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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341907/necrosis-and-necroptosis-in-germ-cell-depletion-from-mammalian-ovary
#1
REVIEW
Govind R Chaudhary, Pramod K Yadav, Anil K Yadav, Meenakshi Tiwari, Anumegha Gupta, Alka Sharma, Kankshi Sahu, Ashutosh N Pandey, Ajai K Pandey, Shail K Chaube
The maximum number of germ cells is present during the fetal life in mammals. Follicular atresia results in rapid depletion of germ cells from the cohort of the ovary. At the time of puberty, only a few hundred (<1%) germ cells are either culminated into oocytes or further get eliminated during the reproductive life. Although apoptosis plays a major role, necrosis as well as necroptosis, might also be involved in germ cell elimination from the mammalian ovary. Both necrosis and necroptosis show similar morphological features and are characterized by an increase in cell volume, cell membrane permeabilization, and rupture that lead to cellular demise...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340492/acrosome-reaction-and-chromatin-integrity-as-additional-parameters-of-semen-analysis-to-predict-fertilization-and-blastocyst-rates
#2
Pamela Tello-Mora, Leticia Hernández-Cadena, Jeimy Pedraza, Esther López-Bayghen, Betzabet Quintanilla-Vega
BACKGROUND: Traditional semen parameters have shown little to none predictive value for fertilization and blastocyst viability for a successful pregnancy. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the usefulness of incorporating the acrosome reaction (AR) and chromatin integrity to conventional semen analysis to individually predict the fertile potential of sperm samples. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 69 participants undergoing IVF using oocyte donation...
October 19, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340050/sirt1-knock-in-mice-preserve-ovarian-reserve-resembling-caloric-restriction
#3
Guan-Yun Long, Jie-Ying Yang, Jin-Jie Xu, Yan-Hong Ni, Xiao-Ling Zhou, Jia-Yi Ma, Yu-Cai Fu, Li-Li Luo
Previous studies have proposed that caloric restriction (CR) regulates many cell functions and prolongs the lifespan of an organism. Our previous studies proposed that CR also prevents follicular activation and preserves the ovarian reserve in mice by activating SIRT1. To test if SIRT1 preserves the ovarian reserve and prolongs the ovarian longevity, we generated SIRT1 knock-in mice that can overexpress SIRT1 in oocytes of the mouse. Ovaries of the mice at ages 35 days and 15 months were collected, and the follicular development and follicular reserve were examined...
October 16, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335155/a-combinatorial-code-for-mrna-3-utr-mediated-translational-control-in-the-mouse-oocyte
#4
Xing-Xing Dai, Jun-Chao Jiang, Qian-Qian Sha, Yu Jiang, Xiang-Hong Ou, Heng-Yu Fan
Meiotic maturation of mammalian oocytes depends on the temporally and spatially regulated cytoplasmic polyadenylation and translational activation of maternal mRNAs. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation is controlled by cis-elements in the 3'-UTRs of mRNAs including the polyadenylation signal (PAS), which is bound by the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) and the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE), which recruits CPE binding proteins. Using the 3'-UTRs of mouse Cpeb1, Btg4 and Cnot6l mRNAs, we deciphered the combinatorial code that controls developmental stage-specific translation during meiotic maturation: (i) translation of a maternal transcript at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage requires one or more PASs that locate far away from CPEs; (ii) PASs distal and proximal to the 3'-end of the transcripts are equally effective in mediating translation at the GV stage, as long as they are not close to the CPEs; (iii) Both translational repression at the GV stage and activation after germinal vesicle breakdown require at least one CPE adjacent to the PAS; (iv) The numbers and positions of CPEs in relation to PASs within the 3'-UTR of a given transcript determines its repression efficiency in GV oocytes...
October 18, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334402/enzyme-linked-receptor-protein-signaling-pathway-is-one-of-the-ontology-groups-that-are-highly-up-regulated-in-porcine-oocytes-before-in-vitro-maturation
#5
S Borys, M Brązert, M Jankowski, I Kocherova, K Ożegowska, P Celichowski, M J Nawrocki, W Kranc, A Bryja, M Kulus, M Jeseta, W Pieńkowski, A Bręborowicz, D Bukowska, P Antosik, L Pawelczyk, M T Skowroński, K P Brüssow, M Bruska, M Zabel, M Nowicki, B Kempisty
Before being able to fully participate in the processes associated with its function as a female gamete, the oocyte needs to undergo a range of changes to achieve its mature form. These morphological, biochemical and metabolomic processes are induced by the somatic tissues surrounding the oocyte, through the expression of specific transcription and growth factors. The maturation of the oocyte is highly important for the proceedings that lead to successful fertilization, early embryonic development and implantation...
