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Dynamic navigation

Aniruddha Mitra, Felix Ruhnow, Salvatore Girardo, Stefan Diez
Kinesin-8 motors, which move in a highly processive manner toward microtubule plus ends where they act as depolymerases, are essential regulators of microtubule dynamics in cells. To understand their navigation strategy on the microtubule lattice, we studied the 3D motion of single yeast kinesin-8 motors, Kip3, on freely suspended microtubules in vitro. We observed short-pitch, left-handed helical trajectories indicating that kinesin-8 motors frequently switch protofilaments in a directionally biased manner...
August 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Susan L Miller, Jamie L Manzer
Battered mothers often go to great lengths to protect their children from abuse. Most of these efforts play out in private settings such as the home. After their relationships end, women's actions shift to the public sphere for judgment by the courts. Abusers' strategies utilize the courts as another tool with which to call into question and challenge their former partners' parenting. Images of "good mothers" who behave passively are favored by officials who often have incomplete understandings of the dynamics of intimate partner violence and abuse...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Elizabeth J Levey, Lance D Laird, Anne E Becker, Benjamin L Harris, G Gondah Lekpeh, Claire E Oppenheim, David C Henderson, Christina P C Borba
Between 1989 and 2003, Liberia experienced a brutal civil war characterized by ethnic killings, sexual violence and the use of child soldiers. Five years after the war ended, half the population of Liberia was under 18 years old. Understanding the needs of these youth is thus essential to the recovery of the nation. This study focuses on the narratives of two female adolescents, selected from 75 in-depth individual interviews with post-conflict Liberian youth conducted in 2012. A narrative analysis approach was employed to examine each interview for multiple layers of meaning...
August 3, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Brenda R Malcolm, John J Foxe, John S Butler, Sophie Molholm, Pierfilippo De Sanctis
While navigating complex environments the brain must continuously adapt to both external demands such as fluctuating sensory inputs, as well as internal demands, such as engagement in a cognitively demanding task. Previous studies have demonstrated changes in behavior and gait with increased sensory and cognitive load, but the underlying cortical mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, in a Mobile Brain/Body Imaging (MoBI) approach sixteen young adults walked on a treadmill with high-density EEG while 3D motion capture tracked kinematics of the head and feet...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Yuko Kagawa-Nagamura, Keiko Gengyo-Ando, Masamichi Ohkura, Junichi Nakai
Background: Tyramine, known as a "trace amine" in mammals, modulates a wide range of behavior in invertebrates; however, the underlying cellular and circuit mechanisms are not well understood. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans ), tyramine affects key behaviors, including foraging, feeding, and escape responses. The touch-evoked backward escape response is often coupled with a sharp omega turn that allows the animal to navigate away in the opposite direction...
2018: Zoological Letters
Haitao Chen, Sheng-Da Zhang, Linjie Chen, Yao Cai, Wei-Jia Zhang, Tao Song, Long-Fei Wu
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a diverse group of microorganisms capable of using geomagnetic fields for navigation. This magnetotactic behavior can help microorganisms move toward favorable habitats for optimal growth and reproduction. A comprehensive understanding of the magnetotactic mechanism at molecular levels requires highly efficient genomic editing tools, which remain underdeveloped in MTB. Here, we adapted an engineered CRISPR-Cas9 system for efficient inactivation of genes in a widely used MTB model strain, Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kerstin Piayda, Laura Kleinebrecht, Shazia Afzal, Roland Bullens, Iris Ter Horst, Amin Polzin, Verena Veulemans, Lisa Dannenberg, Anna Christina Wimmer, Christian Jung, Florian Bönner, Malte Kelm, Katharina Hellhammer, Tobias Zeus
BACKGROUND: A novel software ("Dynamic Coronary Roadmap") was developed, which offers a real-time, dynamic overlay of the coronary tree on fluoroscopy. Once the roadmap has been automatically generated during angiography it can be used for navigation during percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). As a feasibility study, we aimed to investigate the feasibility of real-time dynamic coronary roadmapping and consecutive coronary overlay during elective PCI. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 936 overlay runs, created following the same amount of angiographies, which were generated during 36 PCIs...
