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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30556500/drug-development-strategy-for-type-2-diabetes-targeting-positive-energy-balances
#1
Zhenqi Liu, Baichun Yang
Newer classes of medications have been proven useful in glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2D), but many do not appear capable to slow down the progressive loss of ß-cell function, or to improve population-level glycemic control. Positive energy balance, e.g. surplus energy intake over expenditure, is at the core for developing metabolic syndrome and T2D. Currently available glycemic control drugs come to the market based on their 1-2 years risk-benefit profiles, but most of them do not correct positive energy balance and lose efficacy in the long-term...
December 16, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30556430/strength-measurement-after-achilles-tendon-repair
#2
Henrik C Bäcker, Adrian J Yenchak, David P Trofa, J Turner Vosseller
The goal of treatment after Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) is to restore appropriate tension to the tendon, so that normal baseline strength and functional soft-tissue length can be achieved. The assessment of plantarflexion strength has shown widespread variability. The purpose of this study is to document variations in strength assessment after the treatment of ATR in the literature. A comprehensive literature review was performed. In total, 2758 articles were found on Achilles tendon rupture and Achilles tendon strength measurement...
December 17, 2018: Foot & Ankle Specialist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30555546/increasing-lean-muscle-mass-in-mice-via-nanoparticle-mediated-hepatic-delivery-of-follistatin-mrna
#3
Canan Schumann, Duc X Nguyen, Mason Norgard, Yulia Bortnyak, Tetiana Korzun, Stephanie Chan, Anna St Lorenz, Abraham S Moses, Hassan A Albarqi, Leon Wong, Katherine Michaelis, Xinxia Zhu, Adam W G Alani, Olena R Taratula, Stephanie Krasnow, Daniel L Marks, Oleh Taratula
Muscle atrophy occurs during chronic diseases, resulting in diminished quality of life and compromised treatment outcomes. There is a high demand for therapeutics that increase muscle mass while abrogating the need for special dietary and exercise requirements. Therefore, we developed an efficient nanomedicine approach capable of increasing muscle mass. Methods: The therapy is based on nanoparticle-mediated delivery of follistatin messenger RNA (mRNA) to the liver after subcutaneous administration. The delivered mRNA directs hepatic cellular machinery to produce follistatin, a glycoprotein that increases lean mass through inhibition of negative regulators of muscle mass (myostatin and activin A)...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30555310/environmental-enrichment-modulates-drug-addiction-and-binge-like-consumption-of-highly-rewarding-substances-a-role-for-anxiety-and-compulsivity-brain-systems
#4
Elisa Rodríguez-Ortega, Inmaculada Cubero
Drug addiction is a chronic disorder comprising components of both impulsivity and compulsivity in the so called "addiction cycle" which develops over time from early non-dependent, repetitive, binge-consumption to later post-dependent compulsive consumption. Thus, frequent binge-like intake is a typical pattern of excessive drug intake characteristic of the pre-dependent phase of the addiction cycle, which represent an important risk factor to develop addiction in vulnerable individuals. In this framework, it is of paramount interest to further understand the earliest stage of the addiction cycle so novel approaches would emerge aimed to control repetitive episodes of binge-consumption in non-dependent subjects, protecting vulnerable individuals from transition to dependence...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30553768/tfam-overexpression-diminishes-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-after-hindlimb-suspension-in-mice
#5
Nicholas T Theilen, Nevena Jeremic, Gregory J Weber, Suresh C Tyagi
The present study aims to investigate if overexpressing the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) gene in a transgenic mouse model diminishes soleus and gastrocnemius atrophy occurring during hindlimb suspension (HLS). Additionally, we aim to observe if combining exercise training in TFAM transgenic mice prior to HLS has a synergistic effect in preventing skeletal muscle atrophy. Male C57BL/6J-based transgenic mice (12-14 weeks old) overexpressing TFAM were assigned to a control (T-Control), 7-day HLS (T-HLS), and 2-week exercise training prior to 7-day HLS (T-Ex + HLS) groups...
December 13, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552877/treadmill-exercise-ameliorates-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-neurological-deficit-by-promoting-dendritic-modification-and-synaptic-plasticity-via-upregulating-caveolin-1-vegf-signaling-pathways
#6
Qingfeng Xie, Jingyan Cheng, Guoyuan Pan, Shamin Wu, Quan Hu, Haoming Jiang, Yangyang Wang, Jianrong Xiong, Qiongyi Pang, Xiang Chen
Dendritic and synaptic plasticity in the penumbra are important processes and are considered to be therapeutic targets of ischemic stroke. Treadmill exercise is known to be a beneficial treatment following stroke. However, its effects and potential mechanism in promoting dendritic and synaptic plasticity remain unknown. We have previously demonstrated that the caveolin-1/VEGF signaling pathway plays a positive role in angiogenesis and neurogenesis. Here, we further investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on promoting dendritic and synaptic plasticity in the penumbra and whether they involve the caveolin-1/VEGF signaling pathway...
