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Dynamic navigation

Xiaozhi Qi, Yu Sun, Xiaohang Ma, Ying Hu, Jianwei Zhang, Wei Tian
The lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a kind of orthopedic disease which causes a series of neurological symptom. Vertebral lamina grinding operation is a key procedure in decompressive laminectomy for LSS treatment. With the help of image-guided navigation system, the robot-assisted technology is applied to reduce the burdens on surgeon and improve the accuracy of the operation. This paper proposes a multilevel fuzzy control based on force information in the robot-assisted decompressive laminectomy to improve the quality and the robotic dynamic performance in surgical operation...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
George A Mandelaris, Luigi V Stefanelli, Bradley S DeGroot
Over the course of several decades implant dentistry has evolved to include 3-dimensionally (3D) planned and guided surgery. One of the latest innovations is dynamic navigation, which may allow surgeons to place implants with accuracy similar to stereolithographic guides based on 3D, prosthetically directed plans. Benefits of dynamically guided surgery include real-time feedback, a streamlined digital workflow, improved surgical visualization, and adaptability to intraoperative findings. This article discusses the technology and workflow of dynamic navigation and its application for guided implant placement...
October 2018: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
Adele Marais, Caroline C Kuo, Robin Julies, Dan J Stein, John A Joska, Caron Zlotnick
Pregnancy represents a time of increased risk for intimate partner violence (IPV), and an HIV diagnosis further increases the vulnerability of this at-risk group. This study explores experiences of recent IPV using qualitative interviews with N = 12 HIV-positive pregnant women recruited from a clinical setting in South Africa, a location with a high global prevalence of IPV and HIV. Partner dynamics around IPV resulted in HIV shame and stigma and adversely affected engagement in HIV care and HIV treatment behaviors...
October 9, 2018: Violence Against Women
Wenjia Huang, Demetri Terzopoulos
We introduce a framework for simulating a variety of nontrivial, socially motivated behaviors that underlie the orderly passage of pedestrians through doorways, especially the common courtesy of opening and holding doors open for others, an important etiquette that has been overlooked in the literature on autonomous multi-human animation. Emulating such social activity requires serious attention to the interplay of visual perception, navigation in constrained doorway environments, manipulation of a variety of door types, and high-level decision making based on social considerations...
October 4, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Cody S Lee, Adrian S H Ooi, Michael R Zenn, David H Song
Background: With the increasing complexity of health care, the knowledge of business in medicine is growing more valuable. Plastic surgeons in all practice settings are constantly forced to navigate endeavors that could be better faced with the leadership, management, and administrative skills honed through a formal business education. The purpose of this study was to gather data and draw conclusions related to the motivations and outcomes of plastic surgeons with a Master of Business Administration degree (MBA)...
June 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Xueyan Yang, Kathleen Artman-Meeker, Carly A Roberts
Grandparents can play critical roles in the lives of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities and their families. However, current research and understanding around grandparent roles and experiences is limited. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the roles and experiences of grandparents supporting children with disabilities. In this article, the voices of grandparents with diverse experiences are presented. Key themes that emerged were the role of the grandparent, boundaries in roles and space, navigating family dynamics, and the general experiences of grandparenting...
October 2018: Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Ryan W Draft, Matthew R McGill, Vikrant Kapoor, Venkatesh N Murthy
Directed and meaningful animal behavior depends on the ability to sense key features in the environment. Among the different environmental signals, olfactory cues are critically important for foraging, navigation, and social communication in many species, including ants. Ants use their two antennae to explore the olfactory world, but how they do so remains largely unknown. In this study, we use high resolution videography to characterize the antennae dynamics of carpenter ants ( Camponotus pennsylvanicus )...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Denny Meyer, Jahar Bhowmik, Fakir M Amirul Islam, Lil Deverell
PURPOSE: This Australian study piloted a new measure of Orientation and Mobility to better understand the functional mobility of guide dog handlers with low vision or blindness. It is expected that this measure can be used to better match guide dogs to their handlers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The new Orientation and Mobility Outcomes tool scores a client in Stable/Familiar and Dynamic/Unfamiliar conditions, also considering Travel-Related Wellbeing. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 51 guide dog handlers, during which travel skills were co-rated with an interviewer...
