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Dynamic navigation

Mike R Bueno, Carlos Estrela, Brunno C Azevedo, Anibal Diogenes
Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has promoted changes in approaches in Endodontics, and enhanced decision-making in complex clinical cases. Despite the technological advancements in CBCT hardware, the interpretation of the acquired images is still compromised by viewing software packages that often have limited navigational tools and lack adequate filters to overcome some challenges of the CBCT technology such as artefacts. This study reviews the current limitations of CBCT and the potential of a new CBCT software package (e-Vol DX, CDT- Brazil) to overcome these aspects and support diagnosing, planning and managing of endodontic cases...
November 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Jakob Meineke, Tim Nielsen
PURPOSE: Introduce a method to estimate <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:msub> <mml:mi>B</mml:mi> <mml:mn>0</mml:mn> </mml:msub> </mml:math> -fluctuations based on the analysis of raw k-space data, without sequence modifications or external hardware, and correct for their detrimental effects in gradient-echo MRI. THEORY: Inconsistencies in multi-channel raw k-space data can be used to estimate <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
December 4, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Qiangwen Fu, Sihai Li, Yang Liu, Qi Zhou, Feng Wu
An inertially stabilized platform (ISP) is generally equipped with a position and orientation system (POS) to isolate attitude disturbances and to focus surveying sensors on interesting targets. However, rotation of the ISP will result in a time-varying lever arm between the measuring center of the inertial measurement unit (IMU) and the phase center of the Global Positioning System (GPS) antenna, making it difficult to measure and provide compensation. To avoid the complexity of manual measurement and improve surveying efficiency, we propose an automatic estimation method for the dynamic lever arm...
December 2, 2018: Sensors
Jung Jae Lee, Maggie N Carson, Charlotte L Clarke, Sook Ching Yang, Su Jin Nam
BACKGROUND: The learning of nursing students can be facilitated through direct and/or indirect experiences of using clinical information and communication technology during clinical placements. However, nursing students experience difficulties in using technology for learning. Despite the difficulties, nursing students' learning dynamics with technology in real clinical contexts is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To develop a theoretical model by identifying nursing students' learning dynamics with clinical information and communication technology and the factors influencing the dynamics...
November 15, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Chun-Hui Lin, Shyh-Hau Wang, Cheng-Jian Lin
In this paper, a navigation method is proposed for cooperative load-carrying mobile robots. The behavior mode manager is used efficaciously in the navigation control method to switch between two behavior modes, wall-following mode (WFM) and goal-oriented mode (GOM), according to various environmental conditions. Additionally, an interval type-2 neural fuzzy controller based on dynamic group artificial bee colony (DGABC) is proposed in this paper. Reinforcement learning was used to develop the WFM adaptively...
November 28, 2018: Sensors
Samuel A Ocko, Kiah Hardcastle, Lisa M Giocomo, Surya Ganguli
Upon encountering a novel environment, an animal must construct a consistent environmental map, as well as an internal estimate of its position within that map, by combining information from two distinct sources: self-motion cues and sensory landmark cues. How do known aspects of neural circuit dynamics and synaptic plasticity conspire to accomplish this feat? Here we show analytically how a neural attractor model that combines path integration of self-motion cues with Hebbian plasticity in synaptic weights from landmark cells can self-organize a consistent map of space as the animal explores an environment...
November 27, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ruben Gepner, Jason Wolk, Digvijay Shivaji Wadekar, Sophie Dvali, Marc Gershow
Sensory systems relay information about the world to the brain, which enacts behaviors through motor outputs. To maximize information transmission, sensory systems discard redundant information through adaptation to the mean and variance of the environment. The behavioral consequences of sensory adaptation to environmental variance have been largely unexplored. Here, we study how larval fruit flies adapt sensory-motor computations underlying navigation to changes in the variance of visual and olfactory inputs...
November 27, 2018: ELife
Yuanchen Dong, Shuwen Zhang, Zhaolong Wu, Xuemei Li, Wei Li Wang, Yanan Zhu, Svetla Stoilova-McPhie, Ying Lu, Daniel Finley, Youdong Mao
The proteasome is an ATP-dependent, 2.5-megadalton machine responsible for selective protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. Here we present cryo-EM structures of the substrate-engaged human proteasome in seven conformational states at 2.8-3.6 Å resolution, captured during breakdown of a polyubiquitylated protein. These structures visualize a continuum of dynamic substrate-proteasome interactions from ubiquitin recognition to substrate translocation, during which ATP hydrolysis sequentially navigates through all six ATPases...
November 12, 2018: Nature
Martha N Havenith, Peter M Zijderveld, Sabrina van Heukelum, Shaghayegh Abghari, Jeffrey C Glennon, Paul Tiesinga
Attention - the flexible allocation of processing resources based on behavioural demands - is essential to survival. Mouse research offers unique tools to dissect the underlying pathways, but is hampered by the difficulty of accurately measuring attention in mice. Current attention tasks for mice face several limitations: Binary (hit/miss), temporally imprecise metrics, behavioural confounds and overtraining. Thus, despite the increasing scope of neuronal population measurements, insights are limited without equally precise behavioural measures...
November 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Janne Lillelid Gjerde, Guri Rortveit, Mulat Adefris, Hibste Mekonnen, Tadesse Belayneh, Astrid Blystad
BACKGROUND: The majority of women suffering from maternal morbidities live in resource-constrained settings with diverse barriers preventing access to quality biomedical health care services. This study aims to highlight the dynamics between the public health system and alternative healing through an exploration of the experiences of health care seeking among women living with severe symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse in an impoverished setting. METHODS: The data were collected through ethnographic fieldwork at the hospital and community levels in the Amhara region of Ethiopia...
