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Ravi K Chilukoti, Josefine Lendeckel, Katrin Darm, Alicja Bukowska, Andreas Goette, Marc Sühling, Kirsten Utpatel, Barbara Peters, Georg Homuth, Uwe Völker, Carmen Wolke, Christian Scharf, Uwe Lendeckel
Dronedarone improves microvascular flow during atrial fibrillation and reduces the infarct size in acute models of myocardial infarction. However, dronedarone might be harmful in patients with recent decompensated heart failure and increases mortality in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation. A pathophysiological explanation for these discrepant data is lacking. This study investigated the effects of dronedarone on gene and protein expression in the infarcted area and border zone in pigs subjected to anterior ischemia/reperfusion myocardial infarction...
July 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Shiri Shinar, Tally Lerman-Sagie, Monica Echevarria Telleria, Fernando Viñals, Raquel García, Hector Quiroga, Carmina Bermejo, Liat Ben-Sira, Zvika Leibovitz, Joseph Har-Toov, Gustavo Malinger
INTRODUCTION: Pericallosal lipomas (PCL) are congenital soft masses of adipose cells encapsulated by a thin layer of fibrous tissue, appearing adjacent to the corpus callosum (CC). The lipomas are usually diagnosed prenatally during the third trimester. The purpose of this study was to identify 2nd trimester ultrasound findings that may hint to a later diagnosis of PCL and to evaluate their MRI evolution. METHODS: A multicenter study of fetuses diagnosed during the 3rd trimester with a PCL in 7 fetal ultrasound units between 2001 and 2017...
August 2, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Alexander Diete, Timo Sztyler, Heiner Stuckenschmidt
Working with multimodal datasets is a challenging task as it requires annotations which often are time consuming and difficult to acquire. This includes in particular video recordings which often need to be watched as a whole before they can be labeled. Additionally, other modalities like acceleration data are often recorded alongside a video. For that purpose, we created an annotation tool that enables to annotate datasets of video and inertial sensor data. In contrast to most existing approaches, we focus on semi-supervised labeling support to infer labels for the whole dataset...
August 11, 2018: Sensors
Takahiro Mitsui, Masahiko Saito, Ryô Harasawa
Dietary nitrate has several beneficial effects, including blood pressure reduction and improved oxygen consumption efficiency, but in order to do so it must first be reduced to nitrite by oral bacteria. Veillonella spp., a strictly anaerobic group, are the most prevalent nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity. In response to some early studies that have hinted at inter- and intra-individual variation in salivary nitrate-nitrite conversion capacity, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the incidence of and variation in the Veillonella species V...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Oral Science
Cornelius Krull, Marina Castelli, Prokop Hapala, Dhaneesh Kumar, Anton Tadich, Martina Capsoni, Mark T Edmonds, Jack Hellerstedt, Sarah A Burke, Pavel Jelinek, Agustin Schiffrin
Coordination chemistry relies on harnessing active metal sites within organic matrices. Polynuclear complexes-where organic ligands bind to several metal atoms-are relevant due to their electronic/magnetic properties and potential for functional reactivity pathways. However, their synthesis remains challenging; few geometries and configurations have been achieved. Here, we synthesise-via supramolecular chemistry on a noble metal surface-one-dimensional metal-organic nanostructures composed of terpyridine (tpy)-based molecules coordinated with well-defined polynuclear iron clusters...
August 10, 2018: Nature Communications
Carolina Plaza Rodríguez, Guido Correia Carreira, Annemarie Käsbohrer
Direct contact between humans and live broilers, as well as the consumption of chicken meat, have been suggested as pathways for transmission of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC-β-lactamase (AmpC)-producing Escherichia coli. One approach to design intervention strategies to control the transmission of such bacteria between animals and humans is to study the transmission pathways of such bacteria between the animals themselves. The rationale is that controlling the process of the underlying source, here transmission between animals, can provide hints on how to control a higher-level process, here the transmission between animals and humans...