September 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334302/comparison-of-different-in-vitro-differentiation-conditions-for-murine-female-germline-stem-cells
#6
Kang Zou, Jian Wang, Haiwei Bi, Yabin Zhang, Xueli Tian, Ning Tian, Wanyun Ma, Ji Wu
OBJECTIVES: In vitro differentiation of oocytes from female germline stem cells (FGSCs) has exciting potential applications for reproductive medicine. Some researchers have attempted to reveal the in vitro differentiation capacity of FGSCs. However, no systematic comparative study of in vitro differentiation conditions has been performed for murine FGSCs (mFGSCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: mFGSCs line was cultured under five different conditions for in vitro differentiation...
October 17, 2018: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333716/synthetic-light-activated-ion-channels-for-optogenetic-activation-and-inhibition
#7
Sebastian Beck, Jing Yu-Strzelczyk, Dennis Pauls, Oana M Constantin, Christine E Gee, Nadine Ehmann, Robert J Kittel, Georg Nagel, Shiqiang Gao
Optogenetic manipulation of cells or living organisms became widely used in neuroscience following the introduction of the light-gated ion channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). ChR2 is a non-selective cation channel, ideally suited to depolarize and evoke action potentials in neurons. However, its calcium (Ca2+ ) permeability and single channel conductance are low and for some applications longer-lasting increases in intracellular Ca2+ might be desirable. Moreover, there is need for an efficient light-gated potassium (K+ ) channel that can rapidly inhibit spiking in targeted neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333227/multiple-combinations-of-rdl-subunits-diversify-the-repertoire-of-gaba-receptors-in-the-honeybee-parasite-varroa-destructor
#8
Claudine Ménard, Mathilde Folacci, Lorène Brunello, Mercedes Charreton, Claude Collet, Rosanna Mary, Matthieu Rousset, Jean-Baptiste Thibaud, Michel Vignes, Pierre Charnet, Thierry Cens
In insects, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter and GABA-gated ion channels are the target of different classes of insecticides, including Fipronil. We report here the cloning of six subunits (4 RDL, 1 LCCH3 and 1 GRD) that constitute the repertoire of the GABA-gated ion channel family of the Varroa mite (Varroa destructor), a honeybee ectoparasite. We also isolated a truncated GRD subunit with a premature stop codon. We found that when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, three of the four RDL subunits (VdesRDL1, VdesRDL2 and VdesRDL3) formed functional, homomultimeric anionic receptors, whereas GRD and LCCH3 produced heteromultimeric cationic receptors...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324831/women-with-extreme-low-amh-values-could-have-in-vitro-fertilization-success
#9
Omar Sefrioui, Aicha Madkour, Smahane Aboulmaouahib, Ismail Kaarouch, Noureddine Louanjli
Circulating anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) are the best predictors of IVF outcomes. However, in extreme low AMH range especially for young patients, AMH prediction power loose its specificity to give real idea of pregnancy chance with IVF treatments and good prognosis of an extremely reduced ovarian reserve and expected poor response. Indeed, this retrospective study was conducted to evaluate IVF outcomes in patients following IVF-ICSI program with extremely low AMH levels (≤0...
October 16, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318303/generation-of-bimaternal-and-bipaternal-mice-from-hypomethylated-haploid-escs-with-imprinting-region-deletions
#10
Zhi-Kun Li, Le-Yun Wang, Li-Bin Wang, Gui-Hai Feng, Xue-Wei Yuan, Chao Liu, Kai Xu, Yu-Huan Li, Hai-Feng Wan, Ying Zhang, Yu-Fei Li, Xin Li, Wei Li, Qi Zhou, Bao-Yang Hu
Unisexual reproduction is widespread among lower vertebrates, but not in mammals. Deletion of the H19 imprinted region in immature oocytes produced bimaternal mice with defective growth; however, bipaternal reproduction has not been previously achieved in mammals. We found that cultured parthenogenetic and androgenetic haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs) display DNA hypomethylation resembling that of primordial germ cells. Through MII oocyte injection or sperm coinjection with hypomethylated haploid ESCs carrying specific imprinted region deletions, we obtained live bimaternal and bipaternal mice...
