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Ming Li, Jianqiang Zhao, Liang Jia
Osteoarthritis (OA) is an inflammatory joint disease. USP14, a deubiquitinating enzyme critical for ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal protein degradation, is implicated in inflammation regulation. However, its role and mechanism in OA are poorly understood. Here, we report that USP14 is upregulated in OA articular cartilage as well as in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β in vitro. USP14 upregulation depends on NF-κB pathway activation, since inhibition of this pathway by ACHP, a selective inhibitor of IKK-β, abolishes USP14 upregulation...
December 11, 2018: Life Sciences
Isabelle T Garzorz, Tom C A Freeman, Marc O Ernst, Paul R MacNeilage
To estimate object speed with respect to the self, retinal signals must be summed with extraretinal signals that encode the speed of eye and head movement. Prior work has shown that differences in perceptual estimates of object speed based on retinal and oculomotor signals lead to biased percepts such as the Aubert-Fleischl phenomenon (AF), in which moving targets appear slower when pursued. During whole-body movement, additional extraretinal signals, such as those from the vestibular system, may be used to transform object speed estimates from a head-centered to a world-centered reference frame...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Vision
Elena Mileva, Dimi Arabadzhieva, Anna Gyurova, Lidia Alexandrova, Alexander Chinarev, Svetlana Tsygankova, Alexander Tuzikov, Khristo Khristov, Bogdan Ranguelov
Antennary oligoglycines are synthetic products, obtained by preliminary molecular design. Equal-length antennae are built of glycine residues jointed by C-end to oligoamine branching core with amine group at the N-terminus exposed outside. Results from a systematic research on properties of aqueous solutions containing two-antennary oligoglycine with four glycine portions are reported here. The central feature is the competition between amphiphilic self-assembly and onset of Polyglycine II motifs. This demands 'softer' research approach and a combined procedure is developed to characterize bulk and interfacial structures and coatings...
December 12, 2018: ChemSusChem
Mihai Udrescu, Lucreţia Udrescu
Complex network representations of reported drug-drug interactions foster computational strategies that can infer pharmacological functions which, in turn, create incentives for drug repositioning. Here, we use Gephi (a platform for complex network visualization and analysis) to represent a drug-drug interaction network with drug interaction information from DrugBank 4.1. Both modularity class- and force-directed layout ForceAtlas2 are employed to generate drug clusters which correspond to nine specific drug properties...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Raimund Nagel, John E Bieber, Mark G Schmidt-Dannert, Ryan S Nett, Reuben J Peters
The ability of plant-associated microbes to produce gibberellin A (GA) phytohormones was first described for the fungal rice pathogen Gibberella fujikuroi in the 1930s. Recently the capacity to produce GAs was shown for several bacteria, including symbiotic alpha-proteobacteria (α-rhizobia) and gamma-proteobacteria phytopathogens. All necessary enzymes for GA production are encoded by a conserved operon, which appears to have undergone horizontal transfer between and within these two phylogenetic classes of bacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fan Zhang, Bing Bai, Guang-Jian Xu, Zhi-Wei Lin, Gui-Qiu Li, Zhong Chen, Hang Cheng, Xiang Sun, Hong-Yan Wang, Yan-Wei Chen, Jin-Xin Zheng, Qi-Wen Deng, Zhi-Jian Yu
BACKGROUND: Mortality rates for patients with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections have improved only modestly in recent decades and S. aureus infections remain a major clinical challenge This study investigated the in vitro antimicrobial activity of erevacycline (erava) against clinical S. aureus isolates from China, as well as the heteroresistance frequency of erava and sequence types (STs) represented in the sample. RESULTS: A sample of 328 non-duplicate clinical S...
