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Lic A Perea, Ricardo E Palma-Goyes, Jorge Vazquez-Arenas, Issis Romero-Ibarra, Carlos Ostos, Ricardo A Torres-Palma
The elimination of cephalexin (CPX) using electro-generated Cl2 -active on Ti/RuO2 -IrO2 anode was assessed in different effluents: deionized water (DW), municipal wastewater (MWW) and urine. Single Ti/RuO2 and Ti/IrO2 catalysts were prepared to compare their morphologies and electrochemical behavior against the binary DSA. XRD and profile refinement suggest that Ti/RuO2 -IrO2 forms a solid solution, where RuO2 and IrO2 growths are oriented by the TiO2 substrate through substitution of Ir by Ru atoms within its rutile-type structure...
August 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Bo Peng, Jianfei Sun, Jun Liu, Weiwei Dai, Lifei Sun, Guangting Pei, Decai Gao, Chao Wang, Ping Jiang, Edith Bai
Nitrous oxide (N2 O) is an important greenhouse gas and is involved in the destruction of ozone layer. However, the underlying mechanisms of the high soil N2 O emission during the freeze-thaw (FT) period are still unclear. Here, we conducted a mesocosm study with high frequency in situ measurements to explore the responses of soil microbes to the FT cycles and their influences on soil N2 O emission. We found the high N2 O emission rate during the FT period was mainly due to the release of substrates, the maintenance of high enzyme activities at the freezing stage, and the fast recovery of microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and high microbial activities at the thawing stage...
August 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Anna Wędrychowicz, Krystyna Sztefko, Jerzy B Starzyk
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have shown that sclerostin, which is a negative regulator of bone formation, could play an important role in the crosstalk between bone and glucose metabolism. The role of sclerostin and its link with glucose homeostasis in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) has not been yet studied extensively in children. The aim of this study was to assess sclerostin and its relationship between other bone and fat related factors as well as glucose metabolism in children and adolescents with T1D in comparison to their healthy peers...
August 15, 2018: Bone
Kelly Ribeiro Moura Barboza, Larissa Zambom Coco, Gisele Alves Maziero, Beatriz Peters, Elisardo Corral Vasquez, Thiago Melo Costa Pereira, Silvana Santos Meyrelles, Bianca Prandi Campagnaro
AIMS: This study investigated the gastroprotective effects and the systemic oxidative status of oral kefir pretreatment in albino mice submitted to acute gastric ulcer induced by indomethacin. MAIN METHODS: Male Swiss mice were divided into three groups (n = 7): Vehicle (0.3 mL of whole milk/100 g body weight, pH adjusted to 5.0), Kefir (0.3 mL of kefir/100 g body weight) and Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI, 30 mg/kg of lansoprazole), via gavage for 14 days...
August 15, 2018: Life Sciences
Jocelyne C Whitehead, Jorge L Armony
The ubiquity of music across cultures as a means of emotional expression, and its proposed evolutionary relation to speech, motivated researchers to attempt a characterization of its neural representation. Several neuroimaging studies have reported that specific regions in the anterior temporal lobe respond more strongly to music than to other auditory stimuli, including spoken voice. Nonetheless, because most studies have employed instrumental music, which has important acoustic distinctions from human voice, questions still exist as to the specificity of the observed "music-preferred" areas...
August 18, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Paul Kumar Upputuri, Cangjie Yang, Shuo Huang, Kai Wang, Mingfeng Wang, Manojit Pramanik
Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a fast growing deep-tissue imaging modality. However, light scattering and absorption in biological tissues limit imaging depth. Short near-infrared wavelengths (650 to 950 nm) are widely used for PAI. Using longer near-infrared wavelengths reduces scattering. We demonstrate deep-tissue contrast-enhanced in vivo photoacoustic imaging at a wavelength of 1064 nm. An ultranarrow bandgap semiconducting polymer poly (thienoisoindigo-alt-diketopyrrolopyrrole) (denoted as PIGD) is designed and demonstrated for imaging at 1064 nm...