October 9, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317668/prokaryotic-sphinx-1-8-rep-protein-is-tissue-specific-and-expressed-in-human-germline-cells
#11
Laura Manuelidis
Small circular DNAs of 1.8 and 2.4 kb were initially discovered in highly infectious Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) and scrapie particles from mammalian brain and cultured cells. Surprisingly, these protected cytoplasmic "SPHINX" DNAs contained replication (REP) initiation sequences resembling those of Acinetobacter phage viruses. An antibody was generated against a REP peptide encoded by the SPHINX 1.8 open reading frame (ORF) that was not present in mammals. It bound to a 41kd "spx1" protein on Western blots...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317618/spindlin1-alters-the-metaphase-to-anaphase-transition-in-meiosis-i-through-regulation-of-bub3-expression-in-porcine-oocytes
#12
Jeong-Woo Choi, Wenjun Zhou, Zheng-Wen Nie, Ying-Jie Niu, Kyung-Tae Shin, Xiang-Shun Cui
Spindlin 1 (SPIN1), which contains Tudor-like domains, regulates maternal transcripts via interaction with a messenger RNA (mRNA)-binding protein. SPIN1 is involved in tumorigenesis in somatic cells and is highly expressed in cancer cells. Nevertheless, the role of SPIN1 in porcine oocyte maturation remains totally unknown. To explore the function of SPIN1 in porcine oocyte maturation, knockdown, and overexpression techniques were used. SPIN1 mRNA was identified in maternal stages ranging from GV to MII. SPIN1 was localized in the cytoplasm and to chromosomes during meiosis...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316926/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-germ-cell-marker-in-teleost-fish-colossoma-macropomum
#13
Ana Carina Nogueira Vasconcelos, Danilo Pedro Streit, Anna Octavera, Misako Miwa, Naoki Kabeya, Raycon Roberto Freitas Garcia, Daniel Antonio Rotili, Goro Yoshizaki
The native Amazonian fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) is the second-largest scaled fish in South America and the most common native species in Brazil. To preserve genetic resources with sufficient genetic diversity through germ cell cryopreservation and transplantation techniques, a molecular marker for identifying the cells is required to trace them during the manipulation processes. The vasa gene is a promising candidate, as its specific expression in germ cell lineage has been well-conserved throughout animal evolution...
October 11, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312534/multiple-pools-of-nuclear-actin
#14
Dylane M Wineland, Daniel J Kelpsch, Tina L Tootle
While nuclear actin was reported ~50 years ago, it's in vivo prevalence and structure remain largely unknown. Here we use Drosophila oogenesis, i.e. follicle development, to characterize nuclear actin. We find that three different reagents - DNase I, anti-actin C4, and anti-actin AC15 - recognize distinct pools of nuclear actin. DNase I labels monomeric or G-actin, and, during follicle development, G-actin is present in the nucleus of every cell. Some G-actin is recognized by the C4 antibody. In particular, C4 nuclear actin colocalizes with DNase I to the nucleolus in anterior escort cells, follicle stem cells, some mitotic follicle cells, and a subset of nurse cells during early oogenesis...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303751/uroplakins-play-conserved-roles-in-egg-fertilization-and-acquired-additional-urothelial-functions-during-mammalian-divergence
#15
Yi Liao, Hung-Chi Chang, Feng-Xia Liang, Pei-Jung Chung, Yuan Wei, Tuan-Phi Nguyen, Ge Zhou, Sheeva Talebian, Lewis C Krey, Fang-Ming Deng, Tak-Wah Wong, Javier U Chicote, James A Grifo, David L Keefe, Ellen Shapiro, Herbert Lepor, Xue-Ru Wu, Robert DeSalle, Antonio Garcia-España, Sang Yong Kim, Tung-Tien Sun
Uroplakin (UP) tetraspanins and their associated proteins are major mammalian urothelial differentiation products that form unique 2D-crystals of 16-nm particles ("urothelial plaques") covering the apical urothelial surface. Although uroplakins are highly expressed only in mouse urothelium and are often referred to as being urothelium-specific, they are also expressed in several nonurothelial cell types in stomach, kidney, prostate, epididymis, testis/sperms and ovary/oocytes. In oocytes, uroplakins co-localize with CD9 on cell surface and multivesicular body-derived exosomes, and the cytoplasmic tail of UPIIIa undergoes a conserved fertilization-dependent, Fyn-mediated tyrosine-phosphorylation that also occurs in Xenopus laevis eggs...
