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exosome chemoresistance

Minsoo Kang, Suhyun Kim, Jesang Ko
Extracellular vesicles contain various cellular components that are involved in tumor growth, metastasis, and immune escape. Extracellular vesicles are classified into 2 groups, namely, exosomes and microvesicles (MV). Although the formation and roles of exosomes have been studied, the exact functions of MVs and mechanisms underlying MV release are not fully understood. We found that epidermal growth factor accelerates the release of MVs from the plasma membrane by inducing NF-κB activation and CD133 expression...
December 6, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Pinar Kanlikilicer, Recep Bayraktar, Merve Denizli, Mohammed H Rashed, Cristina Ivan, Burcu Aslan, Rahul Mitra, Kubra Karagoz, Emine Bayraktar, Xinna Zhang, Cristian Rodriguez-Aguayo, Amr Ahmed El-Arabey, Nermin Kahraman, Seyda Baydogan, Ozgur Ozkayar, Michael L Gatza, Bulent Ozpolat, George A Calin, Anil K Sood, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein
BACKGROUND: Circulating miRNAs are known to play important roles in intercellular communication. However, the effects of exosomal miRNAs on cells are not fully understood. METHODS: To investigate the role of exosomal miR-1246 in ovarian cancer (OC) microenvironment, we performed RPPA as well as many other in vitro functional assays in ovarian cancer cells (sensitive; HeyA8, Skov3ip1, A2780 and chemoresistant; HeyA8-MDR, Skov3-TR, A2780-CP20). Therapeutic effect of miR-1246 inhibitor treatment was tested in OC animal model...
November 25, 2018: EBioMedicine
Cuixia Di, Qianjing Zhang, Yupei Wang, Fang Wang, Yuhong Chen, Lu Gan, Rong Zhou, Chao Sun, Hongyan Li, Xuetian Zhang, Hongying Yang, Hong Zhang
Exosomes are nanoscale vesicles shed from all cell types and play a major role in communication and transportation of materials between cells due to their ability to transfer proteins and nucleic acids from one cell to another. Analogous in size and function to synthetic nanoparticles, exosomes offer many advantages, rendering them the most promising candidates for targeted drug or gene delivery vehicles. Exosomes can also induce chemoresistance or radioresistance of tumor cells. Studies about the related mechanisms help overcome cancer therapy resistance to some extent...
November 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Ling Qian, Shulin Yu, Zhen Chen, Zhiqiang Meng, Shenglin Huang, Peng Wang
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human malignancies and is associated with a dismal prognosis, which can be contributed to its atypical symptoms, metastatic propensity, and significant chemoresistance. Emerging evidence shows that pancreatic cancer cell-derived exosomes (PEXs) play critical roles in tumorigenesis and tumor development, as they are involved in drug resistance, immune evasion and metabolic reprograming, and distant metastasis of pancreatic cancer. Their numerous differentially expressed and functional contents make PEXs promising screening tools and therapeutic targets, which require further exploration...
November 9, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Reviews on cancer
Bin Wang, Xiaoting Wang, Diyu Hou, Qian Huang, Weiwu Zhan, Canwei Chen, Jingru Liu, Ruolan You, Jieqiong Xie, Ping Chen, Huifang Huang
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common type of leukemia in adults. AML cells secrete angiogenic factors to remodel vasculature and acquire chemoresistance; however, antiangiogenic drugs are often ineffective in AML treatment. Cancer cell-derived exosomes can induce angiogenesis, but their role in vascular remodeling during AML is unclear. Here, we found that exosomes secreted by AML cells promoted proliferation and migration and tube-forming activity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), whereas HUVECs conferred chemoresistance to AML cells...
November 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Mona Alharbi, Felipe Zuñiga, Omar Elfeky, Dominic Guanzon, Andrew Lai, Gregory E Rice, Lewis Perrin, John Hooper, Carlos Salomon
Chemoresistance is one of the major obstacles in the treatment of cancer patients. It poses a fundamental challenge to the effectiveness of chemotherapy and is often linked to relapse in patients. Chemoresistant cells can be identified in different types of cancers; however, ovarian cancer has one of the highest rates of chemoresistance-related relapse (50% of patients within 5 years). Resistance in cells can either develop through prolonged cycles of treatment or through intrinsic pathways. Mechanistically, the problem of drug resistance is complex mainly because numerous factors are involved, such as overexpression of drug efflux pumps, drug inactivation, DNA repair mechanisms and alterations to and/or mutations in the drug target...