December 13, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Kostas A Triantaphyllopoulos, Fotis A Baltoumas, Stavros J Hamodrakas
Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage Proteins are a family of transmembrane divalent metal ion transporters, with important implications in life of both bacteria and mammals. Among them, the Solute Carrier family 11 member A1 (SLC11A1) has been implicated with susceptibility to infection by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), potentially causing Crohn's disease in humans and paratuberculosis (PTB) in ruminants. Our previous research had focused on sequencing the mRNA of the caprine slc11a1 gene and pinpointed polymorphisms that contribute to caprine SLC11A1's susceptibility to infection by MAP in PTB...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
Martin Fieder, Susanne Huber
There is growing evidence that human ideology as well as social and political attitudes also have a genetic basis. In case of some genetic predisposition of political attitude, an association with fertility would be a hint of potential selection on political ideology. We therefore investigated on the basis of men and women that have completed, respectively, almost completed reproduction, of three different data sets (the World Value Survey 1981-2014 covering a wide range of countries and developmental levels, n = 152,380, the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe of 2005, n = 65,912, and the General Social Survey of the United States 1972-2014, n ∼ 6200) whether political attitude is associated with number of children...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Alessandra Dellavance, Luis Eduardo Coelho Andrade
Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) has been used for detection of autoantibodies against cellular antigens for more than 50 years. Originally using rodent tissue as substrate, the method was optimized by using the human immortal HEp-2 cell line derived from a larynx epidermal carcinoma. The HEp-2/IFA platform allows for optimal visualization of several cellular domains recognized by autoantibodies in the samples being tested. Serial dilution allows for the estimation of the concentration (titer) of the autoantibodies in the sample...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kathrin Heldmaier, Christian Stoppe, Andreas Goetzenich, Ann-Christina Foldenauer, Rachat Zayat, Thomas Breuer, Gereon Schälte
Background: Aortic valve stenosis has gained increasingly more importance due to its high prevalence in elderly people. More than two decades ago, transcatheter aortic valve replacement emerged for patients who were denied surgery, and its noninferiority has been demonstrated in numerous studies. Oxidative stress has generated great interest because of its sensitivity to cell damage and the possibility of offering early hints of clinical outcomes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is a significant difference between transcatheter (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in terms of the changes in oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and antioxidant capacity...
2018: BioMed Research International
Jisan Sun, Wentao Jiang, Dazhi Tian, Qingjun Guo, Zhongyang Shen
Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for one of the most prevalent tumor types in the world and still lacks an effective treatment regimen. The EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor icotinib is capable of inhibiting proliferation of several kinds of cancer cells, but its anticancer effect in HCC is still not verified. Methods: In the current study, ten HCC cell lines were selected to test their original EGFR-activation status and PDL1 protein level, and in vitro antiproliferation assays were also conducted to analyze the IC50 and further investigate the correlation between IC50 and protein level of phosphorylated EGFR and PDL1...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Ruud A Leijendekkers, Gerben van Hinte, Jan Paul Frölke, Hendrik van de Meent, Femke Atsma, Maria Wg Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Thomas J Hoogeboom
OBJECTIVES: (1) To compare level of function, activity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and satisfaction in persons with a lower extremity amputation before surgery and 6- and 12-months after implantation of an osseointegration implant and (2) to report adverse events. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: University medical centre. SUBJECTS: A total of 40 consecutive persons (median age: 56 years) who received a transfemoral (31) or transtibial (9) osseointegration implant, between April 2014 and March 2016...
December 12, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
Imtiyaz Ahmad Bhat, Bibhisan Roy, Partha Hazra, Kabir-Ud-Din
Herein, we have explored the conformational alterations of hemoglobin (Hb) in presence of a cleavable gemini surfactant (C16-C4O2-C16). The concerned surfactant was found to induce significant structural perturbations in Hb. UV-vis spectroscopy, steady-state/time-resolved fluorescence, and other utilized techniques have authenticated the complexation of Hb with the gemini surfactant. CD has demonstrated the alterations in secondary structural elements (α-helicity, β-sheet, β-turn, and random coil) of Hb upon C16-C4O2-C16 addition...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Giovanni Tagliabue
Critics of the use of advanced biotechnologies in the agri-food sector ("New Breeding Techniques", comprising CRISPR) demand a strict regulation of any such method, even more severe than rules applied to so-called "Genetically Modified Organisms" (i.e. recombinant DNA processes and products). But their position is unwarranted, since it relies on faulty arguments.While most life scientists have always explained that the trigger for regulation should be the single product and its phenotypic traits, opponents insist that the target should be certain biotech processes...