August 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Hazem Akkad, Nicola Cacciani, Monica Llano-Diez, Rebeca Corpeno Kalamgi, Tamara Tchkonia, James L Kirkland, Lars Larsson
AIM: Critical illness myopathy (CIM) is a consequence of modern critical care, leading to skeletal muscle atrophy/paralysis with negative consequences for mortality/morbidity and health care costs. Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been proposed to trigger CIM. Here, we compare outcomes of two GCs, the commonly used prednisolone and the newly developed dissociative vamorolone in response to the intensive care unit (ICU) condition for 5 days, i.e., sedation, immobilization, and mechanical ventilation...
August 18, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Stijn A A Massar, Karen Sasmita, Julian Lim, Michael W L Chee
Temporal expectations aid performance by allowing the optimization of attentional readiness at moment of highest target probability. Reward enhances cognitive performance through its action on preparatory and reactive attentional processes. To elucidate how motivation interacts with mechanisms of implicit temporal attention, we studied healthy young adult participants (N = 73) performing a sustained attention task with simultaneous pupillometric recording, under different reward conditions (baseline: 0 c; reward: 10 c/fast response)...
August 17, 2018: Psychophysiology
Hui Guo, Cuncai Wang, Zhen Liu, Huayong Gu, Yuwen Li, Li Zhao, Ranran Hou, Jiajia Zhu, Harvey Ho, Zhihui Hao
Although the study of bioequivalence waivers in humans is already well-established, their application and translation into animals, which are complicated by differences in physiology, have only recently become subjects of interest. The main purpose of this paper is to quantify the liquid volume affecting drug dissolution in pig stomachs. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to scan 18 Bama miniature pigs weighing 15, 30 or 50 kg. Amira 6.0.1 software was used for 3D image processing. We found that the gastric fluid volume had a linear relationship with the weight of pig (R2 = 0...
August 17, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
HongMei Zhang, ManMan Song, Ming Yang, Yan Song, FuRong Zhang, AiFeng Zhang, LiTao Ruan, MingXi Wan
The elasticity of the vessel wall is important for the clinical identification of rupture-risks. The Von Mises strain can be a potential index for the indication of carotid vessel pathologies. In this paper, a fast clinically applicable real-time algorithm from time-sequence of B-mode carotid images is developed. Due to the compression induced by the normal cardiac pulsation, tissue motion occurs radially and non-rigidly. To obtain an accurate motion field, we developed a variational functional integrating the optical flow equation and an anisotropic regularizer, and designed a diffusion tensor to encourage coherence diffusion...
August 17, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
José A Cañizo, José A Carrillo, Manuel Pájaro
We analyse a continuum model for genetic circuits based on a partial integro-differential equation initially proposed in Friedman et al. (Phys Rev Lett 97(16):168302, 2006) as an approximation of a chemical master equation. We use entropy methods to show exponentially fast convergence to equilibrium for this model with explicit bounds. The asymptotic equilibration for the multidimensional case of more than one gene is also obtained under suitable assumptions on the equilibrium stationary states. The asymptotic equilibration property for networks involving one and more than one gene is investigated via numerical simulations...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Feitong Wu, Valentina Ho, Brooklyn J Fraser, Michael D Schmidt, Terence Dwyer, Alison J Venn, Costan G Magnussen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Childhood body mass index (BMI) predicts adult glucose homeostasis measures and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but little is known about the predictive utility of other anthropometric measures in childhood. We aimed to identify the anthropometric measure in childhood that best predicts adult glucose homeostasis measures and examine if the combination of additional anthropometric measures further improves predictive utility. METHODS: A 20-year follow-up of children participating in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study (n = 2345, aged 7-15 years at baseline)...
August 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Estelle Lowry, Nina Rautio, Ville Karhunen, Jouko Miettunen, Leena Ala-Mursula, Juha Auvinen, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Katri Puukka, Inga Prokopenko, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Alexandra Lewin, Sylvain Sebert, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
BACKGROUND: The prevention of the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is complicated by multidimensional interplays between biological and psychosocial factors acting at the individual level. To address the challenge we took a systematic approach, to explore the bio-psychosocial predictors of blood glucose in mid-age. METHODS: Based on the 31-year and 46-year follow-ups (5,078 participants, 43% male) of Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, we used a systematic strategy to select bio-psychosocial variables at 31 years to enable a data-driven approach...