December 12, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30549058/insights-into-the-pulmonary-vascular-complications-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#7
Yen-Chun Lai, Longfei Wang, Mark T Gladwin
Pulmonary hypertension in the setting of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (PH-HFpEF) is a growing public health problem that is increasing in prevalence. While PH-HFpEF is defined by a high mean pulmonary artery pressure, high left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and a normal ejection fraction, some HFpEF patients develop PH in the presence of pulmonary vascular remodeling with a high transpulmonary pressure gradient or pulmonary vascular resistance. Aging, increased left atrial pressure and stiffness, mitral regurgitation, as well as features of metabolic syndrome, which include obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, are recognized as risk factors for PH-HFpEF...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30549023/motor-neuroprostheses
#8
Arthur Prochazka
Neuroprostheses (NPs) are electrical stimulators that activate nerves, either to provide sensory input to the central nervous system (sensory NPs), or to activate muscles (motor NPs: MNPs). The first MNPs were belts with inbuilt batteries and electrodes developed in the 1850s to exercise the abdominal muscles. They became enormously popular among the general public, but as a result of exaggerated therapeutic claims they were soon discredited by the medical community. In the 1950s, MNPs reemerged for the serious purpose of activating paralyzed muscles...
December 13, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30548639/tadalafil-15-years-journey-in-male-erectile-dysfunction-and-beyond
#9
Nermin S Ahmed
Hit, Lead & Candidate Discovery Tadalafil, Cialis, Eli Lilly & Co./ICOS, (6R,12aR)-6-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-methyl-2,3,6,7,12,12a-hexahydropyrazino[1',2':1,6] pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1,4-dione, was first discovered in 2003. It was reported to have high diastereospecificity for phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitions. The cis-(6R, 12aR) enantiomer is the most active enantiomer. Tadalafil showed PDE5 inhibition with IC50  = 5 nM. It possesses high selectivity for PDE5 versus PDE1-4 and PDE6. Tadalafil is more selective to PDE5 against PDE6 whereas sildenafil, another commercially available PDE5 inhibitor shows similar potencies to inhibit PDE5 and PDE6...
December 13, 2018: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30547735/alterations-in-muscle-activation-patterns-during-robot-assisted-bilateral-training-a-pilot-study
#10
Bo Sheng, Lihua Tang, Shengquan Xie, Chao Deng, Yanxin Zhang
Robot-assisted bilateral training is being developed as a new rehabilitation approach for stroke patients. However, there is still a lack of understanding of muscle functions when performing robot-assisted synchronous movements. The aim of this work is to explore the muscle activation patterns and the voluntary effort of participants during different robot-assisted bilateral training protocols. To this end, 10 healthy participants were recruited to take part in a 60-minute experiment. The experiment included two different bilateral exercises, and each exercise contained four different training protocols...
December 14, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30547701/hypertension-linked-to-allostatic-load-from-psychosocial-stress-to-inflammation-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#11
Feres José Mocayar Marón, León Ferder, Fernando Daniel Saraví, Walter Manucha
Although a large number of available treatments and strategies, the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases continues to grow worldwide. Emerging evidence supports the notion of counteracting stress as a critical component of a comprehensive therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular disease. Indeed, an unhealthy lifestyle is a burden to biological variables such as plasma glucose, lipid profile, and blood pressure control. Recent findings identify allostatic load as a new paradigm for an integrated understanding of the importance of psychosocial stress and its impact on the development and maintenance of cardiovascular disease...
December 14, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30546969/guideline-approaches-for-cardioendocrine-disease-surveillance-and-treatment-following-spinal-cord-injury
#12
REVIEW
Mark S Nash, James L J Bilzon
Purpose of Review: Persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI) commonly experience individual risks and coalesced health hazards of the cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS). This review will examinethe role of exercise and nutritional intervention as countermeasures to these disease risks. Recent Findings: The CMS hazards of overweight/obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are strongly associated with physical deconditioning and are common after SCI...
2018: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30544086/impact-of-pre-cooling-therapy-on-the-physical-performance-and-functional-capacity-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Antonia Kaltsatou, Andreas D Flouris
Patients with multiple sclerosis experience many complications that gradually lead them to comorbidity and disability. Exercise could prevent and ameliorate the symptoms that comorbidity or inactivity generate. However, until recently it was suggested that multiple sclerosis patients should not participate in exercise training programs because these patients are characterized by thermoregulatory failure and the heat stress due to physical work could exacerbate the disease symptoms. Furthermore, taken into account that 60-80% of the multiple sclerosis patients present adverse clinical symptoms when their body temperature is increased (not only due to physical working but even when immerse in hot water or by exposure to infrared lamps or to the sun), the need for the development of treatment strategies to overcome the thermoregulatory problem in these patients is crucial...