December 1, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Mubalake Abudoureyimu, Hao Zhou, Yingru Zhi, Ting Wang, Bing Feng, Rui Wang, Xiaoyuan Chu
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles 50-150 nm in diameter released by a variety of cells, which contain miRNAs, mRNAs and proteins with the potential to regulate signalling pathways in recipient cells. Exosomes deliver nucleic acids and proteins to participate in orchestrating cell-cell communication and microenvironment modulation. In this review, we summarize recent progress in our understanding of the role of exosomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This review focuses on recent studies on HCC exosomes, considering biogenesis, cargo and their effects on the development and progression of HCC, including chemoresistance, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis, metastasis and immune response...
November 5, 2018: Cell Proliferation
Lydia Giannopoulou, Martha Zavridou, Sabine Kasimir-Bauer, Evi S Lianidou
Ovarian cancer still remains the most lethal female cancer, since in most cases it is diagnosed at an advanced stage. Usually after completion of primary treatment chemoresistance occurs, and recurrent disease is finally observed. Liquid biopsy, based on minimally invasive and serial blood tests, has the advantage of following tumor evolution in real time, offering novel insights on precision medicine. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating cell-free microRNAs (cfmiRNAs) and circulating exosomes represent the major components of liquid biopsy analysis...
October 12, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Y-B Hu, C Yan, L Mu, Y-L Mi, H Zhao, H Hu, X-L Li, D-D Tao, Y-Q Wu, J-P Gong, J-C Qin
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are inherently resistant to chemotherapy, and CSCs in chemotherapy-failed recurrent tumors are enriched; however, the cellular origin of chemotherapy-induced CSC enrichment remains unclear. Communication with stromal fibroblasts may induce cancer cell dedifferentiation into CSCs through secreted factors. We recently demonstrated that fibroblast-derived exosomes promote chemoresistance in colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we report that fibroblasts confer CRC chemoresistance via exosome-induced reprogramming (dedifferentiation) of bulk CRC cells to phenotypic and functional CSCs...
November 2, 2018: Oncogene
Mei Wang, Rong Qiu, Shaorong Yu, Xiaoyue Xu, Gang Li, Rongmin Gu, Caihong Tan, Wei Zhu, Bo Shen
Paclitaxel is a first‑line chemotherapeutic agent for gastric cancer; however, resistance limits its effectiveness. Investigation into the underlying mechanisms of paclitaxel resistance is urgently required. In the present study, a paclitaxel‑resistant gastric cancer cell line (MGC‑803R) was generated with a morphological phenotype of epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) and increased expression levels of microRNA (miR)‑155‑5p. MGC‑803R cell‑derived exosomes were effectively taken up by paclitaxel‑sensitive MGC‑803S cells, which exhibited EMT and chemoresistance phenotypes...
October 22, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
He-da Zhang, Lin-Hong Jiang, Jun-Chen Hou, Shan-Liang Zhong, Ling-Ping Zhu, Dan-Dan Wang, Si-Ying Zhou, Su-Jin Yang, Jin-Yan Wang, Qian Zhang, Han-Zi Xu, Jian-Hua Zhao, Zhen-Ling Ji, Jin-Hai Tang
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles with a diameter of 40-100 nm, which are released into the intracellular environment. Exosomes could influence the genetic and epigenetic changes of receptor cells by promoting the horizontal transfer of various proteins or RNAs, especially miRNAs. Moreover, exosomes also play an important role in tumor microenvironment. Exosomes could promote the short- and long-distance exchanges of genetic information by acting as mediators of cell-to-cell communication. In addition, exosomes participate in drug resistance of tumor cells by genetic exchange between cells...
October 12, 2018: Epigenomics
Hamid Cheshomi, Maryam M Matin
Extracellular vesicles are known as actual intermediaries of intercellular communications, such as biological signals and cargo transfer between different cells. A variety of cells release the exosomes as nanovesicular bodies. Exosomes contain different compounds such as several types of nucleic acids and proteins. In this study, we focused on exosomes in colorectal cancer as good tools that can be involved in various cancer-related processes. Furthermore, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of exosome extraction methods and review related studies on the role of exosomes in colorectal cancer...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Sai V Chitti, Pamali Fonseka, Suresh Mathivanan
Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial metabolic syndrome characterized by the rapid loss of skeletal muscle mass with or without the loss of fat mass. Nearly 50-80% of all cancer patients' experience rapid weight loss results in ∼20% of cancer-related deaths. The levels of pro-inflammatory and pro-cachectic factors were significantly up-regulated in cachexia patients when compared with the patients who were without cachexia. It is becoming evident that these factors work synergistically to induce cancer cachexia...