October 10, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30302808/embryonic-poly-a-binding-protein-is-differently-expressed-and-interacts-with-the-messenger-rnas-in-the-mouse-oocytes-and-early-embryos
#16
Fatma Uysal, Saffet Ozturk
The embryonic poly(A)-binding protein (EPAB) functions in the translational regulation of the maternal messenger RNAs (mRNAs) required during oocyte maturation, fertilization, and early embryo development. Since there is no antibody specific to mammalian EPAB protein, all studies related to the Epab gene could be performed at the mRNA levels except for the investigations in the Xenopus. In this study, we have produced an EPAB-specific antibody. When we examined its expressional distribution in the mouse gonadal and somatic tissues, the EPAB protein was found to be expressed only in the mouse ovary and testis tissues, but it is undetectable level in the somatic tissues including stomach, liver, heart, small intestine, and kidney...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30293837/rsk-mastl-pathway-delays-meiotic-exit-in-mouse-zygotes-to-ensure-paternal-chromosome-stability
#17
Shou Soeda, Kaori Yamada-Nomoto, Tatsuo Michiue, Miho Ohsugi
During vertebrate fertilization, sperm chromatin remodeling occurs concomitantly with maternal chromosome segregation at anaphase II, leading to simultaneous formation of two pronuclei. In mammals, these processes take much longer than in other vertebrates. Here, we explore the molecular basis and physiological importance of this mammalian-specific temporal regulation using mouse oocytes. We demonstrate the involvement of protein phosphatase in temporal regulation. Early onset of pronuclear formation causes paternal-biased abnormalities in pronuclear morphology and chromosome segregation at the first mitosis...
September 28, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30286162/functional-analysis-of-a-triplet-deletion-in-the-gene-encoding-the-sodium-glucose-transporter-3-a-potential-risk-factor-for-adhd
#18
Nadine Schäfer, Maximilian Friedrich, Morten Egevang Jørgensen, Sina Kollert, Hermann Koepsell, Erhard Wischmeyer, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Dietmar Geiger, Frank Döring
Sodium-glucose transporters (SGLT) belong to the solute carrier 5 family, which is characterized by sodium dependent transport of sugars and other solutes. In contrast, the human SGLT3 (hSGLT3) isoform, encoded by SLC5A4, acts as a glucose sensor that does not transport sugar but induces membrane depolarization by Na+ currents upon ligand binding. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) of several extended pedigrees with high density of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) identified a triplet ATG deletion in SLC5A4 leading to a single amino acid loss (ΔM500) in the hSGLT3 protein imperfectly co-segregating with the clinical phenotype of ADHD...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284608/dynamics-of-wnt-signaling-components-in-the-human-ovary-from-development-to-adulthood
#19
Alisha M Bothun, Dori C Woods
WNT signaling has been shown to play a pivotal role in mammalian gonad development and sex differentiation; however, its role in the developing human ovary has not been investigated. We analyzed a quantitative mass spectrometry dataset to determine the expression of WNT signaling components between 47 and 137 days of development and in adult ovarian cortex tissue. WNT signaling was identified within the top ten canonical pathways of proteins detected at every developmental stage examined. We further examined the specific localization of WNT signaling components glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3B), frizzled 2 (FZD2), and β-catenin (CTNNB1) within ovarian tissue...
October 4, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30282571/influence-of-follicle-size-on-bovine-oocyte-lipid-composition-follicular-metabolic-and-stress-markers-embryo-development-and-blastocyst-lipid-content
#20
Kelly Annes, Diego B Müller, Jorge A P Vilela, Roniele S Valente, Diana P Caetano, Francielli W S Cibin, Marcella P Milazzotto, Fernando S Mesquita, Katia R A Belaz, Marcos N Eberlin, Mateus J Sudano
This study assessed the lipid composition of oocytes from different follicle sizes and compared the expression of lipid-related genes and follicular fluid (FF) molecules between groups. We also investigated the functional consequences of differences on embryo development and blastocyst lipid deposits. Oocytes and FF were recovered from different follicle sizes. Oocytes from small (≤5 mm) and large (≥6mm) bovine follicles were used to produce Day 7 expanded blastocysts (Day7Ex) and blastocysts that only became expanded at Day 8 (Day8Ex) after insemination...
October 4, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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