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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342369/added-sugar-consumption-and-chronic-oral-disease-burden-among-adolescents-in-brazil
#1
C D S Carmo, M R C Ribeiro, J X P Teixeira, C M C Alves, M M Franco, A K T C França, B B Benatti, J Cunha-Cruz, C C C Ribeiro
Chronic oral diseases are rarely studied together, especially with an emphasis on their common risk factors. This study examined the association of added sugar consumption on "chronic oral disease burden" among adolescents, with consideration of obesity and systemic inflammation pathways through structural equation modeling. A cross-sectional study was conducted of a complex random sample of adolescent students enrolled at public schools in São Luís, Brazil ( n = 405). The outcome was chronic oral disease burden, a latent variable based on the presence of probing depth ≥4 mm, bleeding on probing, caries, and clinical consequences of untreated caries...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342309/prognostic-power-of-a-tumor-differentiation-gene-signature-for-bladder-urothelial-carcinomas
#2
Qianxing Mo, Fotis Nikolos, Fengju Chen, Zoe Tramel, Yu-Cheng Lee, Kazukuni Hayashi, Jing Xiao, Jianjun Shen, Keith Syson Chan
Background: Muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBCs) cause approximately 150 000 deaths per year worldwide. Survival for MIBC patients is heterogeneous, with no clinically validated molecular markers that predict clinical outcome. Non-MIBCs (NMIBCs) generally have favorable outcome; however, a portion progress to MIBC. Hence, development of a prognostic tool that can guide decision-making is crucial for improving clinical management of bladder urothelial carcinomas. Methods: Tumor grade is defined by pathologic evaluation of tumor cell differentiation, and it often associates with clinical outcome...
January 12, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342242/meiotic-spindle-formation-in-mammalian-oocytes-implications-for-human-infertility
#3
Suk Namgoong, Nam-Hyung Kim
In the final stage of oogenesis, mammalian oocytes generate a meiotic spindle and undergo chromosome segregation to yield an egg that is ready for fertilization. Herein, we describe the recent advances in understanding the mechanisms controlling formation of the meiotic spindle in metaphase I (MI) and metaphase II (MII) in mammalian oocytes, and focus on the differences between mouse and human oocytes. Unlike mitotic cells, mammalian oocytes lack typical centrosomes that consist of two centrioles and the surrounding pericentriolar matrix proteins (PCM), which serve as microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) in most somatic cells...
January 12, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342230/metformin-as-an-anti-cancer-agent-actions-and-mechanisms-targeting-cancer-stem-cells
#4
Nipun Saini, Xiaohe Yang
Metformin, a first line medication for type II diabetes, initially entered the spotlight as a promising anti-cancer agent due to epidemiologic reports that found reduced cancer risk and improved clinical outcomes in diabetic patients taking metformin. To uncover the anti-cancer mechanisms of metformin, preclinical studies determined that metformin impairs cellular metabolism and suppresses oncogenic signaling pathways, including receptor tyrosine kinase, PI3K/Akt, and mTOR pathways. Recently, the anti-cancer potential of metformin has gained increasing interest due to its inhibitory effects on cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are associated with tumor metastasis, drug resistance, and relapse...
