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Therapeutic AND exercise

Silvia Pieralice, Francesca Vigevano, Rossella Del Toro, Nicola Napoli, Ernesto Maddaloni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the main pathways involved in the interplay between bone and cardiovascular disease and to highlight the possible impact of physical activity and medical nutrition therapy on the bone-vascular axis. RECENT FINDINGS: Diabetes increases the risk of both cardiovascular disease and bone fragility fractures, sharing common pathogenic pathways, including OPG/RANK/RANKL, the FGF23/Klotho axis, calciotropic hormones, and circulating osteogenic cells...
August 18, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Kristi Budzinski, Megan Blewis, Philip Dahlin, Daniel D'Aquila, Julia Esparza, Jack Gavin, Sa V Ho, Clarice Hutchens, David Kahn, Stefan G Koenig, Robert Kottmeier, Jeff Millard, Matt Snyder, Brad Stanard, Lixin Sun
Biopharmaceuticals (or biologics), large molecule therapeutics typically produced using biotechnology, are a rapidly growing segment of the pharmaceutical market. As such, the environmental footprint of the production of these molecules is coming under scrutiny from various stakeholders such as healthcare providers, investors, and even employees. Process mass intensity (PMI), originally adopted for small molecules by the Green Chemistry Institute Pharmaceutical Roundtable, is a simple metric that can also be applied to evaluate the process efficiency of biopharmaceutical production...
August 16, 2018: New Biotechnology
Daniel M Hirai, Trenton D Colburn, Jesse C Craig, Kazuki Hotta, Yutaka Kano, Timothy I Musch, David C Poole
The oxygen transport pathway from air to mitochondria involves a series of transfer steps within closely integrated systems (pulmonary, cardiovascular and tissue metabolic). Small and finite O2 stores in most mammalian species require exquisitely controlled changes in O2 flux rates to support elevated ATP turnover. This is especially true for the contracting skeletal muscle where O2 requirements may increase two orders of magnitude above rest. This brief review focuses on the mechanistic bases for increased microvascular blood-myocyte O2 flux (V̇O2 ) from rest-to-contractions...
August 18, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Su-Kyung Shin, Hyun-Woo Cho, Seung-Eun Song, Dae-Kyu Song
Obesity and insulin resistance are considered the main causes of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and oxidative stress accelerates the progression of NAFLD. Free fatty acids, which are elevated in the liver by obesity or insulin resistance, lead to incomplete oxidation in the mitochondria, peroxisomes, and microsomes, leading to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Among the ROS generated, H2 O2 is mainly produced in peroxisomes and decomposed by catalase. However, when the H2 O2 concentration increases because of decreased expression or activity of catalase, it migrates to cytosol and other organelles, causing cell injury and participating in the Fenton reaction, resulting in serious oxidative stress...
August 17, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Carmen Fiuza-Luces, Alejandro Santos-Lozano, Michael Joyner, Pedro Carrera-Bastos, Oscar Picazo, José L Zugaza, Mikel Izquierdo, Luis M Ruilope, Alejandro Lucia
Despite strong scientific evidence supporting the benefits of regular exercise for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), physical inactivity is highly prevalent worldwide. In addition to merely changing well-known risk factors for systemic CVD, regular exercise can also improve cardiovascular health through non-traditional mechanisms. Understanding the pathways through which exercise influences different physiological systems is important and might yield new therapeutic strategies to target pathophysiological mechanisms in CVD...
August 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Deborah Agostini, Sabrina Donati Zeppa, Francesco Lucertini, Giosuè Annibalini, Marco Gervasi, Carlo Ferri Marini, Giovanni Piccoli, Vilberto Stocchi, Elena Barbieri, Piero Sestili
Menopause is an age-dependent physiological condition associated with a natural decline in oestrogen levels, which causes a progressive decrease of muscle mass and strength and bone density. Sarcopenia and osteoporosis often coexist in elderly people, with a prevalence of the latter in elderly women. The profound interaction between muscle and bone induces a negative resonance between the two tissues affected by these disorders worsening the quality of life in the postmenopausal period. It has been estimated that at least 1 in 3 women over age 50 will experience osteoporotic fractures, often requiring hospitalisation and long-term care, causing a large financial burden to health insurance systems...
