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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118747/a-host-feeding-wasp-shares-several-features-of-nitrogen-management-with-blood-feeding-mosquitoes
#1
Romain Richard, Stephen Foster, David Giron, Jérôme Casas
Adult feeding on hosts is common among parasitic wasps. The ingested host fluid is rich in nutrients, especially proteins. A study on Eupelmus vuilleti (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), a host-feeding parasitoid of larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), showed that the carbohydrates (maybe lipids) but not proteins, gained from host feeding accounted for the increased egg production. Thus, host protein is probably utilized for general adult metabolism, allowing conservation of carbohydrate and/or lipid resources for direct allocation to oocytes...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118482/a-novel-recombinant-human-plasminogen-activator-efficient-expression-and-hereditary-stability-in-transgenic-goats-and-in-vitro-thrombolytic-bioactivity-in-the-milk-of-transgenic-goats
#2
Zhengyi He, Rui Lu, Ting Zhang, Lei Jiang, Minya Zhou, Daijin Wu, Yong Cheng
BACKGROUND: Thromboses is a rapidly growing medical problem worldwide. Low-cost, high-scale production of thrombotic drugs is needed to meet the demand. The production of biomolecules in transgenic animals might help address this issue. To our knowledge, the expression of recombinant human plasminogen activator (rhPA) in goat mammary glands has never been reported before. METHODS: We constructed a mammary gland-specific expression vector, BLC14/rhPA, which encodes only the essential K2 fibrin-binding and P domains of wild-type tPA (deletion mutant of tPA lacking the F, E, and K1 domains), along with the goat β-lactoglobulin gene signal peptide-coding sequence...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117621/change-of-lecithotrophic-to-matrotrophic-nutrition-during-gestation-in-the-viviparous-teleost-xenotoca-eiseni-goodeidae
#3
Mari Carmen Uribe, Harry J Grier, Susana Areli Avila-Zúñiga, Adriana García-Alarcón
Teleosts possess unique features of the female reproductive system compared with the rest of vertebrates, features that define the characteristics of their viviparity. Viviparity involves new maternal-embryonic relationships detailing the most diverse structures during gestation that include embryonic nutrition. In order to analyze the morphological features of the complex nutrition in viviparous teleosts during intraovarian gestation, this study utilizes the goodeid Xenotoca eiseni as a model. Ovarian gestation in X...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116310/dynamic-expression-of-epac-and-rap1-in-mouse-oocytes-and-preimplantation-embryos
#4
Jun-Chao Wang, Ying Geng, Ying Han, Hai-Ning Luo, Yun-Shan Zhang
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is an important secondary messenger that has long been recognized to control the initiation of meiosis through the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) in mammalian oocytes. However, PKA is not the only target for cAMP. Recent studies on cAMP-dependent and PKA-independent pathways suggest that Ras-related protein-1 (Rap1) is activated through its cAMP-responsive guanine exchange factors (cAMP-GEFs), which comprises the involvement of exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in various cellular processes...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111581/nuclear-exclusion-of-smad2-3-in-granulosa-cells-is-associated-with-primordial-follicle-activation-in-the-mouse-ovary
#5
Kate Hardy, Jocelyn M Mora, Carina Dunlop, Raffaella Carzaniga, Stephen Franks, Mark A Fenwick
Maintenance and activation of the limited supply of primordial follicles in the ovary are important determinants of reproductive lifespan. Currently, the molecular programme that maintains the primordial phenotype and the early events associated with follicle activation are not well defined. Here we have systematically analysed these events using microscopy and detailed image analysis. Using the immature mouse ovary as a model, we demonstrate that the onset of granulosa cell (GC) proliferation results in increased packing density on the oocyte surface and consequent GC cuboidalisation...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110391/wolbachia-and-host-germline-components-compete-for-kinesin-mediated-transport-to-the-posterior-pole-of-the-drosophila-oocyte
#6
Shelbi L Russell, Nassim Lemseffer, William T Sullivan
Widespread success of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia across insects and nematodes is due to efficient vertical transmission and reproductive manipulations. Many strains, including wMel from Drosophila melanogaster, exhibit a specific concentration to the germplasm at the posterior pole of the mature oocyte, thereby ensuring high fidelity of parent-offspring transmission. Transport of Wolbachia to the pole relies on microtubules and the plus-end directed motor kinesin heavy chain (KHC). However, the mechanisms mediating Wolbachia's association with KHC remain unknown...