September 20, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Hongdan Li, Feng Li
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are progenitor cells shown to migrate to the tumour and participate in the tumour microenvironment. BM-MSCs play important roles in tumour processes through the release of cytokines or exosomes; however, how BM-MSCs influence the stemness of CSCs in colon cancer cells remains poorly understood. METHODS: We isolated exosomes from BM-MSCs and used these exosomes to treat colon cancer cells (HCT-116, HT-29 and SW-480)...
September 17, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Yuhua Feng, Meizuo Zhong, Shan Zeng, Leyuan Wang, Ping Liu, Xiangyu Xiao, Yiping Liu
AIM: To analyze the expression profiles, clinicopathological features and chemotherapeutic efficacies of exosome-derived miRNAs in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). MATERIALS & METHODS: Next-generation sequencing technique was performed to identify miRNA profiles in exosomes from parental and chemoresistant DLBCL cells. The results were validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and further analyzed by bioinformatics and statistical methods. RESULTS: We identified 37 significantly upregulated and 17 downregulated miRNAs...
September 13, 2018: Epigenomics
Fang Sun, Jin-Zhi Wang, Ji-Jun Luo, Yu-Qin Wang, Qin Pan
Exosomes are emerging as essential vehicles mediated cross-talk between different types of cells in tumor microenvironment. The extensive exploration of exosomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) enhances our comprehension of cancer biology referring to tumor growth, metastasis, immune evasion, and chemoresistance. Besides, the versatile roles of exosomes provide reasonable explanations for the propensity for liver metastasis of gastric cancer, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer...
2018: BioMed Research International
Ailiang Zeng, Zhiyun Wei, Wei Yan, Jianxing Yin, Xiaoxu Huang, Xu Zhou, Rui Li, Feng Shen, Weining Wu, Xiefeng Wang, Yongping You
Chemoresistance blunts the effect of Temozolomide (TMZ) in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Whether exosomal transfer of miRNAs derived from TMZ-resistant GBM cells could confer TMZ resistance remains to be determined. qPCR was used to determine miR-151a expression in two TMZ-resistant GBM cell lines. The direct targets of miR-151a were identified by microarray assays, bioinformatics and further RNA chromatin immunoprecipitation (RNA-ChIP) assay. We characterized exosomes from TMZ-resistant cell lines, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and determined the effect of exosomes from TMZ-resistant cells on recipient GBM cells...
November 1, 2018: Cancer Letters
Jing Ren, Liang Ding, Dongya Zhang, Guoping Shi, Qianyun Xu, Sunan Shen, Yaping Wang, Tingting Wang, Yayi Hou
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the pathology of various tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). The crosstalk between carcinoma- associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment promotes tumor development and confers chemoresistance. In this study, we further investigated the underlying tumor-promoting roles of CAFs and the molecular mediators involved in these processes. Methods: The AOM/DSS-induced colitis-associated cancer (CAC) mouse model was established, and RNA sequencing was performed...
2018: Theranostics
Hongyu Liu, Baoguo Li
PURPOSE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide with limited therapeutic options. Exosome is a member of extracellular vesicles that can be released by different cells in liver to communicate with other cells. HCC development has been characterized by a dysfunction of exosome regulation through many molecular mechanisms. The aim of the present review is to summarize the literature on exosomes in HCC, their roles in hepatocarcinogenesis from liver disease, molecules exchange between tumor cells and neighboring cells, metastasis, chemoresistant, immunosuppression, early diagnose and therapy application...
November 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Wei-Xian Chen, Ling-Yun Xu, Qi Qian, Xiao He, Wen-Ting Peng, Wen-Qiang Fan, Yu-Lan Zhu, Jin-Hai Tang, Lin Cheng
d Rhamnose β-hederin (DRβ-H), an active component extracted from the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Clematis ganpiniana , has been reported to be effective against breast cancer. Recent studies have also indicated that the isolated exosomes (D/exo) from docetaxel-resistant breast cancer cells MCF-7 (MCF-7/Doc) were associated with resistance transmission by delivering genetic cargo. However, the relevance of D/exo during DRβ-H exposure remains largely unclear. In the present work, exosomes were characterized by morphology and size distribution...
October 31, 2018: Bioscience Reports
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