2018: PloS One
Nikolai J Mickevicius, Xinfeng Chen, Zachary Boyd, Hannah J Lee, Geoffrey S Ibbott, Eric S Paulson
Intrafraction motion (i.e. motion occurring during a treatment session) can play a pivotal role in the success of abdominal and thoracic radiation therapy. Hybrid magnetic resonance-guided radiotherapy (MR-gRT) systems have the potential to control for intrafraction motion. Recently, we introduced an MRI sequence capable of acquiring real-time cine imaging in two orthogonal planes (SOPI). We extend SOPI here to permit dynamic updating of slice positions in one-plane while keeping the other plane position fixed...
November 26, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Shalini Menon, Stephanie Gupton
Proper neuronal wiring is central to all bodily functions, sensory perception, cognition, memory, and learning. Establishment of a functional neuronal circuit is a highly regulated and dynamic process involving axonal and dendritic branching and navigation toward appropriate targets and connection partners. This intricate circuitry includes axo-dendritic synapse formation, synaptic connections formed with effector cells, and extensive dendritic arborization that function to receive and transmit mechanical and chemical sensory inputs...
2018: F1000Research
Chiara Pomare, Kate Churruca, Louise A Ellis, Janet C Long, Jeffrey Braithwaite
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty is a ubiquitous and dynamic presence throughout healthcare systems and encounters, affecting the quality and safety of care. Although previous research has attempted to categorize varieties of uncertainty, it is not clear if these classifications are applicable across various healthcare settings. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to examine the applicability of the issues of uncertainty delineated in an established taxonomy across diverse healthcare domains, professions, and countries and to consider the complexity of these issues...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
André Mewes, Florian Heinrich, Bennet Hensen, Frank Wacker, Kai Lawonn, Christian Hansen
During MRI-guided interventions, navigation support is often separated from the operating field on displays, which impedes the interpretation of positions and orientations of instruments inside the patient's body as well as hand-eye coordination. To overcome these issues projector-based augmented reality can be used to support needle guidance inside the MRI bore directly in the operating field. The authors present two visualisation concepts for needle navigation aids which were compared in an accuracy and usability study with eight participants, four of whom were experienced radiologists...
October 2018: Healthcare Technology Letters
Cláudio Gouveia Roque, Christine E Holt
Translationally controlled tumor protein (Tctp) contributes to retinal circuitry formation by promoting axon growth and guidance, but it remains unknown to what extent axonal Tctp specifically influences axon development programs. Various genome-wide profiling studies have ranked tctp transcripts among the most enriched in the axonal compartment of distinct neuronal populations, including embryonic retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), suggesting its expression can be regulated locally and that this may be important during development...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Erin M Craig
In the developing nervous system, axons are guided to their synaptic targets by motile structures at the axon tip called growth cones, which reorganize their cytoskeleton in order to steer in response to chemotactic cues. Growth cone motility is mediated by an actin-adhesion "clutch" mechanism, in which mechanical attachment to a substrate, coupled with polarized actin growth, produces leading-edge protrusion. Several studies suggest that dynamic microtubules (MTs) in the growth cone periphery play an essential role in growth cone steering...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jennifer B Spiegel, Stephanie N Parent
Community arts projects have long been used in community development. Nevertheless, despite many liberatory tales that have emerged, scholars caution that well-meaning organizations and artists may inadvertently become complicit in efforts that distract from fundamental inequities, instrumentalizing creative expression as a means to transform potentially dissident youth into productive and cooperative 'citizens'. This article examines how social circus - using circus arts with equity-seeking communities - has been affecting personal and community development among youth with marginalized lifestyles in Quebec, Canada...
October 2018: Community Development Journal
Geoffrey Migault, Thijs L van der Plas, Hugo Trentesaux, Thomas Panier, Raphaël Candelier, Rémi Proville, Bernhard Englitz, Georges Debrégeas, Volker Bormuth
The vestibular apparatus provides animals with postural and movement-related information that is essential to adequately execute numerous sensorimotor tasks. In order to activate this sensory system in a physiological manner, one needs to macroscopically rotate or translate the animal's head, which in turn renders simultaneous neural recordings highly challenging. Here we report on a novel miniaturized, light-sheet microscope that can be dynamically co-rotated with a head-restrained zebrafish larva, enabling controlled vestibular stimulation...
November 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Tomoko Sakiyama
Although visual cues are essential for navigation in ants, few studies address movement dynamics in ants when they search and forage after finding food in an unfamiliar environment. Here I introduced Japanese wood ants to an unfamiliar food location by capturing individuals leaving their nest. The food was located at the centre of a straight, narrow, open-top channel. Next, I determined the segment lengths of the foraging paths of the ants between consecutive U-turns. I found that individuals travelled along characteristic and complex paths if they detected a visual landmark...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Ming You, Chuanrui Chen, Leilei Xu, Fangzhi Mou, Jianguo Guan
Micro/nanomotors (MNMs) are micro/nanoscale devices that can convert energy from their surroundings into autonomous motion. With this unique ability, they may revolutionize application fields ranging from active drug delivery to biological surgeries, environmental remediation, and micro/nanoengineering. To complete these applications, MNMs are required to have a vital capability to reach their destinations. Employing external fields to guide MNMs to the targets is common and effective way. However, in application scenarios where targets are generally unknown or dynamically change, MNMs must possess the capability of self-navigation or self-targeting...
November 16, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
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