August 15, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109120/dna-methylation-reprogramming-of-functional-elements-during-mammalian-embryonic-development
#7
Congru Li, Yong Fan, Guoqiang Li, Xiaocui Xu, Jialei Duan, Rong Li, Xiangjin Kang, Xin Ma, Xuepeng Chen, Yuwen Ke, Jie Yan, Ying Lian, Ping Liu, Yue Zhao, Hongcui Zhao, Yaoyong Chen, Yang Yu, Jiang Liu
DNA methylation plays important roles during development. However, the DNA methylation reprogramming of functional elements has not been fully investigated during mammalian embryonic development. Herein, using our modified MethylC-Seq library generation method and published post-bisulphite adapter-tagging (PBAT) method, we generated genome-wide DNA methylomes of human gametes and early embryos at single-base resolution and compared them with mouse methylomes. We showed that the dynamics of DNA methylation in functional elements are conserved between humans and mice during early embryogenesis, except for satellite repeats...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105226/molecular-basis-of-human-sperm-capacitation
#8
REVIEW
Lis C Puga Molina, Guillermina M Luque, Paula A Balestrini, Clara I Marín-Briggiler, Ana Romarowski, Mariano G Buffone
In the early 1950s, Austin and Chang independently described the changes that are required for the sperm to fertilize oocytes in vivo . These changes were originally grouped under name of "capacitation" and were the first step in the development of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in humans. Following these initial and fundamental findings, a remarkable number of observations led to characterization of the molecular steps behind this process. The discovery of certain sperm-specific molecules and the possibility to record ion currents through patch-clamp approaches helped to integrate the initial biochemical observation with the activity of ion channels...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101577/the-achievement-of-boar-sperm-in-vitro-capacitation-is-related-to-an-increase-of-disrupted-disulphide-bonds-and-intracellular-reactive-oxygen-species-levels
#9
R P Betarelli, M Rocco, M Yeste, J M Fernández-Novell, A Placci, B Azevedo Pereira, M Castillo-Martín, E Estrada, A Peña, M G Zangeronimo, J E Rodríguez-Gil
The aim of this work was to determine the relationship of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the disulphide bonds established between sperm proteins with the achievement of capacitation in boar spermatozoa. With this purpose, spermatozoa were incubated in a specifically designed in vitro capacitation medium (CM) in the presence or absence of reduced glutathione (GSH). Incubation of boar spermatozoa in CM for 4 h significantly (p < 0.05) increased free cysteine residues, which is a marker of disrupted disulphide bonds, and also intracellular ROS levels...
August 12, 2018: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101314/investigating-the-genetic-determination-of-clutch-traits-in-laying-hens
#10
A Wolc, T Jankowski, J Arango, P Settar, J E Fulton, N P O'Sullivan, J C M Dekkers
Clutch traits were proposed as a more detailed description of egg-laying patterns than simple total egg production. In this study, egg production of 23,809 Rhode Island Red (RIR) and 22,210 White Leghorn (WL) hens was described in terms of number of clutches, average and maximum clutch size, age at first egg, total saleable egg production, and percentage of egg defects. Genetic parameters were estimated using a six-trait animal model. Of the phenotyped birds, 1433 RIR hens and 1515 WL hens were genotyped with line specific 50K Affymetrix Axiom single nucleotide polymorphism chips to perform genome-wide association analyses...