September 28, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Javad Najafi, Mohammad Reza Shaebani, Thomas John, Florian Altegoer, Gert Bange, Christian Wagner
Peritrichous bacteria synchronize and bundle their flagella to actively swim, while disruption of the bundle leads to a slow motility phase with a weak propulsion. It is still not known whether the number of flagella represents an evolutionary adaptation toward optimizing bacterial navigation. We study the swimming dynamics of differentially flagellated Bacillus subtilis strains in a quasi-two-dimensional system. We find that decreasing the number of flagella N f reduces the average turning angle between two successive run phases and enhances the run time and the directional persistence of the run phase...
September 2018: Science Advances
Uroš Cerkvenik, Dimitra Dodou, Johan L van Leeuwen, Sander W S Gussekloo
Hemipterans, mosquitoes, and parasitic wasps probe in a variety of substrates to find hosts for their larvae or food sources. Probes capable of sensing and precise steering enable insects to navigate through solid substrates without visual information and to reach targets that are hidden deep inside the substrate. The probes belong to non-related taxa and originate from abdominal structures (wasps) or mouthparts (hemipterans and mosquitoes), but nevertheless share several morphological characteristics. Although the transport function clearly differs (egg laying and acquisition of liquid food), the functional demands on the mechanical behaviour of the probe within the substrate tend to be similar...
September 26, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Zheping Yan, Lu Wang, Tongda Wang, Honghan Zhang, Zewen Yang
The conventional initial alignment algorithms are invalid in the polar region. This is caused by the rapid convergence of the Earth meridians in the high-latitude areas. However, the initial alignment algorithms are important for the accurate navigation of Unmanned Underwater Vehicles. The polar transversal initial alignment algorithm is proposed to overcome this problem. In the polar transversal initial alignment algorithm, the transversal geographic frame is chosen as the navigation frame. The polar region in the conventional frames is equivalent to the equatorial region in the transversal frames...
September 25, 2018: Sensors
Chenxi Hu, Steffen Huber, Syed R Latif, Guido Santacana-Laffitte, Hamid R Mojibian, Lauren A Baldassarre, Dana C Peters
BACKGROUND: Cardiac 3D navigator-gated late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging is important for assessment of left atrial fibrosis, but the image quality is often degraded due to arrhythmia. PURPOSE: To investigate a novel 3D LGE sequence with improved myocardial nulling and reduced ghosting artifacts during arrhythmia. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. POPULATION: Arrhythmia patients (n = 14). SEQUENCE: The proposed technique, REPAIRit (Regrowth Equalization Pulse for Arrhythmias in Inversion Recovery with automatic inversion time calculation), inserts a saturation pulse with a dynamic flip angle into the 3D LGE sequence to minimize arrhythmia-induced signal fluctuations...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Yuguang Yang, Michael A Bevan
Controlling the navigation of self-propelled, Brownian colloids in complex microstructured environments ( e.g., porous media and tumor vasculature) is important to emerging applications ( e.g., enhanced oil recovery and drug delivery). Here, we report a feedback control strategy by which to navigate self-propelled colloids through free space and increasingly complex mazes. Colloid rod position and orientation within mazes is sensed in real time, and instantaneous propulsion along the rod long axis can be actuated via light intensity...
October 1, 2018: ACS Nano
Jiang-Xing Chen, Yu-Guo Chen, Raymond Kapral
Very small synthetic motors that use chemical reactions to drive their motion are being studied widely because of their potential applications, which often involve active transport and dynamics on nanoscales. Like biological molecular machines, they must be able to perform their tasks in complex, highly fluctuating environments that can form chemical patterns with diverse structures. Motors in such systems can actively assemble into dynamic clusters and other unique nonequilibrium states. It is shown how chemical patterns with small characteristic dimensions may be utilized to suppress rotational Brownian motions of motors and guide them to move along prescribed paths, properties that can be exploited in applications...