August 16, 2018: Nutrients
Yan Nok Lau, Joseph Ng, Shan Yee Lee, Lam Chin Li, Cheuk Man Kwan, Sin Ming Fan, Bernard Pui Lam Leung, Chi Ngai Lo
BACKGROUND: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovitis, activation of synoviocytes and infiltration of adaptive immune cells leads to synovial hyperplasia and joint swelling. Under the elevated extra-neural pressure, free nerve endings release neuropeptides, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and substance P, thus promoting neurogenic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the effect of therapeutic neural mobilization (NM) exercises targeting the nervous system on disease impact in RA patients...
August 15, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
Rahman Sheikhhoseini, Shahnaz Shahrbanian, Parisa Sayyadi, Kieran O'Sullivan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize the results related to the effects of corrective exercises on postural variables in individuals with forward head posture (FHP). METHODS: A systematic review of the electronic literature through February 2017 was independently performed by 2 investigators. The electronic databases searched included PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials, Google Scholar, and Scopus...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
Ajmer Singh, Yatin Mehta
Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome that results from any structural or functional impairment of ventricular filling or ejection of blood. American College of Cardiology Foundation / American Heart Association 2013 guidelines have classified HF into two categories: (i) HF with reduced (≤40%) ejection fraction (HFrEF) or systolic HF, and (ii) HF with preserved (≥50%) ejection fraction (HFpEF) or diastolic HF. Risk factors for HFpEF include age more than 70 years, female gender, hypertension, wide pulse pressure, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal insufficiency, left ventricular hypertrophy, atrial fibrillation, smoking, recent weight gain, and exercise intolerance...
April 2018: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Fan Yang, Xiaohua You, Tongyi Xu, Yang Liu, Yudan Ren, Suxuan Liu, Feng Wu, Zhiyun Xu, Liangjian Zou, Guokun Wang
Exercise preconditioning (EP) attenuates pathological cardiac hypertrophy by increasing the functional capacity of the cardiovascular system; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in various physiological and pathological processes by regulating the expression of the targeted gene. In this study, we aimed to screen the miRNAs involved in EP-attenuating pathological cardiac hypertrophy. The histological and echocardiographic parameters assessment showed that pathological cardiac hypertrophy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was significantly alleviated in EP treated rats...
August 11, 2018: International Heart Journal
Sunjeev K Kamboj, Ylva S E Walldén, Caroline J Falconer, Majdah Raji Alotaibi, Ian S Blagbrough, Stephen M Husbands, Tom P Freeman
3,4-Methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA;'ecstasy') produces prosocial subjective effects that may extend to affiliative feelings towards the self . Behavioural techniques can produce similar self-directed affiliation. For example, compassionate imagery (CI) and ecstasy reduce self-criticism and increase self-compassion to a similar extent, with the effects of CI enhanced in the presence of ecstasy. Here, we examine self-compassion and self-criticism in recreational users who consumed chemically verified MDMA in a within-subjects crossover study...
2018: Mindfulness
Akira Kodama, Toru Sunagawa, Yuko Nakashima, Rikuo Shinomiya, Yuta Hayashi, Mitsuo Ochi, Nobuo Adachi
BACKGROUND: Dynamic external fixation is a useful treatment option for unstable fracture-dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint, because it simultaneously reduces axial pressure load on the joint surface, maintains congruent joint reduction, and permits early joint motion. However, most current devices are large, hindering finger movement, and unstable. To address these problems, we developed a dynamic external finger fixator, named the Micro Ortho Fixator® . The purpose of this study was to review the results of using the new external finger fixator to treat unstable fracture-dislocations of the PIP joint...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Xiaozhi Xi, Shasha Guo, Hong Guo, Xiaowei Cui, Hui Cao, Fangxue Xu, Mengmeng Zheng, Yujuan Li, Chunchao Han
The aim of this research was to evaluate the anti-exercise-fatigue and promotion of sexual interest of total flavonoids from drone pupae of wasps. DPTF was prepared by ethanol extracting and its extraction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology. Then, anti-exercise-fatigue and promotion of sexual interest of DPTF were evaluated. The optimums extraction conditions by RSM were ethanol concentration 65%, extraction time 3 h and solid-to-liquid 20:1(mL/g). No mortality and general symptoms of toxicity were observed in the DPTF treated mice(1 g/kg,3 g/kg,5 g/kg body weight) the body weight and food consumption were not significantly changed compared with the normal control group...
