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maternal factor

Kaisa Aunola, Matilda Sorkkila, Jaana Viljaranta, Asko Tolvanen, Tatiana V Ryba
INTRODUCTION: The transition from compulsory school to upper secondary school is a challenging period for adolescents. Especially challenging it can be for adolescents who aim to integrate two domains of achievement, such as an athletic career and academic education. The pressure from two intertwined achievement domains may make student-athletes vulnerable to symptoms of burnout. The study examined the role of mothers' and fathers' affection and psychological control as possible risk or protective factors in the symptoms of school and sport burnout among 15-16 year olds adolescent athletes in Finland...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Ambart E Covarrubias, Edouard Lecarpentier, Agnes Lo, Saira Salahuddin, Kathryn J Gray, S Ananth Karumanchi, Zsuzsanna K Zsengellér
Although the etiology of preeclampsia, a pregnancy complication with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity, has not been fully characterized, placental ischemia due to impaired spiral artery remodeling and abnormal secretion of anti-angiogenic factors are thought to be important in the pathogenesis of the disease. Placental ischemia could impair trophoblast mitochondrial function and energy production leading to the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS has been shown to stabilize hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α), which in turn may induce transcription of anti-angiogenic factors, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT1) and soluble endoglin in trophoblasts...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Juha Pyykkö, Linda Forssman, Kenneth Maleta, Per Ashorn, Ulla Ashorn, Jukka M Leppänen
Eye tracking research has shown that infants develop a repertoire of attentional capacities during the first year. The majority of studies examining the early development of attention comes from Western, high-resource countries. We examined visual attention in a heterogeneous sample of infants in rural Malawi (N = 312-376, depending on analysis). Infants were assessed with eye-tracking-based tests that targeted visual orienting, anticipatory looking, and attention to faces at 7 and 9 months. Consistent with prior research, infants exhibited active visual search for salient visual targets, anticipatory saccades to predictable events, and a robust attentional bias for happy and fearful faces...
October 13, 2018: Developmental Science
Alice L Tang, Adam Miller, Samantha Hauff, Charles M Myer, Vinita Takiar, Rebecca J Howell, Jonathan R Mark
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: This study evaluates the existence and nature of maternity and paternity leave policies for residents during otolaryngology training. The study sought to survey program directors (PDs) on the impact of parental leave. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: An electronic survey was sent to 103 otolaryngology residency PDs. A link to a 10-page, 30-question survey was provided. Descriptive statistics and comments were collected...
October 12, 2018: Laryngoscope
Amy E Vinson, Constance S Houck
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence regarding the impact of the exposure to anesthetic and sedative agents on neurodevelopment during the period of rapid brain growth in the first 3 years of life. Though much of the definitive data demonstrating anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity has come from studies in young animals, the focus of this review is on emerging human data. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2016, the first prospective trials investigating the neurodevelopmental impact of early anesthetic exposure (GAS and PANDA studies) were published, both showing no significant impact on IQ from a single brief anesthetic...
October 13, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Ameni Touati, Javier Errea-Dorronsoro, Sonia Nouri, Yosra Halleb, Arrate Pereda, Nabiha Mahdhaoui, Aida Ghith, Ali Saad, Guiomar Perez de Nanclares, Dorra H'mida Ben Brahim
AIM: 6q24-related transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (6q24-TNDM) is a rare imprinting disorder characterized by uncontrolled hyperglycemia during the first 6 months of life. The molecular etiology of 6q24-TNDM is attributable to overexpression of the paternally inherited PLAGL1 and HYMAI genes located on the 6q24 locus. One of these major defects is maternal loss of methylation (LOM) at 6q24. In addition, approximately 50% of TNDM patients that present LOM at 6q24 can also display hypomethylation at additional imprinted loci (multilocus imprinting disturbances, MLID)...
October 13, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
V Blagoeva Atanasova, J Arevalo-Serrano, E Antolin Alvarado, Santiago García-Tizón Larroca
BACKGROUND: The available literature suggests that there are significant differences in maternal mortality according to maternal origin in high income countries. The objective of this study was to quantify the risk of maternal death by maternal origin and region of Spain where the birth occurred and to identify the most important causes of maternal death in our country. METHODS: An ecological cross-sectional study was conducted that included all deliveries that resulted in maternal survival and cases of maternal death during 1999-2015 in Spain...