August 8, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097533/discovery-of-a-human-testis-specific-protein-complex-tex101-dpep3-and-selection-of-its-disrupting-antibodies
#11
Christina Schiza, Dimitrios Korbakis, Efstratia Panteleli, Keith Jarvi, Andrei P Drabovich, Eleftherios P Diamandis
TEX101 is a testis-specific protein expressed exclusively in male germ cells and is a validated biomarker of male infertility. Studies in mice suggest that TEX101 is a cell-surface chaperone which regulates, through protein-protein interactions, the maturation of proteins involved in spermatozoa transit and oocyte binding. Male TEX101-null mice are sterile. Here, we identified by co-immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry the interactome of human TEX101 in testicular tissues and spermatozoa. The testis-specific cell-surface dipeptidase 3 (DPEP3) emerged as the top hit...
August 10, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097513/cyclin-b2-can-compensate-for-cyclin-b1-in-oocyte-meiosis-i
#12
Jian Li, Ji-Xin Tang, Jin-Mei Cheng, Bian Hu, Yu-Qian Wang, Batool Aalia, Xiao-Yu Li, Cheng Jin, Xiu-Xia Wang, Shou-Long Deng, Yan Zhang, Su-Ren Chen, Wei-Ping Qian, Qing-Yuan Sun, Xing-Xu Huang, Yi-Xun Liu
Mammalian oocytes are arrested at the prophase of the first meiotic division for months and even years, depending on species. Meiotic resumption of fully grown oocytes requires activation of M-phase-promoting factor (MPF), which is composed of Cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). It has long been believed that Cyclin B1 synthesis/accumulation and its interaction with CDK1 is a prerequisite for MPF activation in oocytes. In this study, we revealed that oocyte meiotic resumption occurred in the absence of Cyclin B1...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094760/respirometric-reserve-capacity-of-cumulus-cell-mitochondria-correlates-with-oocyte-maturity
#13
Sharon H Anderson, Michael J Glassner, Andrey Melnikov, Gary Friedman, Zulfiya Orynbayeva
PURPOSE: Oocyte competence is critical in success of assisted reproduction. Metabolic signaling between oocyte and cumulus cells within the cumulus-oocyte complex procure oocyte development. This study evaluated the relationship between respirometric activity of cumulus cells and maturity of corresponding oocytes. METHODS: In prospective cohort study, 20 women of age 28-42 undergoing IVF procedure were involved. To evaluate oocyte maturity, the cumulus cells from individual oocytes were assessed flow cytometrically by double labeling of cells with mitochondria specific dyes...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091661/spectrin-regulates-cell-contractility-through-production-and-maintenance-of-actin-bundles-in-the-c-elegans-spermatheca
#14
Alison C E Wirshing, Erin J Cram
Disruption to the contractility of cells, including smooth muscle cells of the cardiovascular system and myoepithelial cells of the glandular epithelium, contributes to the pathophysiology of contractile tissue diseases including asthma, hypertension, and Primary Sjögren's syndrome. Cell contractility is determined by myosin activity and actomyosin network organization and is mediated by hundreds of protein-protein interactions, many directly involving actin. Here we use a candidate RNAi screen of more than 100 C...
