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Lara C Mario, Maiara P Morais, Jessica Borghesi, Phelipe O Favaron, Franceliusa D Oliveira, Adriana R A Anunciação, Rafael G Agopian, Samirah A Gomes, Maria A Miglino
The embryonic origin of the urogenital system came from the intermediate mesoderm. Kidney development involves three successive renal systems with a fast chronological overlap: the pronephro, the mesonephro, and the metanephro. Due to the lack of specific knowledge about this system in cats the present work aimed to describe their urinary organs development, focusing on the structures seen in pronephro, mesonephro, and metanephro during the embryonic and fetal stages of development. The techniques used in this study were: light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy...
October 20, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Vinicius Figueiredo Sardela, Carina de Souza Anselmo, Isabelle Karine da Costa Nunes, Gabriel Reis Alves Carneiro, Gustavo Ramalho Cardoso Dos Santos, Aline Reis de Carvalho, Bruna de Jesus Labanca, Daniely Silva, William Dias Ribeiro, Amanda Lessa Dutra de Araujo, Monica Costa Padilha, Cleverton Kleiton Freitas de Lima, Valeria Pereira de Sousa, Francisco Radler de Aquino Neto, Henrique Marcelo Gualberto Pereira
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) water tank (ZWT) approach was investigated as an alternative model for metabolism studies based on six different experiments with four model compounds. Sibutramine was applied for the multivariate optimization of ZWT conditions, also for the comparison of the metabolism among ZWT, humans, and mice, and for the role of CYP2B6 in ZWT. After the optimization, 18 fish and 168 hours of experiments is the minimum requirement for a relevant panel of biotransformation products. A comparison among the species resulted in the observation of the same hydroxylated metabolites, with differences in metabolites' concentration ratio...
October 20, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Abhay Srivastava, Nidheesh Dadheech, Mitul Vakani, Sarita Gupta
Pancreatic progenitors have been explored for their profound characteristics and unique commitment to generate new functional islets in regenerative medicine. Pancreatic resident endocrine progenitors (PREPs) with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) phenotype were purified from BALB/c mice pancreas and characterized. PREPs were differentiated into mature islet clusters in vitro by activin-A and swertisin and functionally characterized. A temporal gene and protein profiling was performed during differentiation. Furthermore, PREPs were labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and transplanted intravenously into streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic mice while monitoring their homing and differentiation leading to amelioration in the diabetic condition...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Xu-Wen Tang, Qing-Xin Qin
Multiple studies have reported different methods in treating gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); however, the relationship between miR-335-5p and GDM still remains unclear. Here, this study explores the effect of miR-335-5p on insulin resistance and pancreatic islet β-cell secretion via activation of the TGFβ signaling pathway by downregulating VASH1 expression in GDM mice. The GDM mouse model was established and mainly treated with miR-335-5p mimic, miR-335-5p inhibitor, si-VASH1, and miR-335-5p inhibitor + si-VASH1...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Chamukuttan Snehalatha, Susairaj Priscilla, Arun Nanditha, Raghavan Arun, Krishnamoorthy Satheesh, Ambady Ramachandran
Identification and treatment of individuals with prediabetes is crucial. Effective interventional strategies are key to reducing the diabetes risk at the population level. Lifestyle intervention is found to be more effective but more expensive. Evidence of potential benefits from pharmacotherapy is accumulating. The choice of a pharmacologic intervention to reduce the progression of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in high risk individuals must consider the balance between the benefit to risk ratio. A meta-analysis of the results of the three important studies has shown that metformin used for up to three years decrease the likelihood of progression to diabetes...
