil
OBJECTIVE: Generate hypotheses and add new perspectives to the literature in the nonsurgical management of large ruptures in the distal part of the triceps tendon. METHODS: The patient was physically active, right handed, with a history of 20 years of resistance training practice and involvement in many activities, mostly combat sports (boxing, karate and mixed martial arts). The exercise program was designed with high repetitions and low rest intervals between sets in order to increase the metabolic stress...
July 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
J J Dawes, C L Kornhauser, D Crespo, C L Elder, K G Lindsay, R J Holmes
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the physiological and perceptual demands associated with defensive tactics (DEFTAC) training among state patrol officers of different BMI (body mass index) categories. Twenty-four male state patrol officers (n = 24, age 36.00 + 7.86 yrs) voluntarily agreed to participate in data collection during a DEFTAC gauntlet. Anthropometric information (height (HT) 182.19 + 7.43 cm and weight (WT) 96.31 + 17.45 kg), body mass index (BMI), peak and average heart rates, duty weight, BLa, and RPE, were recorded...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Deydre S Teyhen, Stephen L Goffar, Scott W Shaffer, Kyle Kiesel, Robert J Butler, Ann-Maree Tedaldi, Jennifer C Prye, Daniel I Rhon, Phillip J Plisky
Study Design A prospective observational cohort. Background Musculoskeletal injuries during military service are a primary source of disability resulting in 2.4 million annual health care visits and 25 million limited-duty days. While the injury incidence during basic training is well documented there is little understanding of injury distribution by organization type in the Army following initial training. Objective Compare injury incidence, distribution, and impact across various military units. Methods Comprehensive injury data from subject questionnaires and medical chart reviews were collected for 1430 initially healthy Army personnel representing combat, combat support, combat service support, and ranger units over 12 months...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Petr Stastny, Michal Lehnert, James J Tufano
Many hamstring injuries that occur during physical activity occur while the muscles are lengthening, during eccentric hamstring muscle actions. Opposite of these eccentric hamstring actions are concentric quadriceps actions, where the larger and likely stronger quadriceps straighten the knee. Therefore, to stabilize the lower limbs during movement, the hamstrings must eccentrically combat against the strong knee-straightening torque of the quadriceps. As such, eccentric hamstring strength expressed relative to concentric quadricep strength is commonly referred to as the "functional ratio" as most movements in sports require simultaneous concentric knee extension and eccentric knee flexion...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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