October 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
Telmo Henrique Barbosa de Lima, Leila Katz, Samir Buainain Kassar, Melania Maria Amorim
BACKGROUND: To investigate the associations of maternal variables - sociodemographic, obstetrical and maternal near miss (MNM) variables - with neonatal near miss (NNM) using the new concept of NNM formulated by the Centro Latino-Americano de Perinatologia (CLAP) and the corresponding health indicators for NNM. METHODS: An analytical prospective cohort study was performed at maternity hospital for high-risk pregnancy in Northeastern Brazil. Puerperal women whose newborn infants met the selection criteria were subjected to interviews involving pretested questionnaires...
October 12, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Nirmala Chandrasekaran, Leanne R De Souza, Marcelo L Urquia, Beverley Young, Anne Mcleod, Rory Windrim, Howard Berger
BACKGROUND: The symptoms of anemia and depression are very similar suggesting that there may be an association between the two entities. The aim of this study is to assess whether postpartum anemia (PPA) is an independent risk factor for de novo postpartum depression (PPD)in women undergoing elective cesarean section. METHODS: Women after an uncomplicated term cesarean section were recruited and their hemoglobin and iron status were measured on day 3-5 post section and again at 6 weeks...
October 11, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Steeve Rouillon, Houria El Ouazzani, Sylvie Rabouan, Virginie Migeot, Marion Albouy-Llaty
Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are known as environmental exposure factors. However, they are rarely reported by health professionals in clinical practice, particularly during pregnancy, even though they are associated with many deleterious consequences. The objectives of this study were to estimate the risk perception of pregnant women related to EDC exposure and to evaluate its determinants. A qualitative study based on the Health Belief Model was carried out through interviews of pregnant women and focus group with perinatal, environmental health and prevention professionals in 2015 in the city of Poitiers, France...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Stefan Dugalić, Milos Petronijevic, Aleksandar Stefanovic, Katarina Jeremic, Svetlana Vrzic Petronijevic, Ivan Soldatovic, Igor Pantic, Irena Djunic, Zoran Jokic, Filip Djokovic, Jelena Dotlic, Milica Zaric, Jovana Todorovic
One of the risk factors for vascular obstetric complications, such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), is inherited thrombophilias. Nevertheless, routine screening for thrombophilias is not endorsed in pregnant women due to their low prevalence and conflicting results of published studies regarding the usefulness of screening in these patients. The cause of IUGR remains unknown in almost 1 quarter of cases. There are no published studies evaluating the association of inherited thrombophilias and IUGR in patients with IUGR of unknown origin...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Cheng Xu, Xi Chen, E Albert Reece, Wenhui Lu, Peixin Yang
BACKGROUND: Maternal diabetes induces neural tube defects (NTDs) and stimulates the activity of the transcription factor FoxO3a (forkhead box transcription factor O3a) in the embryonic neuroepithelium. We previously demonstrated that deleting the Foxo3a gene ameliorates maternal diabetes-induced NTDs. Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is essential for neurulation. Rescuing autophagy suppressed by maternal diabetes in the developing neuroepithelium inhibits NTD formation in diabetic pregnancy...
October 9, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Lola Madrid, Sonia Amós Maculuve, Alba Vilajeliu, Emma Sáez, Sergio Massora, Anelsio Cossa, Rosauro Varo, Antonio Sitoe, Noraida Mosqueda, Rui Anselmo, Khatia Munguambe, Sara M Soto, Cinta Moraleda, Eusebio Macete, Clara Menéndez, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: In low-income countries, data on prevalence and effects of group B Streptococcus (GBS) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) colonization among pregnant women are scarce, but necessary to formulate prevention strategies. We assessed prevalence of GBS and E. coli colonization and factors associated among pregnant women, its effect in newborns and acceptability regarding the utilized sampling methods in a semirural Mozambican hospital. METHODS: Pregnant women were recruited from June 2014 to January 2015, during routine antenatal clinics at gestational age ≥ 34 weeks (n = 200); or upon delivery (n = 120)...