October 7, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342203/biological-pathways-underlying-the-association-of-red-cell-distribution-width-and-adverse-clinical-outcome-results-of-a-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Giedre Zurauskaite, Marc Meier, Alaadin Voegeli, Daniel Koch, Sebastian Haubitz, Alexander Kutz, Luca Bernasconi, Andreas Huber, Mario Bargetzi, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
BACKGROUND: Red cell distribution width (RDW) predicts disease outcome in several patient populations, but its prognostic value in addition to other disease parameters in unselected medical inpatients remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the association of admission RDW levels and mortality adjusted for several disease pathways in unselected medical patients from a previous multicenter study. METHODS: We included consecutive adult, medical patients at the time point of hospital admission through the emergency department into this observational, cohort study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342192/white-matter-tract-specific-quantitative-analysis-in-multiple-sclerosis-comparison-of-optic-radiation-reconstruction-techniques
#6
Chenyu Wang, Alexander Klistorner, Linda Ly, Michael H Barnett
The posterior visual pathway is commonly affected by multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology that results in measurable clinical and electrophysiological impairment. Due to its highly structured retinotopic mapping, the visual pathway represents an ideal substrate for investigating patho-mechanisms in MS. Therefore, a reliable and robust imaging segmentation method for in-vivo delineation of the optic radiations (OR) is needed. However, diffusion-based tractography approaches, which are typically used for OR segmentation are confounded by the presence of focal white matter lesions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342182/light-alcohol-consumption-has-the-potential-to-suppress-hepatocellular-injury-and-liver-fibrosis-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
Kazutoshi Yamada, Eishiro Mizukoshi, Takuya Seike, Rika Horii, Masaaki Kitahara, Hajime Sunagozaka, Kuniaki Arai, Tatsuya Yamashita, Masao Honda, Shuichi Kaneko
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The modest consumption of alcohol has been reported to decrease the incidence of fatty liver or prevalence of steatohepatitis. In this study, we investigated the effect of light alcohol consumption on liver function and gene expression in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: The study group was formed of 178 patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, subclassified into two groups for analysis based on the daily alcohol consumption: non-alcohol group and light alcohol consumer group (≤20 g of ethanol/day)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342159/prediction-of-novel-target-genes-and-pathways-involved-in-bevacizumab-resistant-colorectal-cancer
#8
Precious Takondwa Makondi, Chia-Hwa Lee, Chien-Yu Huang, Chi-Ming Chu, Yu-Jia Chang, Po-Li Wei
Bevacizumab combined with cytotoxic chemotherapy is the backbone of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) therapy; however, its treatment efficacy is hampered by therapeutic resistance. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying bevacizumab resistance is crucial to increasing the therapeutic efficacy of bevacizumab. The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database (dataset, GSE86525) was used to identify the key genes and pathways involved in bevacizumab-resistant mCRC. The GEO2R web tool was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342125/induction-of-pro-apoptotic-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-multiple-myeloma-cells-by-neo214-perillyl-alcohol-conjugated-to-rolipram
#9
Thomas C Chen, Nymph Chan, Shirin Labib, Jiali Yu, Hee-Yeon Cho, Florence M Hofman, Axel H Schönthal
Despite the introduction of new therapies for multiple myeloma (MM), many patients are still dying from this disease and novel treatments are urgently needed. We have designed a novel hybrid molecule, called NEO214, that was generated by covalent conjugation of the natural monoterpene perillyl alcohol (POH), an inducer of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, to rolipram (Rp), an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4). Its potential anticancer effects were investigated in a panel of MM cell lines. We found that NEO214 effectively killed MM cells in vitro with a potency that was over an order of magnitude stronger than that of its individual components, either alone or in combination...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341898/induction-of-alpha-synuclein-pathology-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-rat-and-non-human-primate-results-in-gastrointestinal-dysmotility-and-transient-cns-pathology
#10
Fredric P Manfredsson, Kelvin C Luk, Matthew J Benskey, Aysegul Guezer, Joanna Garcia, Nathan C Kuhn, Ivette M Sandoval, Joseph R Patterson, Alana O'Mara, Reid Yonkers, Jeffrey H Kordower
Alpha-Synuclein (α-syn) is by far the most highly vetted pathogenic and therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease. Aggregated α-syn is present in sporadic Parkinson's disease, both in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). The enteric division of the PNS is of particular interest because 1) gastric dysfunction is a key clinical manifestation of Parkinson's disease, and 2) Lewy pathology in myenteric and submucosal neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS) has been referred to as stage zero in the Braak pathological staging of Parkinson's disease...
