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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087595/is-epicardial-fat-depot-associated-with-atrial-fibrillation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Maddalena Gaeta, Francesco Bandera, Federico Tassinari, Capasso Lorenzo, Miriam Cargnelutti, Gabriele Pelissero, Alexis Elias Malavazos, Cristian Ricci
AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the leading rhythm disorder in western countries. A direct relationship between left atrium (LA) enlargement and electromechanical remodelling has been established. A causative link between epicardial fat (EF), visceral adipose tissue deposited around the heart, and AF has been hypothesized. Several reports suggested the association between EF and the presence of AF. The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between AF and EF depot, performing a meta-analysis of observational case series studies...
January 13, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087519/sympathetic-modulation-of-electrical-activation-in-normal-and-infarcted-myocardium-implications-for-arrhythmogenesis
#2
Olujimi A Ajijola, Robert L Lux, Anadjeet Khahera, OhJin Kwon, Eric Aliotta, Daniel Ennis, Michael C Fishbein, Jeffrey Laurence Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar
: Background The influence of cardiac sympathetic innervation on electrical activation in normal and chronically infarcted ventricular myocardium is not understood. Methods and Results Yorkshire pigs with normal hearts (NL, n=12) or anterior myocardial infarction (MI, n=9) underwent high-resolution mapping of the anteroapical left ventricle, at baseline, and during left and right stellate ganglion stimulation (LSGS & RSGS, respectively). Conduction velocity (CV), activation times (AT), & directionality of propagation were measured...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087286/incidence-and-survival-outcome-according-to-heart-rhythm-during-resuscitation-attempt-in-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-patients-with-presumed-cardiac-etiology
#3
Shahzleen Rajan, Fredrik Folke, Steen Møller Hansen, Carolina Malta Hansen, Kristian Kragholm, Thomas A Gerds, Freddy K Lippert, Lena Karlsson, Sidsel Møller, Lars Køber, Gunnar H Gislason, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Mads Wissenberg
BACKGROUND: Knowledge about heart rhythm conversion from non-shockable to shockable rhythm during resuscitation attempt after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and following chance of survival is limited and inconsistent. METHODS: We studied 13,860 patients with presumed cardiac-caused OHCA not witnessed by the emergency medical services from the Danish Cardiac Arrest Register (2005-2012). Patients were stratified according to rhythm: shockable, converted shockable (based on receipt of subsequent defibrillation) and sustained non-shockable rhythm...
January 10, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087238/lymphocyte-circadian-clocks-control-lymph-node-trafficking-and-adaptive-immune-responses
#4
David Druzd, Olga Matveeva, Louise Ince, Ute Harrison, Wenyan He, Christoph Schmal, Hanspeter Herzel, Anthony H Tsang, Naoto Kawakami, Alexei Leliavski, Olaf Uhl, Ling Yao, Leif Erik Sander, Chien-Sin Chen, Kerstin Kraus, Alba de Juan, Sophia Martina Hergenhan, Marc Ehlers, Berthold Koletzko, Rainer Haas, Werner Solbach, Henrik Oster, Christoph Scheiermann
Lymphocytes circulate through lymph nodes (LN) in search for antigen in what is believed to be a continuous process. Here, we show that lymphocyte migration through lymph nodes and lymph occurred in a non-continuous, circadian manner. Lymphocyte homing to lymph nodes peaked at night onset, with cells leaving the tissue during the day. This resulted in strong oscillations in lymphocyte cellularity in lymph nodes and efferent lymphatic fluid. Using lineage-specific genetic ablation of circadian clock function, we demonstrated this to be dependent on rhythmic expression of promigratory factors on lymphocytes...
January 6, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086779/the-effect-of-electrical-conductivity-of-myocardium-on-cardiac-pumping-efficacy-a-computational-study
#5
Ana Rahma Yuniarti, Ki Moo Lim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The existence of non-excitable cells in the myocardium leads to the increasing conduction non-uniformity and decreasing myocardial electrical conductivity. Slowed myocardial conduction velocity (MCV) believed to enhance the probability of cardiac arryhthmia and alter the cardiac mechanical pumping efficacy, even in sinus rhythm. Though several studies on the correlation between MCV and cardiac electrical instabilities exist, there has been no study concerning correlation or causality between MCV and cardiac mechanical pumping efficacy, due to the limitation in clinical methods to document and evaluate cardiac mechanical responses directly...