November 13, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30541592/effect-of-a-home-based-exercise-program-on-functional-mobility-and-quality-of-life-in-elderly-people-protocol-of-a-single-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Glauber Sá Brandão, Luís Vicente Franco Oliveira, Glaudson Sá Brandão, Anderson Soares Silva, Antônia Adonis Callou Sampaio, Jessica Julioti Urbano, Alyne Soares, Newton Santos Faria, Luisa Teixeira Pasqualotto, Ezequiel Fernandes Oliveira, Rodrigo Franco Oliveira, Deise A A Pires-Oliveira, Aquiles Assunção Camelier
BACKGROUND: Elderly people have high rates of functional decline, which compromises independence, self-confidence, and quality of life (QoL). Physical exercise leads to significant improvements in strength, balance, functional mobility, and QoL, but there is still reduced access to this therapeutic strategy due to difficulties in locomotion to training centers or lack of adaptation to the exercise environment. METHODS/DESIGN: The purpose of this clinical trial will be to verify the effect of a progressive and semi-supervised, home-based exercise program on the functional mobility, and in the QoL of sedentary elderly people...
December 12, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30538994/are-there-limitations-to-exercise-benefits-in-peripheral-arterial-disease
#15
REVIEW
Madaniah Zakari, Musaad Alsahly, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Laxmansa C Katwa, Robert M Lust
Substantial evidence exists indicating that inactivity contributes to the progression of chronic disease, and conversely, that regular physical activity can both prevent the onset of disease as well as delay the progression of existing disease. To that end "exercise as medicine" has been advocated in the broad context as general medical care, but also in the specific context as a therapeutic, to be considered in much the same way as other drugs. As there are non-responders to many medications, there also are non-responders to exercise; individual who participate but do not demonstrate appreciable improvement/benefit...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537714/glp1-receptor-agonist-liraglutide-is-an-effective-therapeutic-option-for-perioperative-glycemic-control-in-type-2-diabetes-within-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-eras-protocols
#16
Shizuka Kaneko, Youhei Ueda, Yumiko Tahara
BACKGROUND: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols are multimodal perioperative care pathways designed to achieve early recovery after surgical procedures by maintaining preoperative organ function and reducing profound stress responses following surgery [Wilmore and Kehlet: BMJ 2001; 322(7284): 473-6]. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAgs), such as liraglutide, have recently been widely used as antidiabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) because they maintain blood glucose at an ideal level throughout the day, including during postprandial periods, thereby improving hypoglycemia and body weight more than insulin therapies...
December 11, 2018: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30534470/clinical-reasoning-in-the-face-of-uncertainty-conservative-physical-therapy-management-of-a-teenage-athlete-diagnosed-with-a-proximal-humeral-non-ossifying-fibroma
#17
Timothy J Reynolds, Joseph Paul Coviello, Michael Costello
Background and Purpose: There have been few published studies regarding the treatment of patients with non-ossifying fibromas (NOFs), either conservatively or operatively. The purpose of this case report is to discuss the clinical presentation and conservative management of a teenage athlete diagnosed with a proximal humerus NOF. Case Description: The subject was a 13-year-old male middle school student with a diagnosis of left shoulder pain over the prior year preventing him from participating in sports activities...
December 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30534043/effects-of-spinal-mobilization-techniques-in-the-management-of-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-a-meta-analysis
#18
Sumaira Imran Farooqui, Pirzada Qasim Raza Siddiqui, Basit Ansari, Ali Farhad
Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of diverse exercise regimes used in multiple Randomized Control Trials as the only conservative management strategy for increased Cobb angle among Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Methods: Database such as Google Scholar, Medline, and BioMed Central was reconnoitered for the purpose of research articles of interest. Studies in which the effects of conservative management of scoliosis on the magnitude of Cobb angle were calculated were scrutinized procedurally, studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were retrieved and encompassed in the present study...
November 2018: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30532724/not-the-function-of-eating-but-spontaneous-activity-and-energy-expenditure-reflected-in-restlessness-and-a-drive-for-activity-appear-to-be-dysregulated-in-anorexia-nervosa-treatment-implications
#19
Regina C Casper
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is uncommon as a syndrome, despite widespread dieting or voluntary food restriction, especially among female adolescents. This suggests that restriction of caloric intake might not be the only component driving weight loss in AN. Historical observations and experimental evidence from energy expenditure studies and recordings from movement sensors reviewed in this paper reveal that AN is associated with motor activity levels and with an energy output not significantly different from that in normal-weight healthy age-matched controls...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30531232/a-therapeutic-exercise-program-improves-pain-and-physical-dimension-of-health-related-quality-of-life-in-young-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
B Rodríguez-Romero, O Bello, J Vivas Costa, Lidia Carballo-Costa
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an exercise therapy program on pain and physical dimension of health-related quality of life for young adults with musculoskeletal pain. DESIGN: Randomized controlled single-blind trial. Fifty-seven subjects (58% women) were randomly assigned to experimental (n=28; 21.4±2.9 yrs) and control (n=29; 21.0±4.2 yrs) groups. The experimental group participated in a 9-week stabilization exercise therapy program, 60 minutes/once a week, while the control group did not exercise, with a pre- and post-intervention assessment...
December 6, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
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