August 9, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090651/involvement-of-kif4a-in-spindle-formation-and-chromosome-segregation-in-mouse-oocytes
#15
Feng Tang, Meng-Hao Pan, Yujie Lu, Xiang Wan, Yu Zhang, Shao-Chen Sun
Kif4a, a member of the kinesin superfamily, has been reported to participate in a series of cellular processes such as chromosome condensation and cytokinesis during mitosis. However, the roles of KIF4a in meiosis are still unknown. In present study we found that the Kif4a protein expression decreased in maternal aged mouse oocytes. We then explored the roles of Kif4a in mouse oocyte meiosis by knockdown analysis. Kif4a was enriched at the spindle during mouse oocyte maturation. By specific knock down of the Kif4a using morpholino microinjection, we found that the disruption of Kif4a caused the failure of polar body extrusion...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087124/a-novel-microtubule-nucleation-pathway-for-meiotic-spindle-assembly-in-oocytes
#16
Pierre Romé, Hiroyuki Ohkura
The meiotic spindle in oocytes is assembled in the absence of centrosomes, the major microtubule nucleation sites in mitotic and male meiotic cells. A crucial, yet unresolved question in meiosis is how spindle microtubules are generated without centrosomes and only around chromosomes in the exceptionally large volume of oocytes. Here we report a novel oocyte-specific microtubule nucleation pathway that is essential for assembling most spindle microtubules complementarily with the Augmin pathway. This pathway is mediated by the kinesin-6 Subito/MKlp2, which recruits the γ-tubulin complex to the spindle equator to nucleate microtubules in Drosophila oocytes...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087111/one-step-crispr-cas9-method-for-the-rapid-generation-of-human-antibody-heavy-chain-knock-in-mice
#17
Ying-Cing Lin, Simone Pecetta, Jon M Steichen, Sven Kratochvil, Eleonora Melzi, Johan Arnold, Stephanie K Dougan, Lin Wu, Kathrin H Kirsch, Usha Nair, William R Schief, Facundo D Batista
Here, we describe a one-step, in vivo CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease-mediated strategy to generate knock-in mice. We produced knock-in (KI) mice wherein a 1.9-kb DNA fragment bearing a pre-arranged human B-cell receptor heavy chain was recombined into the native murine immunoglobulin locus. Our methodology relies on Cas9 nuclease-induced double-stranded breaks directed by two sgRNAs to occur within the specific target locus of fertilized oocytes. These double-stranded breaks are subsequently repaired via homology-directed repair by a plasmid-borne template containing the pre-arranged human immunoglobulin heavy chain...
August 7, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085220/transcriptome-analysis-of-rhesus-monkey-failed-to-mature-oocytes-deficiencies-in-transcriptional-regulation-and-cytoplasmic-maturation-of-the-oocyte-mrna-population
#18
Meghan L Ruebel, Peter Z Schall, Uros Midic, Kailey A Vincent, Benjamin Goheen, Catherine A VandeVoort, Keith E Latham
STUDY QUESTION: Which different pathways and functions are altered in rhesus monkey oocytes that fail to mature after an ovulatory stimulus? SUMMARY ANSWER: FTM oocytes complete a large portion of the transition in transcriptome composition associated with normal maturation, but also manifest numerous differences that indicate incomplete transcriptional repression and cytoplasmic maturation affecting multiple processes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Oocyte maturation defects contribute to unexplained female infertility...
August 3, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30082411/dynamic-redox-balance-directs-the-oocyte-to-embryo-transition-via-developmentally-controlled-reactive-cysteine-changes
#19
Boryana Petrova, Keke Liu, Caiping Tian, Maiko Kitaoka, Elizaveta Freinkman, Jing Yang, Terry L Orr-Weaver
The metabolic and redox state changes during the transition from an arrested oocyte to a totipotent embryo remain uncharacterized. Here, we applied state-of-the-art, integrated methodologies to dissect these changes in Drosophila We demonstrate that early embryos have a more oxidized state than mature oocytes. We identified specific alterations in reactive cysteines at a proteome-wide scale as a result of this metabolic and developmental transition. Consistent with a requirement for redox change, we demonstrate a role for the ovary-specific thioredoxin Deadhead (DHD)...
August 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078833/effects-of-recombinant-ovgp1-protein-on-in-vitro-bovine-embryo-development
#20
Blanca Algarra, Verónica Maillo, Manuel Avilés, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Adán, Dimitrios Rizos, Maria Jimenez-Movilla
Previously, our group demonstrated that recombinant porcine oviductin (pOVGP1) binds to the zona pellucida (ZP) of in vitro-matured (IVM) porcine oocytes with a positive effect on in vitro fertilization (IVF). The fact that pOVGP1 was detected inside IVM oocytes suggested that this protein had a biological role during embryo development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pOVGP1 on bovine in vitro embryo development. We applied 10 or 50 µg/ml of pOVGP1 during IVF, embryonic in vitro culture (IVC), or both, to evaluate cleavage and embryo development...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
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