August 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Stephanie C Dulawa, David S Janowsky
Mood disorders are highly prevalent and are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying depression remain poorly understood, although theories regarding dysfunction within various neurotransmitter systems have been postulated. Over 50 years ago, clinical studies suggested that increases in central acetylcholine could lead to depressed mood. Evidence has continued to accumulate suggesting that the cholinergic system has a important role in mood regulation. In particular, the finding that the antimuscarinic agent, scopolamine, exerts fast-onset and sustained antidepressant effects in depressed humans has led to a renewal of interest in the cholinergic system as an important player in the neurochemistry of major depression and bipolar disorder...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Constanze Schmitt, Steffen Klingenhoefer, Frank Bremmer
Interaction with the environment requires fast and reliable sensory processing. The visual system is confronted with a continuous flow of high-dimensional input (e.g. orientation, color, motion). From a theoretical point of view, it would be advantageous if critical information was processed independent of attentional load, i.e. preattentively. Here, we hypothesized that visual motion is such a critical signal and aimed for a neural signature of its preattentive encoding. Furthermore, we were interested in the neural correlates of predictability of linear motion trajectories based on the presence or absence of preceding motion...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Masataka Kikuchi, Kenichiro Miura, Kentaro Morita, Hidenaga Yamamori, Michiko Fujimoto, Masashi Ikeda, Yuka Yasuda, Akihiro Nakaya, Ryota Hashimoto
Eye movements are considered endophenotypes of schizophrenia. However, the genetic factors underlying eye movement are largely unknown. In this study, we explored the susceptibility loci for four eye movement scores: the scanpath length during the free viewing test (SPL), the horizontal position gain during the fast Lissajous paradigm of the smooth pursuit test (HPG), the duration of fixations during the far distractor paradigm of the fixation stability test (DF) and the integrated eye movement score of those three scores (EMS)...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Juan Huang, Renyong Jia, Haoyue Shen, Mingshu Wang, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Xinxin Zhao, Ying Wu, Qiao Yang, Zhongqiong Yin, Anchun Cheng
A flavivirus, named duck tembusu virus (DTMUV), emerged in China in 2010. This virus has caused great economic losses in the poultry industry in China and may pose a threat to public health. As a safe, efficient and convenient vaccine development strategy, DNA-based vaccines have become a popular approach for both human and veterinary applications. Attenuated bacteria have been widely used as vehicles to deliver heterologous antigens to the immune system. Thus, an efficient and low-cost oral delivery DNA vaccine SL7207 (pVAX1-SME) based on envelope proteins (prM and E) of DTMUV and attenuated Salmonella typhimurium aroA- strain SL7207 was developed and evaluated in this study...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mikko Kivelä, Jordan Cambe, Jari Saramäki, Márton Karsai
The dynamics of diffusion-like processes on temporal networks are influenced by correlations in the times of contacts. This influence is particularly strong for processes where the spreading agent has a limited lifetime at nodes: disease spreading (recovery time), diffusion of rumors (lifetime of information), and passenger routing (maximum acceptable time between transfers). We introduce weighted event graphs as a powerful and fast framework for studying connectivity determined by time-respecting paths where the allowed waiting times between contacts have an upper limit...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jianbo Yin, Zhenjun Tan, Hao Hong, Jinxiong Wu, Hongtao Yuan, Yujing Liu, Cheng Chen, Congwei Tan, Fengrui Yao, Tianran Li, Yulin Chen, Zhongfan Liu, Kaihui Liu, Hailin Peng
Infrared light detection and sensing is deeply embedded in modern technology and human society and its development has always been benefitting from the discovery of various photoelectric materials. The rise of two-dimensional materials, thanks to their distinct electronic structures, extreme dimensional confinement and strong light-matter interactions, provides a material platform for next-generation infrared photodetection. Ideal infrared detectors should have fast respond, high sensitivity and air-stability, which are rare to meet at the same time in one two-dimensional material...
August 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Julia Jacobs, Joyce Y Wu, Piero Perucca, Rina Zelmann, Malenka Mader, Francois Dubeau, Gary W Mathern, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Jean Gotman
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of interictal high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in epilepsy surgery for prediction of postsurgical seizure outcome in a prospective multicenter trial. METHODS: We hypothesized that a seizure-free outcome could be expected in patients in whom the surgical planning included the majority of HFO-generating brain tissue while a poor seizure outcome could be expected in patients in whom only a few such areas were planned to be resected...
August 17, 2018: Neurology
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