January 10, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086750/a-genome-wide-scan-for-genes-under-balancing-selection-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
Myriam Croze, Andreas Wollstein, Vedran Božičević, Daniel Živković, Wolfgang Stephan, Stephan Hutter
BACKGROUND: In the history of population genetics balancing selection has been considered as an important evolutionary force, yet until today little is known about its abundance and its effect on patterns of genetic diversity. Several well-known examples of balancing selection have been reported from humans, mice, plants, and parasites. However, only very few systematic studies have been carried out to detect genes under balancing selection. We performed a genome scan in Drosophila melanogaster to find signatures of balancing selection in a derived (European) and an ancestral (African) population...
January 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079553/end-of-life-decisions-in-heart-failure-to-turn-off-the-intracardiac-device-or-not
#7
Bilal Ayach, Amrit Malik, Colette Seifer, Shelley Zieroth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Heart failure is a significant public health concern around the world. Implantable cardioverter defibrillators with or without cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-D) have proven survival benefit. As patients progress to end-stage disease, management shifts to palliative care, and cardiologists are often confronted with how to best manage these devices. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies suggest that up to one-third of patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator receive painful shocks in the last 24 h of life...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078538/the-sleep-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-what-we-know-until-now
#8
REVIEW
Maryam Moosavi, Gholam Reza Hatam
Sleep, as one of the most important requirements of our brain, has a mystical nature. Despite long-standing studies, the molecular mechanisms and physiological properties of sleep have not been defined well as the complexity of the mammals' brain make it difficult to investigate the mechanisms and properties of sleep. Although some features of sleep have changed during evolution, its existence in such a simple animal, Caenorhabditis elegans, not only signifies the importance of sleep in even simple animals, but also allows the scientist to assess the core mechanism and biological events in an uncomplicated organism...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077768/corticosterone-and-timing-of-migratory-departure-in-a-songbird
#9
Cas Eikenaar, Florian Müller, Clara Leutgeb, Sven Hessler, Konstantin Lebus, Philip D Taylor, Heiko Schmaljohann
Bird migration entails replenishing fuel stores at stopover sites. There, individuals make daily decisions whether to resume migration, and must also decide their time of departure. Variation in departure timing affects the total time required to complete a migratory journey, which in turn affects fitness through arrival time at the breeding and wintering grounds. It is well established that stopover departure decisions are based on cues from innate rhythms, intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors. Yet, virtually nothing is known about the physiological mechanism(s) linking these cues to departure decisions...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077681/tune-into-the-rhythm-of-your-bugs
#10
Purna Kashyap
Diurnal changes in gut microbiota localization and function alter host physiology through circadian epigenetic and transcriptional changes.
January 11, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077513/cognitive-control-structures-in-the-imitation-learning-of-spatial-sequences-and-rhythms-an-fmri-study
#11
Katrin Sakreida, Satomi Higuchi, Cinzia Di Dio, Michael Ziessler, Martine Turgeon, Neil Roberts, Stefan Vogt
Imitation learning involves the acquisition of novel motor patterns based on action observation (AO). We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the imitation learning of spatial sequences and rhythms during AO, motor imagery (MI), and imitative execution in nonmusicians and musicians. While both tasks engaged the fronto-parietal mirror circuit, the spatial sequence task recruited posterior parietal and dorsal premotor regions more strongly. The rhythm task involved an additional network for auditory working memory...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077320/serine-threonine-phosphatases-in-atrial-fibrillation
#12
Jordi Heijman, Shokoufeh Ghezelbash, Xander H T Wehrens, Dobromir Dobrev
Serine/threonine protein phosphatases control dephosphorylation of numerous cardiac proteins, including a variety of ion channels and calcium-handling proteins, thereby providing precise post-translational regulation of cardiac electrophysiology and function. Accordingly, dysfunction of this regulation can contribute to the initiation, maintenance and progression of cardiac arrhythmias. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common heart rhythm disorder and is characterized by electrical, autonomic, calcium-handling, contractile, and structural remodeling, which include, among other things, changes in the phosphorylation status of a wide range of proteins...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077189/cardiac-haemangioma-associated-with-a-duct-dependent-congenital-heart-disease-in-a-newborn-infant
#13
Stefan A Djordjevic, Sofija Glumac, Jasna Kalanj
Cardiac haemangiomas are exceedingly rare; however, they can cause significant haemodynamic impairment and disturbances in heart rhythm. Rarely, cardiac tumours may also coexist with congenital heart lesions. We present an extremely unusual case of a cardiac haemangioma in the setting of complex transposition of the great arteries that caused functional tricuspid atresia. To our knowledge, this is the first such case described in the literature.