September 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Dorthe Gert Simonsen
In this article, I explore the formation of airspace in Britain from 1910 to 1913. The technology of flight challenged the "flat discourse" of nationalized geography, drawing up instead a volumetric space in the sky as airplanes flew from the Continent to England. The drive to control aerial mobility and convert the sky into a sovereign territory was especially pronounced in Britain. But the challenge of creating a sovereign space out of mobile and transparent air was an intricate problem both in legal and practical terms...
2018: Technology and Culture
John Ohlrogge, Nick Thrower, Vandana Mhaske, Sten Stymne, Melissa Baxter, Weili Yang, Jinjie Liu, Kathleen Shaw, Basil Shorrosh, Meng Zhang, Curtis Wilkerson, Bertrand Matthäus
Over 450 structurally distinct fatty acids are synthesized by plants. We have developed PlantFAdb. org, an internet-based database that allows users to search and display fatty acid composition data for over 9000 plants. PlantFAdb includes more than 17,000 data tables from >3000 publications and hundreds of unpublished analyses. A unique feature allows users to easily explore chemotaxonomic relationships between fatty acid structures and plant species by displaying these relationships on dynamic phylogenetic trees...
September 22, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Abhijeet Ravankar, Ankit A Ravankar, Yukinori Kobayashi, Yohei Hoshino, Chao-Chung Peng
Robot navigation is an indispensable component of any mobile service robot. Many path planning algorithms generate a path which has many sharp or angular turns. Such paths are not fit for mobile robot as it has to slow down at these sharp turns. These robots could be carrying delicate, dangerous, or precious items and executing these sharp turns may not be feasible kinematically. On the contrary, smooth trajectories are often desired for robot motion and must be generated while considering the static and dynamic obstacles and other constraints like feasible curvature, robot and lane dimensions, and speed...
September 19, 2018: Sensors
R J O de Waal, A Bekker, P S Heyns
During ice navigation, blade measurements of ice-induced moments on ship propellers, are challenged by the harsh operating environment. To overcome this problem, shaft line measurements are performed inboard, and the required propeller loads are subsequently estimated using a dynamic model and the solution of an inverse problem. The inverse problem is mathematically ill-posed and requires the determination of the ice-induced moment on the propeller blades from shaft line measurements. Full-scale torsional response data is presented as calculated from indirect strain measurements on the shaft line of a polar supply and research vessel...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Haichao Miao, Tobias Klein, David Kořil, Peter Mindek, Karsten Schatz, M Eduard Gröller, Barbora Kozlíková, Tobias Isenberg, Ivan Viola
We provide a high-level survey of multiscale molecular visualization techniques, with a focus on application-domain questions, challenges, and tasks. We provide a general introduction to molecular visualization basics and describe a number of domain-specific tasks that drive this work. These tasks, in turn, serve as the general structure of the following survey. First we discuss methods that support the visual analysis of molecular dynamics simulations. We discuss, in particular, visual abstraction and temporal aggregation...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Genna Braverman, Zachary E Shapiro, Jonathan A Bernstein
As genetic sequencing capabilities become more powerful and costs decline, the reach of genomics is expanding beyond research laboratories to the wards, outpatient clinics, and, with the marketing of direct-to-consumer testing services, patients' homes. Increasingly, patients receiving various diagnoses-from cancer to cardiomyopathy-can reasonably expect to have conversations with their providers about indications for genetic testing. In this dynamic context, a grasp of the ethical principles and history underlying clinical genetics will provide clinicians with the tools to guide their practice and help patients navigate complex medical-psychosocial terrain...
June 2018: Mayo Clinic proceedings. Innovations, quality & outcomes
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