August 10, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Wentao Hui, Xiaobin Ma, Ying Zan, Lingqin Song, Shuqun Zhang, Lei Dong
Gastric cancer ranks as the third most lethal cancer worldwide. Although many efforts have been made to identify novel markers for early diagnosis and effective drugs for the treatment of gastric cancer, the outcome is still poor due to delayed diagnosis and lack of therapeutic options. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles during tumorigenesis, and several miRNAs were found to be critical for gastric cancer development, offering promise as therapeutic targets. The results of this study indicate that a novel miRNA, miR-1292-5p, is downregulated both in gastric carcinoma in vivo and in gastric cancer cell lines in vitro...
2018: American Journal of Cancer Research
Nikit Kumar, Marianna Leonzino, William Hancock-Cerutti, Florian A Horenkamp, PeiQi Li, Joshua A Lees, Heather Wheeler, Karin M Reinisch, Pietro De Camilli
Mutations in the human VPS13 genes are responsible for neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders including chorea acanthocytosis (VPS13A) and Parkinson's disease (VPS13C). The mechanisms of these diseases are unknown. Genetic studies in yeast hinted that Vps13 may have a role in lipid exchange between organelles. In this study, we show that the N-terminal portion of VPS13 is tubular, with a hydrophobic cavity that can solubilize and transport glycerolipids between membranes. We also show that human VPS13A and VPS13C bind to the ER, tethering it to mitochondria (VPS13A), to late endosome/lysosomes (VPS13C), and to lipid droplets (both VPS13A and VPS13C)...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Aniruddha Mitra, Felix Ruhnow, Salvatore Girardo, Stefan Diez
Kinesin-8 motors, which move in a highly processive manner toward microtubule plus ends where they act as depolymerases, are essential regulators of microtubule dynamics in cells. To understand their navigation strategy on the microtubule lattice, we studied the 3D motion of single yeast kinesin-8 motors, Kip3, on freely suspended microtubules in vitro. We observed short-pitch, left-handed helical trajectories indicating that kinesin-8 motors frequently switch protofilaments in a directionally biased manner...
August 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Muhammad Shaban, Muhammad Mahmood Ahmed, Heng Sun, Abid Ullah, Longfu Zhu
BACKGROUND: Plant lipoxygenase (LOX) genes are members of the non-haeme iron-containing dioxygenase family that catalyze the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into functionally diverse oxylipins. The LOX family genes have been extensively studied under biotic and abiotic stresses, both in model and non-model plant species; however, information on their roles in cotton is still limited. RESULTS: A total of 64 putative LOX genes were identified in four cotton species (Gossypium (G...
August 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
Peng Zhang, Matthew W Turnbull
Certain parasitoid wasps are associated with Polydnaviruses, symbiotic viruses that encode virulence factors which are essential to successful parasitization by the wasp of a caterpillar host. Members of one group of Polydnaviruses, the Ichnoviruses, encode a multi-gene family known as Vinnexins. Vinnexins are homologues of insect gap junction genes, and form functional gap junctions that may affect host cell physiology. However, the role of Vinnexins in host pathology and the mechanism by which these affect their caterpillar host are largely unknown...
August 9, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Magda Babina, Zhao Wang, Metin Artuc, Sven Guhl, Torsten Zuberbier
MRGPRX2 was recently uncovered as the "missing link" in clinically relevant mast cell (MC) activation explaining previously puzzling phenomena. It is the receptor for various endogenous ligands and exogenous compounds alike, whose binding evokes rapid degranulation much like allergen-mediated exocytosis. While the perceivable outcomes are similar, the two activation routes differ regarding mechanism and regulation. We recently reported that acute SCF administration curbs responses evoked by MRGPRX2 in human skin MCs...
August 9, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Katerina K Karali, Lamprini Sygellou, Constantine D Stalikas
Tris-(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane and urea were used as low-cost precursor compounds to synthesize highly fluorescent N-doped carbon nanodots (CNDs), in an environmentally-friendly, inexpensive process. The as-prepared CNDs exhibit blue fluorescence, excellent photostability under various conditions, water dispersibility and stability over several parameters, such as a wide range of pH. The N-doped CNDs were applied as a multi-probe fluorescence quenching system to the sensitive detection of nitrite (NO2 - ), nitrate (NO3 - ) and ferric (Fe3+ ) ions in food matrices...