August 7, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
A Beaumont, A Campbell, F Grace, N Sculthorpe
INTRODUCTION: Ageing is associated with a progressive decline in cardiac and vascular health, resulting in an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lifestyle factors such as exercise have emerged as a primary therapeutic target in the prevention of CVD, yet older individuals are frequently reported as being the least active, with 1 in four adults failing to meet the physical activity guidelines. In contrast, well trained older individuals (Masters athletes) have superior functional capacity than their sedentary peers and are often comparable with young non-athletes...
August 10, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Laishyang Melody Ouyoung, Brenda Capobres Villegas, Changxing Liu, Guy Talmor, Uttam K Sinha
Background: Menstruation-related hormonal alteration can be detrimental to the professional singing voice of women. Resonance Voice Therapy (RVT) has been proven to improve vocal production. However, no research to date has been conducted examining the subjective, acoustic, and stroboscopic effects of RVT on professional female singers having premenstrual or postmenopausal voice disorders. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the vocal effects of RVT with a control cervical-thoracic intervention in healthy female singers during the premenstrual phase as well as in postmenopausal singers and to evaluate which intervention will allow singers to improve vocal performance regardless of changes in hormonal status...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Ear, Nose and Throat
Alexa Alves de Moraes, Cayo Antônio Soares de Almeida, Guilherme Lucas, José Antonio Thomazini, Aline Santos DeMaman
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate morphological alterations caused by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PNL) and the efficacy of a moderate-intensity swimming training as therapeutic strategy for nerve regeneration. METHODS: A number of 30 male adult mice were equally divided in control, 14 days after PNL (PNL 14 days), 42 days after PNL (PNL 42 days), 70 days after PNL (PNL 70 days) and 5-week exercise training after 7 days post-lesion (PNL trained 35 days) groups...
August 9, 2018: Neurological Research
Gabriele Grunig, Christina A Eichstaedt, Jeremias Verweyen, Nedim Durmus, Stephanie Saxer, Greta Krafsur, Kurt Stenmark, Silvia Ulrich, Ekkehard Grünig, Serhiy Pylawka
Rationale: Therapeutic exercise training has been shown to significantly improve pulmonary hypertension (PH), including 6-min walking distance and right heart function. Supplemental nightly oxygen also has therapeutic effects. A biomarker tool that could query critical gene networks would aid in understanding the molecular effects of the interventions. Methods: Paired bio-banked serum ( n = 31) or plasma ( n = 21) samples from the exercise or oxygen intervention studies, respectively, and bio-banked plasma samples ( n = 20) from high altitude induced PH in cattle were tested...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jong-Chi Oh, Jae-Sung Kwon
OBJECTIVE: The effect of a resistive jaw-opening exercise using an elastic band on suprahyoid muscle activity and tongue strength was examined in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Twenty-one adults wore an elastic loop around their head and mandible. To prescribe the appropriate elastic band resistance, the 10-repetition maximum (10 RM) was measured among 4 bands at baseline. Band loops, starting with the highest resistance value band, were sequentially applied to determine the suitability for 10 RM...
August 8, 2018: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
Janet M Chiang, George A Kaysen, Mark Segal, Glenn M Chertow, Cynthia Delgado, Kirsten L Johansen
Background: Despite the high prevalence of frailty among patients receiving hemodialysis, few preventable or treatable contributing causes have been identified. Hypogonadism is also common in this population and low serum testosterone concentrations share several clinical phenotypes with frailty. We hypothesized that low serum testosterone concentrations would be associated with frailty and several of its individual components. Methods: We used data from 440 men from A Cohort Study To Investigate the Value of Exercise in ESRD/Analysis Designed to Investigate the Paradox of Obesity and Survival in ESRD, a longitudinal study that recruited participants from 14 dialysis centers in Atlanta, GA and the San Francisco, CA Bay Area from 2009 to 2011...
August 1, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Stephen M Modell, Toby Citrin, Sharon L R Kardia
The United States Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI) was announced by then President Barack Obama in January 2015. It is a national effort designed to take into account genetic, environmental, and lifestyle differences in the development of individually tailored forms of treatment and prevention. This goal was implemented in March 2015 with the formation of an advisory committee working group to provide a framework for the proposed national research cohort of one million or more participants. The working group further held a public workshop on participant engagement and health equity, focusing on the design of an inclusive cohort, building public trust, and identifying active participant engagement features for the national cohort...
August 3, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
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