January 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341498/review-article-sepsis-in-the-emergency-department-part-2-investigations-and-monitoring
#11
REVIEW
Amith Shetty, Stephen Pj Macdonald, Gerben Keijzers, Julian M Williams, Benjamin Tang, Bas de Groot, Kelly Thompson, John F Fraser, Simon Finfer, Rinaldo Bellomo, Jonathan Iredell
Sepsis is characterised by organ dysfunction resulting from infection, with no reliable single objective test and current diagnosis based on clinical features and results of investigations. In the ED, investigations may be conducted to diagnose infection as the cause of the presenting illness, identify the source, distinguish sepsis from uncomplicated infection (i.e. without organ dysfunction) and/ or risk stratification. Appropriate sample collection for microbiological testing remains key for subsequent confirmation of diagnosis and rationalisation of antimicrobials...
January 16, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341486/rheumatoid-arthritis-and-periodontal-disease-what-are-the-similarities-and-differences
#12
REVIEW
Rongbin Li, Cheng Tian, Arnold Postlethwaite, Yan Jiao, Franklin Garcia-Godoy, Debendra Pattanaik, Dongmei Wei, Weikuan Gu, Jianwei Li
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontal disease (PD) are chronic inflammatory diseases that share similar osteoclasia, human leukocyte antigen-DR4 allelic genes and immunological profile, and characteristic cytokines. Smoking can contribute to more severe RA and PD; secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators destroys the soft synovial membrane and periodontium, respectively. Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies and anti-α-enolase antibody are characteristic of these two diseases. Some studies suggest that PD may be associated with RA...
December 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341478/translational-systems-pharmacology-based-predictive-assessment-of-drug-induced-cardiomyopathy
#13
Dimitris E Messinis, Ioannis N Melas, Junguk Hur, Navya Varshney, Leonidas G Alexopoulos, Jane P F Bai
Drug-induced cardiomyopathy contributes to drug attrition. We compared two pipelines of predictive modeling: (1) applying elastic net (EN) to differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of drugs; (2) applying integer linear programming (ILP) to construct each drug's signaling pathway starting from its targets to downstream proteins, to transcription factors, and to its DEGs in human cardiomyocytes, and then subjecting the genes/proteins in the drugs' signaling networks to EN regression. We classified 31 drugs with availability of DEGs into 13 toxic and 18 nontoxic drugs based on a clinical cardiomyopathy incidence cutoff of 0...
January 17, 2018: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341469/downregulation-of-csn6-attenuates-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-progression-by-reducing-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-and-sensitizes-cancer-cells-to-fh535-therapy
#14
Duo Wen, Tian Liao, Ben Ma, Ning Qu, Rong-Liang Shi, Zhong-Wu Lu, Yu-Long Wang, Wen-Jun Wei, Qing-Hai Ji
The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased worldwide at a rate higher than that of any other cancer. CSN6 is overexpressed in many types of cancers, and such expression is linked to oncogenic activity. However, the detailed biological functions of CSN6 in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) have not been well characterized. We investigated CSN6 expression in PTC specimens and cell lines. We used short-hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing to explore the biological effects of CSN6 depletion in PTC cells. The combined effects of CSN6 silencing and FH535 therapy were assessed in terms of cell viability...
January 17, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341468/downregulation-of-barh-like-homeobox-2-promotes-cell-proliferation-migration-and-aerobic-glycolysis-through-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-and-predicts-a-poor-prognosis-in-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma
#15
Hao Chen, Maowei Zhang, Wenhui Zhang, Yuanqin Li, Jiechen Zhu, Xiaojiao Zhang, Li Zhao, Shuyang Zhu, Bi Chen
BACKGROUND: Human BarH-like homeobox 2 (Barx2), a homeodomain factor of the Bar family, plays a critical role in cell adhesion and cytoskeleton remodeling, and has been reported in an increasing array of tumor types except non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The purpose of the current study was to characterize the expression of Barx2 and assess the clinical significance of Barx2 in NSCLC. METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis were used to examine mRNA and protein expression, respectively...