July 31, 2018: European Journal of Medical Research
Sigurd M Albrektsen, Tor Arne Johansen
As the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for industrial use increases, so are the demands for highly accurate navigation solutions, and with the high dynamics that UAVs offer, the accuracy of a measurement does not only depend on the value of the measurement, but also the accuracy of the associated timestamp. Sensor timing using dedicated hardware is the de-facto method to achieve optimal sensor performance, but the solutions available today have limited flexibility and requires much effort when changing sensors...
July 30, 2018: Sensors
Sierra Holland
Medical interactions around reproduction are increasingly extending beyond the physician's office and onto the Internet, where negotiation with medical authority occurs in complex and dynamic ways. Recently, scholars have noted the Internet's potential for creating spaces where women can dialogue with and reconstruct medical authority, yet this growing body of work is overwhelming heteronormative. This paper thus interrogates how lesbian women use the Internet to challenge, deploy, and rework medical authority around reproduction while navigating the transition to parenthood...
July 26, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
Julie E Reed, Heather C Kaplan, Sharif A Ismail
BACKGROUND: The importance of contextual factors in influencing quality improvement and implementation (QI&I) initiatives is broadly acknowledged. Existing treatments of context have primarily viewed it as static and distinct from interventions themselves. The objective of this study was to advance understanding of the complex and dynamic interaction between context, intervention, and implementation strategies. Using the Model for Understanding Success in Quality (MUSIQ), we aimed to better understand the roles of, and inter-relationships between, contextual factors within QI&I initiatives...
July 25, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Steffen Schön, Claus Brenner, Hamza Alkhatib, Max Coenen, Hani Dbouk, Nicolas Garcia-Fernandez, Colin Fischer, Christian Heipke, Katja Lohmann, Ingo Neumann, Uyen Nguyen, Jens-André Paffenholz, Torben Peters, Franz Rottensteiner, Julia Schachtschneider, Monika Sester, Ligang Sun, Sören Vogel, Raphael Voges, Bernardo Wagner
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) deliver absolute position and velocity, as well as time information (P, V, T). However, in urban areas, the GNSS navigation performance is restricted due to signal obstructions and multipath. This is especially true for applications dealing with highly automatic or even autonomous driving. Subsequently, multi-sensor platforms including laser scanners and cameras, as well as map data are used to enhance the navigation performance, namely in accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability...
July 23, 2018: Sensors
Heidi L Fuchs, Gregory P Gerbi, Elias J Hunter, Adam J Christman
Marine population dynamics often depend on dispersal of larvae with infinitesimal odds of survival, creating selective pressure for larval behaviors that enhance transport to suitable habitats. One intriguing possibility is that larvae navigate using physical signals dominating their natal environments. We tested whether flow-induced larval behaviors vary with adults' physical environments, using congeneric snail larvae from the wavy continental shelf ( Tritia trivittata ) and from turbulent inlets ( Tritia obsoleta )...
July 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xin Zhao, Jianli Li, Xunliang Yan, Shaowen Ji
In this paper, we propose a robust adaptive cubature Kalman filter (CKF) to deal with the problem of an inaccurately known system model and noise statistics. In order to overcome the kinematic model error, we introduce an adaptive factor to adjust the covariance matrix of state prediction, and process the influence introduced by dynamic disturbance error. Aiming at overcoming the abnormality error, we propose the robust estimation theory to adjust the CKF algorithm online. The proposed adaptive CKF can detect the degree of gross error and subsequently process it, so the influence produced by the abnormality error can be solved...