November 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Nandini Mukherjee, Thomas R Sutter, S Hasan Arshad, John W Holloway, Hongmei Zhang, Wilfried Karmaus
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke contains compounds similar to coal tar, an ancient remedy of eczema. Some studies have reported protective effects of maternal gestational smoking on offspring eczema; however, others have shown no or increased risks. Similarly, studies linking breastfeeding duration and eczema have demonstrated contradictory findings. No study has yet investigated combined effects of these two factors on eczema. OBJECTIVE: Since tobacco compounds can pass to offspring via breast milk, we investigated their combined effects on eczema development from childhood to adolescence...
October 12, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jennifer A Hutcheon, Susan Moskosky, Cande V Ananth, Olga Basso, Peter A Briss, Cynthia D Ferré, Brittni N Frederiksen, Sam Harper, Sonia Hernández-Díaz, Ashley H Hirai, Russell S Kirby, Mark A Klebanoff, Laura Lindberg, Sunni L Mumford, Heidi D Nelson, Robert W Platt, Lauren M Rossen, Alison M Stuebe, Marie E Thoma, Catherine J Vladutiu, Katherine A Ahrens
BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses of observational studies have shown that women with a shorter interpregnancy interval (the time from delivery to start of a subsequent pregnancy) are more likely to experience adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm delivery or small for gestational age birth, than women who space their births further apart. However, the studies used to inform these estimates have methodological shortcomings. METHODS: In this commentary, we summarise the discussions of an expert workgroup describing good practices for the design, analysis, and interpretation of observational studies of interpregnancy interval and adverse perinatal health outcomes...
October 12, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Fallon Cook, Fiona Mensah, Jordana K Bayer, Harriet Hiscock
AIM: To examine, in a community cohort of healthy one-month-old infants, (i) the prevalence of early infant sleeping, crying and feeding problems; (ii) the extent to which they co-exist; and (iii) infant and mother characteristics associated with each problem alone and with comorbid problems. METHODS: A survey at 4 weeks of infant age examined the presence of infant sleeping, crying and feeding problems (yes/no); parenting self-efficacy; rating of self as a tense person; and doubts about parenting at bedtime...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Yasmina Molero, Johan Zetterqvist, Paul Lichtenstein, Catarina Almqvist, Jonas F Ludvigsson
Background: Prior evidence shows that environmental tobacco smoke is a risk factor for respiratory tract infections, wheeze, and asthma. Nicotine replacement therapy has been shown to increase smoking cessation. However, no prior studies have explored if parental use decreases the risk of bronchitis/bronchiolitis and asthma in the offspring. Objective: To examine whether nicotine replacement therapy varenicline, given to parents, was associated with a reduction in bronchitis/bronchiolitis and/or asthma in their children...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Katie L Togher, Gerard W O'Keeffe, Ali S Khashan, Gerard Clarke, Louise C Kenny
Prenatal distress is associated with adverse outcomes in affected offspring. Alterations in placental glucocorticoid signalling and subsequent foetal overexposure to glucocorticoids have been implicated as an underlying mechanism. Infant sex is emerging as an important factor in disease susceptibility. This study aimed to examine the effects of maternal distress across pregnancy on birth outcomes and placental glucocorticoid genes in a sex-dependent manner. Participants completed psychological distress questionnaires throughout pregnancy...
October 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Freke A Wilmink, Herman T den Dekker, Johan C de Jongste, I Reiss, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Eric A Steegers, Liesbeth Duijts
Preeclampsia is associated with an increased risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, wheezing and asthma in later childhood. Currently, there are no studies available investigating maternal blood pressure measurements during multiple time points in pregnancy and respiratory outcome measures in the child. We examined the associations of maternal blood pressure and hypertensive disorders with the risk of lower lung function, wheezing and asthma in children aged 10 years. This study among 4894 children was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study...
October 11, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Marie Delnord, Jennifer Zeitlin
Late preterm (34-36 weeks of gestational age (GA)), and early term (37-38 weeks GA) birth rates among singleton live births vary from 3% to 6% and from 15% to 31%, respectively, across countries, although data from low- and middle-income countries are sparse. Countries with high preterm birth rates are more likely to have high early term birth rates; many risk factors are shared, including pregnancy complications (hypertension, diabetes), medical practices (provider-initiated delivery, assisted reproduction), maternal socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and environmental factors...
September 18, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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