November 1, 2018: Talanta
Owen Benton
Quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are exotic phases of matter exhibiting long-range entanglement and supporting emergent gauge fields. A vigorous search for experimental realizations of these states has identified several materials with properties hinting at QSL physics. A key issue in understanding these QSL candidates is often the interplay of weak disorder of the crystal structure with the spin liquid state. It has recently been pointed out that in at least one important class of candidate QSLs-pyrochlore magnets based on non-Kramers ions such as Pr^{3+} or Tb^{3+}-structural disorder can actually promote a U(1) QSL ground state...
July 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
M Hoffmann, M Taibinger, A K Holl, H Burgsteiner, T R Pieber, P Eller, G Sendlhofer, K Amrein
BACKGROUND: Relatives of intensive care patients have a very high need for information. This is due to the acute and serious, often life-threatening illness of the patients and the very complex and technical environment of an intensive care unit (ICU). Unmet needs for information can increase anxiety, sleep disorders, stress, and depressive symptoms in the relatives. OBJECTIVES: The potential of the ICU families website in terms of usability and functionality during real-time testing were evaluated...
August 6, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Mattias Mandorfer, Theresa Bucsics, Veronika Hutya, Karin Schmid-Scherzer, Benedikt Schaefer, Heinz Zoller, Arnulf Ferlitsch, Markus Peck-Radosavljevic, Michael Trauner, Peter Ferenci, Meinhard Kneussl, Thomas Reiberger
Background: The natural history of adult liver disease due to α1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1AD) remains poorly understood. Objective: We investigated whether heterozygosity for the Z-allele predisposes for the development of clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH). Moreover, we aimed to non-invasively assess the prevalence of liver fibrosis and hepatic steatosis in adults with A1AD treated by pulmonologists. Methods: SERPINA1 rs28929474 (Z-allele) was genotyped in 315 patients with CSPH (hepatic venous pressure gradient ≥10 mmHg; cases) and 248 liver donors (controls)...
June 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Mohamad Bazzi, Benjamin P Kear, Henning Blom, Per E Ahlberg, Nicolás E Campione
The Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K-Pg) mass extinction profoundly altered vertebrate ecosystems and prompted the radiation of many extant clades [1, 2]. Sharks (Selachimorpha) were one of the few larger-bodied marine predators that survived the K-Pg event and are represented by an almost-continuous dental fossil record. However, the precise dynamics of their transition through this interval remain uncertain [3]. Here, we apply 2D geometric morphometrics to reconstruct global and regional dental morphospace variation among Lamniformes (Mackerel sharks) and Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks)...
July 25, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Hironori Tohmyoh, Mitsuharu Ishihara, Kaori Ikuta, Tomoko Watanabe
Although human eyelashes are generally curved, the cause of the natural curvature of eyelashes has not yet to be clarified elsewhere. Related with this, this paper reports our discovery of a correlation between the curvature of the eyelash and its geometrical features. Eyelashes can be divided into root, middle and tip sections. Because the curvature at the root is larger than that at the tip, we expected that the root section could be more easily deformed by bending compared with the tip section. However, the structural elasticity in bending, which is the flexural rigidity without depending on the external dimensions, at the root was found to be greater than that at the tip, contrary to our initial expectations...
August 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Maria D Giraldez, Muneesh Tewari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2018: Gastroenterology
Francisco O Borges, Eduardo Sampaio, Cátia Figueiredo, Rui Rosa, Tiago F Grilo
Ocean acidification (OA) has been shown to disrupt behavioural responses either by affecting metabolic processes, or by effectively impairing an organisms' ability to gather and assess information and make decisions. Given the lack of information regarding the effects of high CO2 on olfactory-mediated mating behaviours in crustaceans, the possible chemosensory disruption in male mate-tracking in the keystone amphipod (Gammarus locusta) was assessed (after a two-generation acclimation to high CO2 conditions)...
August 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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