July 20, 2018: Sensors
Hongqiang Sang, Ying Zhou, Xiujun Sun, Shaoqiong Yang
The underwater glider changes its direction to follow the preset path in the horizontal plane only by flapping its vertical rudder. Heading tracking control plays the core role in the navigation process. To deal with non-linear flow disturbance and saturation in actuator, a new hybrid heading tracking control algorithm was presented, which integrated an adaptive fuzzy incremental PID (AFIPID) and an anti-windup (AW) compensator to improve the adaptability and robustness of underwater glider's heading control...
July 18, 2018: ISA Transactions
Thierry Morineau, John M Flach
Cognitive Work Analysis is an original method that seeks to describe work systems made up of nested sets of constraints, from ecological constraints imposed by the work domain to cognitive constraints. This top-down approach starts with a work domain model in order to analyze and specify contexts of activity. To complement this method, we propose a bottom-up version of Cognitive Work Analysis focusing on contexts of activity and depicting how operators adapt to the ecological constraints. Based on Rasmussen's Dynamic Safety Model, the ecological constraints involved are those bounding the workspace in which operators dynamically navigate with control loops, strategies, work organization, and competencies...
July 18, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Eyal Itskovits, Rotem Ruach, Alon Zaslaver
The ability of animals to effectively locate and navigate toward food sources is central for survival. Here, using C. elegans nematodes, we reveal the neural mechanism underlying efficient navigation in chemical gradients. This mechanism relies on the activity of two types of chemosensory neurons: one (AWA) coding gradients via stochastic pulsatile dynamics, and the second (AWCON ) coding the gradients deterministically in a graded manner. The pulsatile dynamics of the AWA neuron adapts to the magnitude of the gradient derivative, allowing animals to take trajectories better oriented toward the target...
July 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Gal Yadid, Hadas Ahdoot-Levi, Tzofnat Bareli, Rachel Maayan, Abraham Weizman
Drug addiction has a great negative influence on society, both social and economic burden. It was widely thought that addicts could choose to stop using drugs if only they had some self-control and principles. Nowadays, science has changed this view, defining drug addiction as a complex brain disease that affects behavior in many ways, both biological and psychological. Currently there is no ground-breaking reliable treatment for drug addiction. For more than a decade we are researching an alternative approach for intervention with drug craving and relapse to its usage, using DHEA, a well-being and antiaging food supplement...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Zang Chen, Jizhou Lai, Jianye Liu, Rongbing Li, Guotian Ji
The GNSS/INS (Global Navigation Satellite System/Inertial Navigation System) navigation system has been widely discussed in recent years. Because of the unique INS-aided loop structure, the deeply coupled system performs very well in highly dynamic environments. In practice, vehicle maneuvering has a big influence on the performance of IMUs (Inertial Measurement Unit), and determining whether the selected IMUs and receiver parameters satisfy the loop dynamic requirement is still a critical problem for deeply coupled systems...
July 18, 2018: Sensors
Wenhui Wei, Shesheng Gao, Yongmin Zhong, Chengfan Gu, Gaoge Hu
This paper presents a new adaptive square-root unscented particle filtering algorithm by combining the adaptive filtering and square-root filtering into the unscented particle filter to inhibit the disturbance of kinematic model noise and the instability of filtering data in the process of nonlinear filtering. To prevent particles from degeneracy, the proposed algorithm adaptively adjusts the adaptive factor, which is constructed from predicted residuals, to refrain from the disturbance of abnormal observation and the kinematic model noise...
July 18, 2018: Sensors
Consuelo H Wilkins
Engaging patients and community stakeholders as partners in research requires effective communication, inclusion in decision making, and mutually respectful relationships. Developing and maintaining trust among stakeholders and researchers is critical for successful engagement, especially in partnerships involving patients or community stakeholders in which there is often an imbalance of power. Although patients and community members are assuming new roles and greater responsibility in research partnerships, they often rely on researchers to help navigate unfamiliar research settings and share resources...
August 2, 2018: Medical Care
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