March 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Sujeet Raina, Vishnu Kumar Agarwal, Dhiraj Kapoor, Kailash Nath Sharma, R S Yadav
Background: Association between hyperuricemia and hypertension has been recognized for many years. Whether hyperuricemia is the cause or the effect is debatable. Materials and methods: This case control study was conducted to assess serum uric acid (SUA) levels in fifty newly diagnosed essential hypertensive patients and fifty normotensive controls which were matched for age and sex. Detailed anthropometric characteristics including height, weight, body mass index and waist hip ratio were measured...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Hiroshi Miura, Kazuhiko Sakaguchi, Yuko Okada, Natsu Otowa-Suematsu, Tomoko Yamada, Anna So, Hisako Komada, Yushi Hirota, Minoru Kishi, Akihiko Takeda, Yoichi Tominaga, Tomoaki Nakamura, Yasuo Kuroki, Tomokazu Matsuda, Keiji Iida, Michiko Kajikawa, Takeshi Ohara, Kazuki Yokota, Kenta Hara, Sanshiro Tateya, Yoshikazu Tamori, Wataru Ogawa
INTRODUCTION: Administered basal insulin markedly influences the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Insulin degludec (IDeg) and insulin glargine U300 (IGlar U300) are now available as ultra-long-acting insulin formulations, but whether or how their glucose-stabilizing effects differ remains unclear. We will compare the effects of these basal insulins on parameters related to blood glucose control, with a focus on day-to-day glycemic variability, in individuals with type 1 diabetes treated with multiple daily injections...
October 19, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Tânia G Lucas, Cláudio M Gomes, Bárbara J Henriques
Systematic identification of buffer formulations and small molecule chaperones that improve the expression, stability, and storage of proteins with therapeutic interest has gained enormous importance in biochemical research as well as in biotechnology and biomedical applications. In particular, the biochemical characterization of disease-related proteins and their genetic variants that result in misfolding requires systematic determination of protein stability, screening of optimal buffer conditions for biophysical and structural studies, and in some cases, the identification of small molecule chaperones with the potential to ameliorate folding defects...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Salvador Ventura, Susanna Navarro
Protein misfolding and aggregation into amyloid conformations have been described to underlie the onset of several human neurodegenerative diseases. Although a large number of biophysical approaches are available to study amyloids in vitro, we still need robust methods to address their self-assembly in living cells. In this context, simple cellular models, like bacteria and yeast, expressing recombinant amyloidogenic proteins are emerging as convenient systems for studying the formation of protein inclusions, their toxicity, propagation, and interactions...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Vibha Prasad, Aaron Voigt
Neuronal accumulations of the presynaptic protein α-synuclein represent a hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Multiple system atrophy and dementia with Lewy bodies are other neurodegenerative diseases in which α-synuclein aggregates are the main pathological characteristic. This is why these diseases are summarized as synucleinopathies. The abnormal α-Synuclein accumulation eventually results in the formation of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in surviving neurons of the brain. α-Synuclein aggregation has been widely researched in vitro but little is known about α-synuclein aggregation in vivo...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
An-Ru Wang, Xue-Qin Yan, Cai Zhang, Cai-Qi Du, Wen-Jun Long, Di Zhan, Jie Ren, Xiao-Ping Luo
Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 (WISP1), a member of the CCN family, is increasingly being recognized as a potential target for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent studies have shown that WISP1 can regulate low-grade inflammation in obese mice, and circulating WISP1 levels are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. Herein, we measured serum WISP1 levels in obese youth and explored its relationships with pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 18 (IL-18) and other metabolic indexes...
October 2018: Current medical science
Dan-Ni Zhou, Sai-Jiao Li, Jin-Li Ding, Tai-Lang Yin, Jing Yang, Hong Ye
The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) model was established in rats and correlation between the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and cytokinesis with the MAPK signalling pathway in the rat ovary was measured. The PCOS model in rats was established by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Thirty sexually immature female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly and equally assigned to three groups: control group, PCOS group, and PCOS with high-fat diet (HFD) group. Serum hormones were assayed by radioimmunoassay (RIA)...