January 12, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076963/long-term-consequences-of-atrial-fibrillation-after-aortic-valve-replacement
#14
Hiroki Kohno, Hideki Ueda, Kaoru Matsuura, Yusaku Tamura, Michiko Watanabe, Goro Matsumiya
Background Atrial fibrillation is a common complication after cardiac surgery, but the risk factors and long-term outcome after primary isolated aortic valve replacement remains to be clarified. Methods A single-center retrospective study was conducted on 157 patients who underwent first-time isolated aortic valve replacement between April 1999 and February 2015. Fifty-eight patients developed new-onset atrial fibrillation within 6 months postoperatively, and they were compared with patients who remained in sinus rhythm...
January 1, 2017: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076761/timing-is-everything
#15
Anna Mae Diehl
In a recent issue of Cancer Cell, Kettner and colleagues (2016) link disruption of normal circadian rhythms to NASH and associated liver cancer, suggesting that molecular clocks, as well as their regulators and target genes, might provide novel therapeutic targets in these diseases.
January 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076760/enriching-the-circadian-proteome
#16
Joseph S Takahashi
Circadian clocks regulate most aspects of physiology and metabolism. Genome-wide approaches have uncovered widespread circadian rhythms in the transcriptome, cistrome, and epigenome of mice, and now two proteomics studies in this issue (Robles et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2016) reveal extensive circadian regulation of the nuclear and phosphoproteome.
January 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076642/activity-rest-rhythm-of-depressed-adolescents-undergoing-therapy-case-studies
#17
Maria Eugênia Mesquita, Maria Eliza Finazzi, Bruno Gonçalves, Lee Fu-I, Leandro L Duarte, José Ricardo Lopes, José Alberto Del-Porto, Luiz Menna-Barreto
Introduction: Disorders of circadian rhythms have been reported in studies of both depressed children and of depressed adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is a relationship between the 24-hour spectral power (24h SP) of the activity/rest rhythm and the clinical course of depression in adolescents. Methods: Six 14 to 17-year-old adolescents were recruited for the study. They were all suffering from major depressive disorder, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) criteria, as identified by the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children: Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL)...
October 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076377/comparative-analysis-of-vertebrate-diurnal-circadian-transcriptomes
#18
Greg Boyle, Kerstin Richter, Henry D Priest, David Traver, Todd C Mockler, Jeffrey T Chang, Steve A Kay, Ghislain Breton
From photosynthetic bacteria to mammals, the circadian clock evolved to track diurnal rhythms and enable organisms to anticipate daily recurring changes such as temperature and light. It orchestrates a broad spectrum of physiology such as the sleep/wake and eating/fasting cycles. While we have made tremendous advances in our understanding of the molecular details of the circadian clock mechanism and how it is synchronized with the environment, we still have rudimentary knowledge regarding its connection to help regulate diurnal physiology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076306/parallel-diurnal-fluctuation-of-testosterone-androstenedione-dehydroepiandrosterone-and-17ohprogesterone-as-assessed-in-serum-and-saliva-validation-of-a-novel-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-salivary-steroid-profiling
#19
Marco Mezzullo, Alessia Fazzini, Alessandra Gambineri, Guido Di Dalmazi, Roberta Mazza, Carla Pelusi, Valentina Vicennati, Renato Pasquali, Uberto Pagotto, Flaminia Fanelli
BACKGROUND: Salivary androgen testing represents a valuable source of biological information. However, the proper measurement of such low levels is challenging for direct immunoassays, lacking adequate accuracy. In the last few years, many conflicting findings reporting low correlation with the serum counterparts have hampered the clinical application of salivary androgen testing. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) makes it possible to overcome previous analytical limits, providing new insights in endocrinology practice...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075503/correlation-between-cardiac-rhythm-left-atrial-appendage-flow-velocity-and-cha2-ds2-vasc-score-study-based-on-transesophageal-echocardiography-and-2-dimensional-speckle-tracking
#20
Kun Zuo, Lanlan Sun, Xinchun Yang, Xiuzhang Lyu, Kuibao Li
BACKGROUND: The CHA2 DS2 -VASc score is a classic predictor of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Decreased left atrial appendage flow velocity (LAA-FV) reflects the blood stasis, and left atrial (LA) strain is a manifestation of atrial remodeling. This study aimed to explore the effects of AF rhythm and CHA2 DS2 -VASc score in the development of thrombogenesis and their potential correlation with LAA-FV and LA strain. HYPOTHESIS: AF rhythm and high CHA2 DS2 -VASc score correlate independently with decreased LAA-FV, which can be predicted by LA strain...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
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