December 10, 2018: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
Maria Wirzberger, Robert Herms, Shirin Esmaeili Bijarsari, Maximilian Eibl, Günter Daniel Rey
Schema acquisition processes comprise an essential source of cognitive demands in learning situations. To shed light on related mechanisms and influencing factors, this study applied a continuous multi-measure approach for cognitive load assessment. In a dual-task setting, a sample of 123 student participants learned visually presented symbol combinations with one of two levels of complexity while memorizing auditorily presented number sequences. Learners' cognitive load during the learning task was addressed by secondary task performance, prosodic speech parameters (pauses, articulation rate), and physiological markers (heart rate, skin conductance response)...
December 7, 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Giovanni Mansueto, Koen Schruers, Fiammetta Cosci, Jim van Os
INTRODUCTION: Childhood abuse and neglect are risk factors for psychotic symptoms. Early adversities may contribute to alterations in neuro/social cognition, which in turn is associated with psychosis. This study explored the possible mediating/moderating role of neuro/social cognition between childhood abuse and neglect on the one hand, and psychotic symptoms on the other. METHOD: The sampling frame was 1.119 patients with a psychotic disorder. Childhood adversity was evaluated with the Dutch version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire...
December 4, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Steven N Austad, Jessica M Hoffman
Lay Summary: An evolutionary mechanism of aging was hypothesized 60 years ago to be the genetic trade-off between early life fitness and late life mortality. Genetic evidence supporting this hypothesis was unavailable then, but has accumulated recently. These tradeoffs, known as antagonistic pleiotropy, are common, perhaps ubiquitous. George Williams' 1957 paper developed the antagonistic pleiotropy hypothesis of aging, which had previously been hinted at by Peter Medawar. Antagonistic pleiotropy, as it applies to aging, hypothesizes that animals possess genes that enhance fitness early in life but diminish it in later life and that such genes can be favored by natural selection because selection is stronger early in life even as they cause the aging phenotype to emerge...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Muhammad Arshad Kamran
For the first time, 1D Ni ions doped CdS nanowires (NWs) were synthesized via chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The synthesized Cd0.886Ni0.114S NWs were single crystalline. We have reported here, investigation of optical, electrical and magnetic properties of prepared NWs for optoelectronic and spintronic applications. Successful incorporation of Ni ions in an individual CdS NW has been confirmed through several characterization tools: significant higher angle and phonon modes shift were observed in the XRD and Raman spectra...
November 15, 2018: Nanotechnology
Sophie K Kirchner, Selen Ozkan, Richard Musil, Ilja Spellmann, Nirmal Kannayian, Peter Falkai, Moritz Rossner, Sergi Papiol
Cognitive deficits are increasingly recognized as a core dimension rather than a consequence of schizophrenia (SCZ). The previous evidence supports the hypothesis of shared genetic factors between SCZ and cognitive ability. The objective of this study was to test whether and to what extent the variation of disease-relevant neurocognitive function in a sample of SCZ patients from the previous clinical interventional studies can be explained by SCZ polygenic risk scores (PRSs) or by hypothesis-driven and biomedical PRSs...
December 7, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Luca Valko, Szabolcs Baglyas, Janos Gal, Andras Lorx
BACKGROUND: Home mechanical ventilation is an established treatment for chronic respiratory failure resulting in improved survival and quality of life. Technological advancement, evolving health care reimbursement systems and newly implemented national guidelines result in increased utilization worldwide. Prevalence shows great geographical variations and data on East-Central European practice has been scarce to date. The aim of the current study was to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of home mechanical ventilation in Hungary...
December 6, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
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