October 2018: Current medical science
Roberta Mancini, Tobias van der Bijl, Quentin Bourgeois-Jaarsma, Rizky Lasabuda, Alexander J Groffen
Recent advances in live Ca2+ imaging with increasing spatial and temporal resolution offer unprecedented opportunities, but also generate an unmet need for data processing. Here we developed SICT, a MATLAB program that automatically identifies rapid Ca2+ rises in time-lapse movies with low signal-to-noise ratios, using fluorescent indicators. A graphical user interface allows visual inspection of automatically detected events, reducing manual labour to less than 10% while maintaining quality control. The detection performance was tested using synthetic data with various signal-to-noise ratios...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Francisco Barros, Pedro Domínguez, Pilar de la Peña
Recent cryo-EM data have provided a view of the KCNH potassium channels molecular structures. However, some details about the cytoplasmic domains organization and specially their rearrangements associated to channel functionality are still lacking. Here we used the voltage-dependent dipicrylamine (DPA)-induced quench of fluorescent proteins (FPS) linked to different positions at the cytoplasmic domains of KCNH2 (hERG) to gain some insights about the coarse structure of these channel parts. Fast voltage-clamp fluorometry with HEK293 cells expressing membrane-anchored FPs under conditions in which only the plasma membrane potential is modified, demonstrated DPA voltage-dependent translocation and subsequent FRET-triggered FP quenching...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sha Li, Paul Franken, Anne Vassalli
Noradrenaline (NA) and hypocretins/orexins (HCRT), and their receptors, dynamically modulate the circuits that configure behavioral states, and their associated oscillatory activities. Salient stimuli activate spiking of locus coeruleus noradrenergic (NALC ) cells, inducing NA release and brain-wide noradrenergic signalling, thus resetting network activity, and mediating an orienting response. Hypothalamic HCRT neurons provide one of the densest input to NALC cells. To functionally address the HCRT-to-NA connection, we selectively disrupted the Hcrtr1 gene in NA neurons, and analyzed resulting (Hcrtr1Dbh-CKO ) mice', and their control littermates' electrocortical response in several contexts of enhanced arousal...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jason Watterson, B Gabbe, P Dietze, A Bowring, J V Rosenfeld
BACKGROUND: The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is widely used for monitoring harmful alcohol consumption among high-risk populations. A number of short versions of AUDIT have been developed for use in time-constrained settings. In military populations, a range of AUDIT variations have been used, but the optimal combination of AUDIT items has not been determined. METHODS: A total of 952 participants (80% male), recruited as part of a wider study, completed the AUDIT-10...
October 18, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Alexis J Pillsbury, Catherine Glover, Peter Jacoby, Helen E Quinn, Parveen Fathima, Patrick Cashman, Alan Leeb, Christopher C Blyth, Michael S Gold, Thomas Snelling, Kristine K Macartney
OBJECTIVE: To actively solicit adverse events experienced in the days following immunisation with quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine using Australia's near real-time, participant-based vaccine safety surveillance system, AusVaxSafety. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cohort study conducted in 194 sentinel surveillance immunisation sites (primary care, hospital and community-based clinics) across Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged ≥6 months who received a routine seasonal influenza vaccine at a participating site (n=102 911) and responded to a survey (via short message service or email) sent 3 days after vaccination about adverse events experienced (n=73 892; 71...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
Bernard-Antonin Dupont Cyr, France Dufresne, Felix Christen, Véronique Desrosiers, Émilie Proulx, Nathalie R Le François, Grant W Vandenberg, Pierre U Blier
Hybridization between closely related species can generate genetic and phenotypic variation, providing valuable biological material to assess the physiological impact of the structural or functional variability of different organs. In the present study, we examined growth rates of various organs and whole body in brook char, Arctic char and their reciprocal hybrids over a period of 281 days. Parental species achieved significantly higher body mass than their hybrids. Hybridization significantly reduced the relative size of the heart, liver and spleen...
October 19, 2018: Biology Open
Ian H Osterloh, Gary J Muirhead, Stefan Sultana, Steven Whaley, Frans van den Berg, George Atiee
INTRODUCTION: Cligosiban is a selective oxytocin receptor antagonist being developed for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). AIM: Three clinical studies investigated the pharmacokinetics (including effect of food and formulation), central penetration, safety, and tolerability of single oral doses of cligosiban in healthy subjects. METHODS: Study 1 was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design in 3 cohorts of 10 subjects each...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Jacob Wall, Per Enblad
The aim was to review the neurointensive care (NIC) of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis patients with haemorrhage during a 15-year period. This is a severe condition with substantial mortality caused by increased intracranial pressure (ICP) and studies are lacking describing the complex picture of the NIC, which offers a large treatment arsenal for intracranial hypertension. Patients treated 2000-2015 were investigated. Data regarding patient characteristics, symptoms, imaging, ICP-treatment, NIC-treatment intensity, and outcome were collected and analysed...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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