January 17, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341328/histiocytosis-cutaneous-manifestations-of-hematopoietic-neoplasm-and-non-neoplastic-histiocytic-proliferations
#16
REVIEW
C M Luder, T M Nordmann, E Ramelyte, B Mühleisen, K Kerl, O Boyman, E Guenova, R Dummer
Histiocytoses are rare disorders characterized by the accumulation of cells derived from macrophages, dendritic cells, or monocytes in various tissues. There is a broad spectrum of disease manifestations with some subtypes commonly showing skin lesions while in others the skin is rarely involved. Here we describe cutaneous manifestations of histiocytoses belonging to the Langerhans group (L group), the group of cutaneous and mucocutaneous histiocytoses (C group) and the group of Rosai-Dorfman disease and related histiocytoses (R group) according to the current classification...
January 16, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341321/interleukin-6-contributes-to-chemoresistance-in-mda-mb-231-cells-via-targeting-hif-1%C3%AE
#17
Ke Wang, Xue Zhu, Kai Zhang, Yongxiang Yin, Yu Chen, Ting Zhang
Chemoresistance is a critical challenge in the clinical treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). It has been well documented that inflammatory mediators from tumor microenvironment are involved in the pathogenesis of TNBC and might be related to chemoresistance of cancer cells. In this study, the contribution of interleukin-6 (IL-6), one of the principal oncogenic molecules, in chemoresistance of a TNBC cell line MDA-MB-231 was first investigated. The results showed that IL-6 treatment could induce upregulation of HIF-1α via the activation of STAT3 in MDA-MB-231 cells, which consequently contributed to its effect against chemotherapeutic drug-induced cytotoxicity and cell apoptosis...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341310/critical-appraisal-of-the-oxidative-stress-pathway-in-vitiligo-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
R Speeckaert, J Dugardin, J Lambert, H Lapeere, E Verhaeghe, M M Speeckaert, N van Geel
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of vitiligo remains a topic of extensive debate. This is partly due to the moderate efficacy of current treatments. The role of oxidative stress pathway in vitiligo is a popular although controversial research topic. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the role of the oxidative stress pathway in vitiligo compared to other inflammatory skin disorders and to assess the therapeutic role of antioxidants. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of the existing literature on the aberrancies of the oxidative stress pathway in vitiligo...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341224/comparative-rna-seq-transcriptome-analysis-on-silica-induced-pulmonary-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-mice-silicosis-model
#19
Jiayi Chen, Yuqin Yao, Xiaolan Su, Ying Shi, Xuejiao Song, Linshen Xie, Jia You, Liantian Tian, Luo Yang, Aiping Fang, Jingyuan Xiong
Silicosis is a long-established public health issue in developing countries due to increasingly serious air pollution and poorly implemented occupational safety regulation. Inhalation of silica triggers cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, pulmonary inflammation and eventually silicosis. Current understanding in the pathogenesis and mechanism of silicosis is limited, and no effective cure is clinically available once silicosis is developed. A number of studies were conducted to investigate silica-induced alternate gene expressions in pulmonary cells...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341159/clinicopathological-genomic-and-immunological-factors-in-colorectal-cancer-prognosis
#20
REVIEW
K M Marks, N P West, E Morris, P Quirke
BACKGROUND: Numerous factors affect the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC), many of which have long been identified, such as patient demographics and the multidisciplinary team. In more recent years, molecular and immunological biomarkers have been shown to have a significant influence on patient outcomes. Whilst some of these biomarkers still require ongoing validation, if proven to be worthwhile they may change our understanding and future management of CRC. The aim of this review was to identify the key prognosticators of CRC, including new molecular and immunological biomarkers, and outline how these might fit into the whole wider context for patients...
January 2018: British Journal of Surgery
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